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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-12-12
    Description: Anaemia is a chief determinant of global ill health, contributing to cognitive impairment, growth retardation and impaired physical capacity. To understand further the genetic factors influencing red blood cells, we carried out a genome-wide association study of haemoglobin concentration and related parameters in up to 135,367 individuals. Here we identify 75 independent genetic loci associated with one or more red blood cell phenotypes at P 〈 10(-8), which together explain 4-9% of the phenotypic variance per trait. Using expression quantitative trait loci and bioinformatic strategies, we identify 121 candidate genes enriched in functions relevant to red blood cell biology. The candidate genes are expressed preferentially in red blood cell precursors, and 43 have haematopoietic phenotypes in Mus musculus or Drosophila melanogaster. Through open-chromatin and coding-variant analyses we identify potential causal genetic variants at 41 loci. Our findings provide extensive new insights into genetic mechanisms and biological pathways controlling red blood cell formation and function.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3623669/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3623669/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉van der Harst, Pim -- Zhang, Weihua -- Mateo Leach, Irene -- Rendon, Augusto -- Verweij, Niek -- Sehmi, Joban -- Paul, Dirk S -- Elling, Ulrich -- Allayee, Hooman -- Li, Xinzhong -- Radhakrishnan, Aparna -- Tan, Sian-Tsung -- Voss, Katrin -- Weichenberger, Christian X -- Albers, Cornelis A -- Al-Hussani, Abtehale -- Asselbergs, Folkert W -- Ciullo, Marina -- Danjou, Fabrice -- Dina, Christian -- Esko, Tonu -- Evans, David M -- Franke, Lude -- Gogele, Martin -- Hartiala, Jaana -- Hersch, Micha -- Holm, Hilma -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- Kanoni, Stavroula -- Kleber, Marcus E -- Lagou, Vasiliki -- Langenberg, Claudia -- Lopez, Lorna M -- Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka -- Melander, Olle -- Murgia, Federico -- Nolte, Ilja M -- O'Reilly, Paul F -- Padmanabhan, Sandosh -- Parsa, Afshin -- Pirastu, Nicola -- Porcu, Eleonora -- Portas, Laura -- Prokopenko, Inga -- Ried, Janina S -- Shin, So-Youn -- Tang, Clara S -- Teumer, Alexander -- Traglia, Michela -- Ulivi, Sheila -- Westra, Harm-Jan -- Yang, Jian -- Zhao, Jing Hua -- Anni, Franco -- Abdellaoui, Abdel -- Attwood, Antony -- Balkau, Beverley -- Bandinelli, Stefania -- Bastardot, Francois -- Benyamin, Beben -- Boehm, Bernhard O -- Cookson, William O -- Das, Debashish -- de Bakker, Paul I W -- de Boer, Rudolf A -- de Geus, Eco J C -- de Moor, Marleen H -- Dimitriou, Maria -- Domingues, Francisco S -- Doring, Angela -- Engstrom, Gunnar -- Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Fischer, Krista -- Galanello, Renzo -- Garner, Stephen F -- Genser, Bernd -- Gibson, Quince D -- Girotto, Giorgia -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel Fannar -- Harris, Sarah E -- Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa -- Hastie, Claire E -- Hedblad, Bo -- Illig, Thomas -- Jolley, Jennifer -- Kahonen, Mika -- Kema, Ido P -- Kemp, John P -- Liang, Liming -- Lloyd-Jones, Heather -- Loos, Ruth J F -- Meacham, Stuart -- Medland, Sarah E -- Meisinger, Christa -- Memari, Yasin -- Mihailov, Evelin -- Miller, Kathy -- Moffatt, Miriam F -- Nauck, Matthias -- Novatchkova, Maria -- Nutile, Teresa -- Olafsson, Isleifur -- Onundarson, Pall T -- Parracciani, Debora -- Penninx, Brenda W -- Perseu, Lucia -- Piga, Antonio -- Pistis, Giorgio -- Pouta, Anneli -- Puc, Ursula -- Raitakari, Olli -- Ring, Susan M -- Robino, Antonietta -- Ruggiero, Daniela -- Ruokonen, Aimo -- Saint-Pierre, Aude -- Sala, Cinzia -- Salumets, Andres -- Sambrook, Jennifer -- Schepers, Hein -- Schmidt, Carsten Oliver -- Sillje, Herman H W -- Sladek, Rob -- Smit, Johannes H -- Starr, John M -- Stephens, Jonathan -- Sulem, Patrick -- Tanaka, Toshiko -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Tragante, Vinicius -- van Gilst, Wiek H -- van Pelt, L Joost -- van Veldhuisen, Dirk J -- Volker, Uwe -- Whitfield, John B -- Willemsen, Gonneke -- Winkelmann, Bernhard R -- Wirnsberger, Gerald -- Algra, Ale -- Cucca, Francesco -- d'Adamo, Adamo Pio -- Danesh, John -- Deary, Ian