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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-01-13
    Description: Exercise benefits a variety of organ systems in mammals, and some of the best-recognized effects of exercise on muscle are mediated by the transcriptional co-activator PPAR-gamma co-activator-1 alpha (PGC1-alpha). Here we show in mouse that PGC1-alpha expression in muscle stimulates an increase in expression of FNDC5, a membrane protein that is cleaved and secreted as a newly identified hormone, irisin. Irisin acts on white adipose cells in culture and in vivo to stimulate UCP1 expression and a broad program of brown-fat-like development. Irisin is induced with exercise in mice and humans, and mildly increased irisin levels in the blood cause an increase in energy expenditure in mice with no changes in movement or food intake. This results in improvements in obesity and glucose homeostasis. Irisin could be therapeutic for human metabolic disease and other disorders that are improved with exercise.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3522098/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3522098/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bostrom, Pontus -- Wu, Jun -- Jedrychowski, Mark P -- Korde, Anisha -- Ye, Li -- Lo, James C -- Rasbach, Kyle A -- Bostrom, Elisabeth Almer -- Choi, Jang Hyun -- Long, Jonathan Z -- Kajimura, Shingo -- Zingaretti, Maria Cristina -- Vind, Birgitte F -- Tu, Hua -- Cinti, Saverio -- Hojlund, Kurt -- Gygi, Steven P -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK54477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K99 DK087853/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK054477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK061562/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 11;481(7382):463-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10777.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22237023" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipocytes/cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue, Brown/*cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue, White/*cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Respiration/drug effects ; Cells, Cultured ; Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology ; Energy Metabolism/drug effects/genetics/physiology ; Exercise/physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects/genetics ; Hormones/metabolism/secretion ; Humans ; Insulin Resistance/physiology ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Ion Channels/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Transgenic ; Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism ; Models, Animal ; Muscle Cells/metabolism ; Obesity/blood/chemically induced/prevention & control ; Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology ; Plasma/chemistry ; Subcutaneous Fat/cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; *Thermogenesis/drug effects/genetics ; Trans-Activators/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism/secretion ; Transcription Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: The nucleocapsid (NC) is an N-terminal protein derived from the HIV-1 Gag precursor polyprotein, pr55 Gag . NC possesses key functions at several pivotal stages of viral replication. For example, an interaction between NC and the host double-stranded RNA-binding protein Staufen1 was shown to regulate several steps in the viral replication cycle, such as Gag multimerization and genomic RNA encapsidation. In this work, we observed that the overexpression of NC leads to the induction of stress granule (SG) assembly. NC-mediated SG assembly was unique as it was resistant to the SG blockade imposed by the HIV-1 capsid (CA), as shown in earlier work. NC also reduced host cell mRNA translation, as judged by a puromycylation assay of de novo synthesized proteins, and this was recapitulated in polysome profile analyses. Virus production was also found to be significantly reduced. Finally, Staufen1 expression completely rescued the blockade to NC-mediated SG assembly, global mRNA translation as well as virus production. NC expression also resulted in the phosphorylation of protein kinase R (PKR) and eIF2α, and this was inhibited with Staufen1 coexpression. This work sheds light on an unexpected function of NC in host cell translation. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which a fine balance of the HIV-1 structural proteins NC and CA act in concert with host proteins such as Staufen1 to modulate the host stress response will aid in the development of new antiviral therapeutics.
