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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-08-29
    Description: Genome function is dynamically regulated in part by chromatin, which consists of the histones, non-histone proteins and RNA molecules that package DNA. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster have contributed substantially to our understanding of molecular mechanisms of genome function in humans, and have revealed conservation of chromatin components and mechanisms. Nevertheless, the three organisms have markedly different genome sizes, chromosome architecture and gene organization. On human and fly chromosomes, for example, pericentric heterochromatin flanks single centromeres, whereas worm chromosomes have dispersed heterochromatin-like regions enriched in the distal chromosomal 'arms', and centromeres distributed along their lengths. To systematically investigate chromatin organization and associated gene regulation across species, we generated and analysed a large collection of genome-wide chromatin data sets from cell lines and developmental stages in worm, fly and human. Here we present over 800 new data sets from our ENCODE and modENCODE consortia, bringing the total to over 1,400. Comparison of combinatorial patterns of histone modifications, nuclear lamina-associated domains, organization of large-scale topological domains, chromatin environment at promoters and enhancers, nucleosome positioning, and DNA replication patterns reveals many conserved features of chromatin organization among the three organisms. We also find notable differences in the composition and locations of repressive chromatin. These data sets and analyses provide a rich resource for comparative and species-specific investigations of chromatin composition, organization and function.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4227084/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4227084/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ho, Joshua W K -- Jung, Youngsook L -- Liu, Tao -- Alver, Burak H -- Lee, Soohyun -- Ikegami, Kohta -- Sohn, Kyung-Ah -- Minoda, Aki -- Tolstorukov, Michael Y -- Appert, Alex -- Parker, Stephen C J -- Gu, Tingting -- Kundaje, Anshul -- Riddle, Nicole C -- Bishop, Eric -- Egelhofer, Thea A -- Hu, Sheng'en Shawn -- Alekseyenko, Artyom A -- Rechtsteiner, Andreas -- Asker, Dalal -- Belsky, Jason A -- Bowman, Sarah K -- Chen, Q Brent -- Chen, Ron A-J -- Day, Daniel S -- Dong, Yan -- Dose, Andrea C -- Duan, Xikun -- Epstein, Charles B -- Ercan, Sevinc -- Feingold, Elise A -- Ferrari, Francesco -- Garrigues, Jacob M -- Gehlenborg, Nils -- Good, Peter J -- Haseley, Psalm -- He, Daniel -- Herrmann, Moritz -- Hoffman, Michael M -- Jeffers, Tess E -- Kharchenko, Peter V -- Kolasinska-Zwierz, Paulina -- Kotwaliwale, Chitra V -- Kumar, Nischay -- Langley, Sasha A -- Larschan, Erica N -- Latorre, Isabel -- Libbrecht, Maxwell W -- Lin, Xueqiu -- Park, Richard -- Pazin, Michael J -- Pham, Hoang N -- Plachetka, Annette -- Qin, Bo -- Schwartz, Yuri B -- Shoresh, Noam -- Stempor, Przemyslaw -- Vielle, Anne -- Wang, Chengyang -- Whittle, Christina M -- Xue, Huiling -- Kingston, Robert E -- Kim, Ju Han -- Bernstein, Bradley E -- Dernburg, Abby F -- Pirrotta, Vincenzo -- Kuroda, Mitzi I -- Noble, William S -- Tullius, Thomas D -- Kellis, Manolis -- MacAlpine, David M -- Strome, Susan -- Elgin, Sarah C R -- Liu, Xiaole Shirley -- Lieb, Jason D -- Ahringer, Julie -- Karpen, Gary H -- Park, Peter J -- 092096/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 101863/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 54523/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 5RL9EB008539/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- K99 HG006259/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- K99HG006259/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM098461/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004037/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM048405/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM071340/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 HG002295/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004258/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004270/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004279/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004695/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004258/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004270/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004279/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004695/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 CA121852/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG004570/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG006991/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54CA121852/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG004570/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Aug 28;512(7515):449-52. doi: 10.1038/nature13415.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3] [4] Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia (J.W.K.H.); Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA (T.L.); Department of Molecular Biology and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA (K.I., T.E.J.); Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 06037, USA (J.D.L.); Division of Genomic Technologies, Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan (A.M.); Department of Genetics, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA (A.K.); Department of Biology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA (N.C.R.). ; 1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3]. ; 1] Center for Functional Cancer Epigenetics, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [2] Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard School of Public Health, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [3] [4] Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia (J.W.K.H.); Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA (T.L.); Department of Molecular Biology and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA (K.I., T.E.J.); Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 06037, USA (J.D.L.); Division of Genomic Technologies, Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan (A.M.); Department of Genetics, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA (A.K.); Department of Biology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA (N.C.R.). ; Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Department of Biology and Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA [2] Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia (J.W.K.H.); Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA (T.L.); Department of Molecular Biology and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA (K.I., T.E.J.); Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 06037, USA (J.D.L.); Division of Genomic Technologies, Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan (A.M.); Department of Genetics, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA (A.K.); Department of Biology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA (N.C.R.). ; 1] Department of Information and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749, Korea [2] Systems Biomedical Informatics Research Center, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799, Korea. ; 1] Department of Genome Dynamics, Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [3] Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia (J.W.K.H.); Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA (T.L.); Department of Molecular Biology and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA (K.I., T.E.J.); Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 06037, USA (J.D.L.); Division of Genomic Technologies, Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan (A.M.); Department of Genetics, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA (A.K.); Department of Biology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA (N.C.R.). ; 1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3] Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; The Gurdon Institute and Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK. ; 1] National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA [2] National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA. ; 1] Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA [2] Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA [3] Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia (J.W.K.H.); Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA (T.L.); Department of Molecular Biology and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA (K.I., T.E.J.); Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 06037, USA (J.D.L.); Division of Genomic Technologies, Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan (A.M.); Department of Genetics, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA (A.K.); Department of Biology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA (N.C.R.). ; 1] Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA [2] Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia (J.W.K.H.); Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA (T.L.); Department of Molecular Biology and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA (K.I., T.E.J.); Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 06037, USA (J.D.L.); Division of Genomic Technologies, Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan (A.M.); Department of Genetics, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA (A.K.); Department of Biology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA (N.C.R.). ; 1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Program in Bioinformatics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA. ; Department of Bioinformatics, School of Life Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China. ; 1] Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA [2] Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, 21545 El-Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt. ; Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Department of Biology and Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; 1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Harvard/MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Department of Anatomy Physiology and Cell Biology, University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA. ; Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA. ; 1] Department of Biology and Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA [2] Department of Biology, Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA. ; National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA. ; 1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M6G 1L7, Canada. ; 1] Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815, USA. ; 1] Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA [2] Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA. ; 1] Department of Genome Dynamics, Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA. ; Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Department of Genome Dynamics, Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA [2] Department of Molecular Biology, Umea University, 901 87 Umea, Sweden. ; 1] Systems Biomedical Informatics Research Center, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799, Korea [2] Seoul National University Biomedical Informatics, Division of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799, Korea. ; 1] Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815, USA [3] Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA. ; 1] Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Program in Bioinformatics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [2] Department of Chemistry, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; 1] Center for Functional Cancer Epigenetics, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [2] Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard School of Public Health, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [3] Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA. ; 1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3] Informatics Program, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25164756" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*cytology/*genetics ; Cell Line ; Centromere/genetics/metabolism ; Chromatin/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism ; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/genetics ; DNA Replication/genetics ; Drosophila melanogaster/*cytology/*genetics ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Heterochromatin/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Nuclear Lamina/metabolism ; Nucleosomes/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-02-18
    Description: Enhancers regulate spatiotemporal gene expression and impart cell-specific transcriptional outputs that drive cell identity. Super-enhancers (SEs), also known as stretch-enhancers, are a subset of enhancers especially important for genes associated with cell identity and genetic risk of disease. CD4(+) T cells are critical for host defence and autoimmunity. Here we analysed maps of mouse T-cell SEs as a non-biased means of identifying key regulatory nodes involved in cell specification. We found that cytokines and cytokine receptors were the dominant class of genes exhibiting SE architecture in T cells. Nonetheless, the locus encoding Bach2, a key negative regulator of effector differentiation, emerged as the most prominent T-cell SE, revealing a network in which SE-associated genes critical for T-cell biology are repressed by BACH2. Disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms for immune-mediated disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, were highly enriched for T-cell SEs versus typical enhancers or SEs in other cell lineages. Intriguingly, treatment of T cells with the Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor tofacitinib disproportionately altered the expression of rheumatoid arthritis risk genes with SE structures. Together, these results indicate that genes with SE architecture in T cells encompass a variety of cytokines and cytokine receptors but are controlled by a 'guardian' transcription factor, itself endowed with an SE. Thus, enumeration of SEs allows the unbiased determination of key regulatory nodes in T cells, which are preferentially modulated by pharmacological intervention.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4409450/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4409450/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vahedi, Golnaz -- Kanno, Yuka -- Furumoto, Yasuko -- Jiang, Kan -- Parker, Stephen C J -- Erdos, Michael R -- Davis, Sean R -- Roychoudhuri, Rahul -- Restifo, Nicholas P -- Gadina, Massimo -- Tang, Zhonghui -- Ruan, Yijun -- Collins, Francis S -- Sartorelli, Vittorio -- O'Shea, John J -- 105663/Z/14/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- R01 CA186714/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AR041159-07/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 23;520(7548):558-62. doi: 10.1038/nature14154. Epub 2015 Feb 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Lymphocyte Cell Biology Section, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Translational Immunology Section, NIAMS, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Medical Genomics and Metabolic Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine and Department of Genetic and Development Biology, University of Connecticut, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA. ; Laboratory of Muscle Stem Cells and Gene Regulation, NIAMS, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25686607" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arthritis, Rheumatoid/*genetics/immunology/pathology ; Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Cell Differentiation/genetics ; Cell Lineage/genetics ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; Janus Kinase 3/antagonists & inhibitors ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Piperidines/pharmacology ; Pyrimidines/pharmacology ; Pyrroles/pharmacology ; RNA, Untranslated/genetics ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology/*metabolism/*pathology ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics ; p300-CBP Transcription Factors/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2230
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We report a classical case of scleredema which pursued a chronic progressive course and was associated with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 300 (1982), S. 199-199 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] CATLOW AND PARKER REPLY-The comments of Walker on our simulation study of pyroxenoids raise two issues. First, what is the 'accuracy' of the calculated lattice energies; second, what further tests of our method are possible. Regarding the question of accuracy we stress that the methods used by our ...
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 295 (1982), S. 658-662 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Chain silicates, both naturally-occurring and synthetic, exhibit ‘backbone repeat’ patterns of corner-linked SiO4 tetrahedra. The extent to which these repeats may be interpreted or predicted, as a function of the associated cation M2+ (in the general ...
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 41 (1985), S. 231-239 
    ISSN: 1600-5740
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 40 (1984), S. 200-208 
    ISSN: 1600-5740
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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