J -- Dominiczak, Anna F -- Elliott, Paul -- Fortina, Paolo -- Froguel, Philippe -- Gasparini, Paolo -- Greinacher, Andreas -- Hazen, Stanley L -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Khaw, Kay Tee -- Lehtimaki, Terho -- Maerz, Winfried -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Metspalu, Andres -- Mitchell, Braxton D -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Moore, Carmel -- Navis, Gerjan -- Pirastu, Mario -- Pramstaller, Peter P -- Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro -- Schadt, Eric -- Scott, James -- Shuldiner, Alan R -- Smith, George Davey -- Smith, J Gustav -- Snieder, Harold -- Sorice, Rossella -- Spector, Tim D -- Stefansson, Kari -- Stumvoll, Michael -- Tang, W H Wilson -- Toniolo, Daniela -- Tonjes, Anke -- Visscher, Peter M -- Vollenweider, Peter -- Wareham, Nicholas J -- Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R -- Boomsma, Dorret I -- Beckmann, Jacques S -- Dedoussis, George V -- Deloukas, Panos -- Ferreira, Manuel A -- Sanna, Serena -- Uda, Manuela -- Hicks, Andrew A -- Penninger, Josef Martin -- Gieger, Christian -- Kooner, Jaspal S -- Ouwehand, Willem H -- Soranzo, Nicole -- Chambers, John C -- 092731/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 097117/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 14136/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/505/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- ETM/55/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- G0600705/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700704/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0801056/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1000143/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1002084/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9815508/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- HHSN268201100005C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100006C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100007C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100008C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100009C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100010C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100011C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100012C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN271201100005C/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- K12 RR023250/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- MC_U106179471/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106188470/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- N01AG12109/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL076491/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL098055/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P20 HL113452/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK072488/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG018728/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA165001/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM053275/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD042157/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL059367/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL086694/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087641/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087679/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL088119/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL103866/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL103931/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 LM010098/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH081802/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- RG/09/012/28096/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RL1 MH083268/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 GM074518/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004402/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL072515/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL084756/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U24 MH068457/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 RR020278/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR025005/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000439/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Dec 20;492(7429):369-75. doi: 