    Print ISSN: 1355-8382
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-9001
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
    Keywords: NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA ; CAENORHABDITIS-ELEGANS ; STEM-CELLS ; CONVERTING-ENZYME ; OSTEOGENIC DIFFERENTIATION ; ADULT HUMANS ; UNCOUPLING PROTEIN ; ADAPTIVE THERMOGENESIS ; HUMAN ADIPOSE-TISSUE ; WHITE ADIPOCYTES
    Abstract: Adipose tissue contains thermogenic adipocytes (i.e., brown and brite/beige) that oxidize nutrients at exceptionally high rates via nonshivering thermogenesis. Its recent discovery in adult humans has opened up new avenues to fight obesity and related disorders such as diabetes. Here, we identified miR-26a and -26b as key regulators of human white and brite adipocyte differentiation. Both microRNAs are upregulated in early adipogenesis, and their inhibition prevented lipid accumulation while their overexpression accelerated it. Intriguingly, miR-26a significantly induced pathways related to energy dissipation, shifted mitochondrial morphology toward that seen in brown adipocytes, and promoted uncoupled respiration by markedly increasing the hallmark protein of brown fat, uncoupling protein 1. By combining in silico target prediction, transcriptomics, and an RNA interference screen, we identified the sheddase ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17) as a direct target of miR-26 that mediated the observed effects on white and brite adipogenesis. These results point to a novel, critical role for the miR-26 family and its downstream effector ADAM17 in human adipocyte differentiation by promoting characteristics of energy-dissipating thermogenic adipocytes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24375761
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0248-4900
    Keywords: brown adipose tissue ; hibernoma ; immunohistochemistry ; ultrastructure
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0248-4900
    Keywords: brown adipose tissue ; immunocytochemistry ; ultrastructure ; uncoupling protein
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Diabetes mellitus ; adipocyte ; genetics ; growth ; receptors.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Lack of insulin receptors in mice is associated with near-normal intrauterine growth, unlike patients with leprechaunism, in whom growth deficiency is a prominent clinical feature. Genetic crosses of insulin receptor- and insulin-like growth-factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor-deficient mice indicate, however, that insulin receptors play an important role in late gestational growth, and that absence of growth retardation in insulin receptor-deficient (IR–/–) mice may be due to a compensatory increase in IGF-1 receptor levels. In human fetuses, insulin has a paramount role in the generation and maintenance of adipose tissue, as demonstrated by changes associated with genetic and maternally caused fetal hyperinsulinaemia. In the present study, we have investigated whether genetic ablation of insulin receptors affects differentiation and trophism of white adipose tissue, the main target organ for the growth-promoting actions of fetal insulin. Histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analyses of white dermal adipose tissue were performed in newborn IR–/– mice, as well as normal (IR + / + ) and heterozygous controls (IR + /–). Stereological measurements revealed a marked decrease of the adipose area in IR–/– mice compared to IR + / + and IR + /– mice. Fat cell depletion resulted mainly from a reduction of adipocyte volume ( ∼ 90 %), with a small decrease of adipocyte number. Electron microscopy analysis detected all stages of differentiation of the adipocyte precursor in IR–/– mice, suggesting that lack of insulin receptors is not associated with selective impairment of the adipocyte differentiation process. These data are consistent with a bi-modal action of fetal insulin receptors, one to mediate embryonic growth in response to IGF-2, and one to mediate adipose cell formation in response to insulin. [Diabetologia (1998) 41: 171–177]
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract A Pseudomonas sp. strain, designated CPE1, was found to be capable of completely mineralizing 4-chlorobiphenyl via 4-chlorobenzoate and of partially dechlorinating 3,4′-dichlorobiphenyl in the presence of biphenyl. A three-membered bacterial consortium, designated ECO3, prepared by combining CPE1 with two chlorobenzoate (CBA)-degrading strains, was capable of extensively degrading and dechlorinating all the monochlorinated biphenyls and several dichlorinated biphenyls in the presence of bipheny. Both CPE1 and ECO3 were capable of co-metabolizing several low-chlorinated biphenyl congeners of Fenclor 42 in the presence of biphenyl; however, only in ECO3 cultures were high degradation rates and chloride release observed. The higher rate of degradation and mineralization of some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of Fenclor 42 due to the concerted action of ECO3 members both on PCBs and CBAs suggested that the removal of CBAs from the culture medium may favour PCB degradation, and, therefore, that CBAs may be ivollved in the regulation of the degradation process of several chlorinated biphenyl congeners.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract. A Pseudomonas sp. strain, designated CPE1, was found to be capable of completely mineralizing 4-chlorobiphenyl via 4-chlorobenzoate and of partially dechlorinating 3,4′-dichlorobiphenyl in the presence of biphenyl. A three-membered bacterial consortium, designated ECO3, prepared by combining CPE1 with two chlorobenzoate (CBA)-degrading strains, was capable of extensively degrading and dechlorinating all the monochlorinated biphenyls and several dichlorinated biphenyls in the presence of biphenyl. Both CPE1 and ECO3 were capable of co-metabolizing several low-chlorinated biphenyl congeners of Fenclor 42 in the presence of biphenyl; however, only in ECO3 cultures were high degradation rates and chloride release observed. The higher rate of degradation and mineralization of some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of Fenclor 42 due to the concerted action of ECO3 members both on PCBs and CBAs suggested that the removal of CBAs from the culture medium may favour PCB degradation, and, therefore, that CBAs may be involved in the regulation of the degradation process of several chlorinated biphenyl congeners.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Experimental Cell Research 159 (1985), S. 261-266 
    ISSN: 0014-4827
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Experimental Cell Research 159 (1985), S. 261-266 
    ISSN: 0014-4827
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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