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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-03-01
    Description: The human X and Y chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes during the past 200-300 million years. The human MSY (male-specific region of Y chromosome) retains only three percent of the ancestral autosomes' genes owing to genetic decay. This evolutionary decay was driven by a series of five 'stratification' events. Each event suppressed X-Y crossing over within a chromosome segment or 'stratum', incorporated that segment into the MSY and subjected its genes to the erosive forces that attend the absence of crossing over. The last of these events occurred 30 million years ago, 5 million years before the human and Old World monkey lineages diverged. Although speculation abounds regarding ongoing decay and looming extinction of the human Y chromosome, remarkably little is known about how many MSY genes were lost in the human lineage in the 25 million years that have followed its separation from the Old World monkey lineage. To investigate this question, we sequenced the MSY of the rhesus macaque, an Old World monkey, and compared it to the human MSY. We discovered that during the last 25 million years MSY gene loss in the human lineage was limited to the youngest stratum (stratum 5), which comprises three percent of the human MSY. In the older strata, which collectively comprise the bulk of the human MSY, gene loss evidently ceased more than 25 million years ago. Likewise, the rhesus MSY has not lost any older genes (from strata 1-4) during the past 25 million years, despite its major structural differences to the human MSY. The rhesus MSY is simpler, with few amplified gene families or palindromes that might enable intrachromosomal recombination and repair. We present an empirical reconstruction of human MSY evolution in which each stratum transitioned from rapid, exponential loss of ancestral genes to strict conservation through purifying selection.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292678/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292678/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hughes, Jennifer F -- Skaletsky, Helen -- Brown, Laura G -- Pyntikova, Tatyana -- Graves, Tina -- Fulton, Robert S -- Dugan, Shannon -- Ding, Yan -- Buhay, Christian J -- Kremitzki, Colin -- Wang, Qiaoyan -- Shen, Hua -- Holder, Michael -- Villasana, Donna -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Cree, Andrew -- Courtney, Laura -- Veizer, Joelle -- Kotkiewicz, Holland -- Cho, Ting-Jan -- Koutseva, Natalia -- Rozen, Steve -- Muzny, Donna M -- Warren, Wesley C -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Wilson, Richard K -- Page, David C -- R01 HG000257/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG000257-17/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Feb 22;483(7387):82-6. doi: 10.1038/nature10843.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. jhughes@wi.mit.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367542" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chromosomes, Human, Y/*genetics ; Conserved Sequence/*genetics ; Crossing Over, Genetic/genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Amplification/genetics ; *Gene Deletion ; Humans ; In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence ; Macaca mulatta/*genetics ; Male ; Models, Genetic ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pan troglodytes/genetics ; Radiation Hybrid Mapping ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Time Factors ; Y Chromosome/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-04-25
    Description: The human X and Y chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes, but millions of years ago genetic decay ravaged the Y chromosome, and only three per cent of its ancestral genes survived. We reconstructed the evolution of the Y chromosome across eight mammals to identify biases in gene content and the selective pressures that preserved the surviving ancestral genes. Our findings indicate that survival was nonrandom, and in two cases, convergent across placental and marsupial mammals. We conclude that the gene content of the Y chromosome became specialized through selection to maintain the ancestral dosage of homologous X-Y gene pairs that function as broadly expressed regulators of transcription, translation and protein stability. We propose that beyond its roles in testis determination and spermatogenesis, the Y chromosome is essential for male viability, and has unappreciated roles in Turner's syndrome and in phenotypic differences between the sexes in health and disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139287/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139287/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bellott, Daniel W -- Hughes, Jennifer F -- Skaletsky, Helen -- Brown, Laura G -- Pyntikova, Tatyana -- Cho, Ting-Jan -- Koutseva, Natalia -- Zaghlul, Sara -- Graves, Tina -- Rock, Susie -- Kremitzki, Colin -- Fulton, Robert S -- Dugan, Shannon -- Ding, Yan -- Morton, Donna -- Khan, Ziad -- Lewis, Lora -- Buhay, Christian -- Wang, Qiaoyan -- Watt, Jennifer -- Holder, Michael -- Lee, Sandy -- Nazareth, Lynne -- Alfoldi, Jessica -- Rozen, Steve -- Muzny, Donna M -- Warren, Wesley C -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Wilson, Richard K -- Page, David C -- P51 RR013986/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 24;508(7497):494-9. doi: 10.1038/nature13206.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, & Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; The Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24759411" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Y/genetics ; Disease ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Dosage/*genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Health ; Humans ; Male ; Mammals/*genetics ; Marsupialia/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Biosynthesis/genetics ; Protein Stability ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Sequence Homology ; Sex Characteristics ; Spermatogenesis/genetics ; Testis/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics ; Turner Syndrome/genetics ; X Chromosome/genetics ; Y Chromosome/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-11-19
    Description: Acorn worms, also known as enteropneust (literally, 'gut-breathing') hemichordates, are marine invertebrates that share features with echinoderms and chordates. Together, these three phyla comprise the deuterostomes. Here we report the draft genome sequences of two acorn worms, Saccoglossus kowalevskii and Ptychodera flava. By comparing them with diverse bilaterian genomes, we identify shared traits that were probably inherited from the last common deuterostome ancestor, and then explore evolutionary trajectories leading from this ancestor to hemichordates, echinoderms and chordates. The hemichordate genomes exhibit extensive conserved synteny with amphioxus and other bilaterians, and deeply conserved non-coding sequences that are candidates for conserved gene-regulatory elements. Notably, hemichordates possess a deuterostome-specific genomic cluster of four ordered transcription factor genes, the expression of which is associated with the development of pharyngeal 'gill' slits, the foremost morphological innovation of early deuterostomes, and is probably central to their filter-feeding lifestyle. Comparative analysis reveals numerous deuterostome-specific gene novelties, including genes found in deuterostomes and marine microbes, but not other animals. The putative functions of these genes can be linked to physiological, metabolic and developmental specializations of the filter-feeding ancestor.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4729200/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4729200/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Simakov, Oleg -- Kawashima, Takeshi -- Marletaz, Ferdinand -- Jenkins, Jerry -- Koyanagi, Ryo -- Mitros, Therese -- Hisata, Kanako -- Bredeson, Jessen -- Shoguchi, Eiichi -- Gyoja, Fuki -- Yue, Jia-Xing -- Chen, Yi-Chih -- Freeman, Robert M Jr -- Sasaki, Akane -- Hikosaka-Katayama, Tomoe -- Sato, Atsuko -- Fujie, Manabu -- Baughman, Kenneth W -- Levine, Judith -- Gonzalez, Paul -- Cameron, Christopher -- Fritzenwanker, Jens H -- Pani, Ariel M -- Goto, Hiroki -- Kanda, Miyuki -- Arakaki, Nana -- Yamasaki, Shinichi -- Qu, Jiaxin -- Cree, Andrew -- Ding, Yan -- Dinh, Huyen H -- Dugan, Shannon -- Holder, Michael -- Jhangiani, Shalini N -- Kovar, Christie L -- Lee, Sandra L -- Lewis, Lora R -- Morton, Donna -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Okwuonu, Geoffrey -- Santibanez, Jireh -- Chen, Rui -- Richards, Stephen -- Muzny, Donna M -- Gillis, Andrew -- Peshkin, Leonid -- Wu, Michael -- Humphreys, Tom -- Su, Yi-Hsien -- Putnam, Nicholas H -- Schmutz, Jeremy -- Fujiyama, Asao -- Yu, Jr-Kai -- Tagawa, Kunifumi -- Worley, Kim C -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Kirschner, Marc W -- Lowe, Christopher J -- Satoh, Noriyuki -- Rokhsar, Daniel S -- Gerhart, John -- HD37277/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- HD42724/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD037277/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD073104/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01HD073104/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- T32 HD055164/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 26;527(7579):459-65. doi: 10.1038/nature16150. Epub 2015 Nov 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Molecular Genetics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan. ; Department of Molecular Evolution, Centre for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, 69115 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Marine Genomics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan. ; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. ; HudsonAlpha Institute of Biotechnology, Huntsville, Alabama 35806, USA. ; DNA Sequencing Section, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan. ; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley California 94720-3200, USA. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, USA. ; Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan. ; Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Marine Biological Laboratory, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Onomichi, Hiroshima 722-0073, Japan. ; Natural Science Center for Basic Research and Development, Gene Science Division, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527, Japan. ; Marine Biological Association of the UK, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK. ; Department of Biology, Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California 93950, USA. ; Department de sciences biologiques, University of Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. ; University of North Caroline at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, MS BCM226, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. ; Institute for Biogenesis Research, University of Hawaii, Hawaii 96822, USA. ; National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540, Japan. ; US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26580012" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chordata, Nonvertebrate/classification/*genetics ; Conserved Sequence/genetics ; Echinodermata/classification/genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Genome/*genetics ; Multigene Family/genetics ; Phylogeny ; Signal Transduction ; Synteny/genetics ; Transforming Growth Factor beta
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The β2-adrenergic agonists (β2-AAs) clenbuterol (CLEN) and ractopamine (RACT) were fed to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss for 30–37 days and red and white muscle β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) binding characteristics and mRNA expression were assessed in parallel with fractional protein synthetic rates. Feeding CLEN or RACT had no significant effect on any body or physiological variables measured. There were no significant differences in the number of binding sites (Bmax) while a significant increase in the Kd was observed for the β-ARs of red and white muscle membranes isolated from β2-AA-fed rainbow trout. No change in β2-AR mRNA levels was observed with β2-AA feeding, implying that these β2-AAs do not act at the transcriptional level at least for the β2-AR. The β2-AA treatments, however, did significantly increase red and white muscle fractional protein synthesis rates in whole protein, myofibrillar protein and sarcoplasmic soluble protein fractions. Although not conclusive, this study supports a direct link between rainbow trout muscle β2-ARs and muscle protein synthesis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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