10.1038/nature11677. Epub 2012 Dec 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. p.van.der.harst@umcg.nl〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23222517" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Cycle/genetics ; Cytokines/metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/genetics ; Erythrocytes/cytology/*metabolism ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; *Genetic Loci ; *Genome-Wide Association Study ; Hematopoiesis/genetics ; Hemoglobins/genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Organ Specificity ; *Phenotype ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; RNA Interference ; Signal Transduction/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-01-22
    Description: The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 x 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393366/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393366/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hibar, Derrek P -- Stein, Jason L -- Renteria, Miguel E -- Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro -- Desrivieres, Sylvane -- Jahanshad, Neda -- Toro, Roberto -- Wittfeld, Katharina -- Abramovic, Lucija -- Andersson, Micael -- Aribisala, Benjamin S -- Armstrong, Nicola J -- Bernard, Manon -- Bohlken, Marc M -- Boks, Marco P -- Bralten, Janita -- Brown, Andrew A -- Chakravarty, M Mallar -- Chen, Qiang -- Ching, Christopher R K -- Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel -- den Braber, Anouk -- Giddaluru, Sudheer -- Goldman, Aaron L -- Grimm, Oliver -- Guadalupe, Tulio -- Hass, Johanna -- Woldehawariat, Girma -- Holmes, Avram J -- Hoogman, Martine -- Janowitz, Deborah -- Jia, Tianye -- Kim, Sungeun -- Klein, Marieke -- Kraemer, Bernd -- Lee, Phil H -- Olde Loohuis, Loes M -- Luciano, Michelle -- Macare, Christine -- Mather, Karen A -- Mattheisen, Manuel -- Milaneschi, Yuri -- Nho, Kwangsik -- Papmeyer, Martina -- Ramasamy, Adaikalavan -- Risacher, Shannon L -- Roiz-Santianez, Roberto -- Rose, Emma J -- Salami, Alireza -- Samann, Philipp G -- Schmaal, Lianne -- Schork, Andrew J -- Shin, Jean -- Strike, Lachlan T -- Teumer, Alexander -- van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J -- van Eijk, Kristel R -- Walters, Raymond K -- Westlye, Lars T -- Whelan, Christopher D -- Winkler, Anderson M -- Zwiers, Marcel P -- Alhusaini, Saud -- Athanasiu, Lavinia -- Ehrlich, Stefan -- Hakobjan, Marina M H -- Hartberg, Cecilie B -- Haukvik, Unn K -- Heister, Angelien J G A M -- Hoehn, David -- Kasperaviciute, Dalia -- Liewald, David C M -- Lopez, Lorna M -- Makkinje, Remco R R -- Matarin, Mar -- Naber, Marlies A M -- McKay, D Reese -- Needham, Margaret -- Nugent, Allison C -- Putz, Benno -- Royle, Natalie A -- Shen, Li -- Sprooten, Emma -- Trabzuni, Daniah -- van der Marel, Saskia S L -- van Hulzen, Kimm J E -- Walton, Esther -- Wolf, Christiane -- Almasy, Laura -- Ames, David -- Arepalli, Sampath -- Assareh, Amelia A -- Bastin, Mark E -- Brodaty, Henry -- Bulayeva, Kazima B -- Carless, Melanie A -- Cichon, Sven -- Corvin, Aiden -- Curran, Joanne E -- Czisch, Michael -- de Zubicaray, Greig I -- Dillman, Allissa -- Duggirala, Ravi -- Dyer, Thomas D -- Erk, Susanne -- Fedko, Iryna O -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Foroud, Tatiana M -- Fox, Peter T -- Fukunaga, Masaki -- Gibbs, J Raphael -- Goring, Harald H H -- Green, Robert C -- Guelfi, Sebastian -- Hansell, Narelle K -- Hartman, Catharina A -- Hegenscheid, Katrin -- Heinz, Andreas -- Hernandez, Dena G -- Heslenfeld, Dirk J -- Hoekstra, Pieter J -- Holsboer, Florian -- Homuth, Georg -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- Ikeda, Masashi -- Jack, Clifford R Jr -- Jenkinson, Mark -- Johnson, Robert -- Kanai, Ryota -- Keil, Maria -- Kent, Jack W Jr -- Kochunov, Peter -- Kwok, John B -- Lawrie, Stephen M -- Liu, Xinmin -- Longo, Dan L -- McMahon, Katie L -- Meisenzahl, Eva -- Melle, Ingrid -- Mohnke, Sebastian -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Mostert, Jeanette C -- Muhleisen, Thomas W -- Nalls, Michael A -- Nichols, Thomas E -- Nilsson, Lars G -- Nothen, Markus M -- Ohi, Kazutaka -- Olvera, Rene L -- Perez-Iglesias, Rocio -- Pike, G Bruce -- Potkin, Steven G -- Reinvang, Ivar -- Reppermund, Simone -- Rietschel, Marcella -- Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina -- Rosen, Glenn D -- Rujescu, Dan -- Schnell, Knut -- Schofield, Peter R -- Smith, Colin -- Steen, Vidar M -- Sussmann, Jessika E -- Thalamuthu, Anbupalam -- Toga, Arthur W -- Traynor, Bryan J -- Troncoso, Juan -- Turner, Jessica A -- Valdes Hernandez, Maria C -- van 't Ent, Dennis -- van der Brug, Marcel -- van der Wee, Nic J A -- van Tol, Marie-Jose -- Veltman, Dick J -- Wassink, Thomas H -- Westman, Eric -- Zielke, Ronald H -- Zonderman, Alan B -- Ashbrook, David G -- Hager, Reinmar -- Lu, Lu -- McMahon, Francis J -- Morris, Derek W -- Williams, Robert W -- Brunner, Han G -- Buckner, Randy L -- Buitelaar, Jan K -- Cahn, Wiepke -- Calhoun, Vince D -- Cavalleri, Gianpiero L -- Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto -- Dale, Anders M -- Davies, Gareth E -- Delanty, Norman -- Depondt, Chantal -- Djurovic, Srdjan -- Drevets, Wayne C -- Espeseth, Thomas -- Gollub, Randy L -- Ho, Beng-Choon -- Hoffmann, Wolfgang -- Hosten, Norbert -- Kahn, Rene S -- Le Hellard, Stephanie -- Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas -- Muller-Myhsok, Bertram -- Nauck, Matthias -- Nyberg, Lars -- Pandolfo, Massimo -- Penninx, Brenda W J H -- Roffman, Joshua L -- Sisodiya, Sanjay M -- Smoller, Jordan W -- van Bokhoven, Hans -- van Haren, Neeltje E M -- Volzke, Henry -- Walter, Henrik -- Weiner, Michael W -- Wen, Wei -- White, Tonya -- Agartz, Ingrid -- Andreassen, Ole A -- Blangero, John -- Boomsma, Dorret I -- Brouwer, Rachel M -- Cannon, Dara M -- Cookson, Mark R -- de Geus, Eco J C -- Deary, Ian J -- Donohoe, Gary -- Fernandez, Guillen -- Fisher, Simon E -- Francks, Clyde -- Glahn, David C -- Grabe, Hans J -- Gruber, Oliver -- Hardy, John -- Hashimoto, Ryota -- Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E -- Jonsson, Erik G -- Kloszewska, Iwona -- Lovestone, Simon -- Mattay, Venkata S -- Mecocci, Patrizia -- McDonald, Colm -- McIntosh, Andrew M -- Ophoff, Roel A -- Paus, Tomas -- Pausova, Zdenka -- Ryten, Mina -- Sachdev, Perminder S -- Saykin, Andrew J -- Simmons, Andy -- Singleton, Andrew -- Soininen, Hilkka -- Wardlaw, Joanna M -- Weale, Michael E -- Weinberger, Daniel R -- Adams, Hieab H H -- Launer, Lenore J -- Seiler, Stephan -- Schmidt, Reinhold -- Chauhan, Ganesh -- Satizabal, Claudia L -- Becker, James T -- Yanek, Lisa -- van der Lee, Sven J -- Ebling, Maritza -- Fischl, Bruce -- Longstreth, W T Jr -- Greve, Douglas -- Schmidt, Helena -- Nyquist, Paul -- Vinke, Louis N -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Xue, Luting -- Mazoyer, Bernard -- Bis, Joshua C -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- Seshadri, Sudha -- Ikram, M Arfan -- Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative -- CHARGE Consortium -- EPIGEN -- IMAGEN -- SYS -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Wright, Margaret J -- Schumann, Gunter -- Franke, Barbara -- Thompson, Paul M -- Medland, Sarah E -- 100309/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 104036/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- BB/F019394/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700704/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701120/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1001245/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K99 LM011384/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- K99 MH101367/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MR/K026992/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P41 EB015922/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- P50 AG005133/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P50 AG005134/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P50 AG005146/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R00 LM011384/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG040060/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 EB015611/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- RF1 AG041915/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 AG049505/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U24 AG021886/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U54 EB020403/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR001108/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR001120/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 9;520(7546):224-9. doi: 10.1038/nature14101. Epub 2015 Jan 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Imaging Genetics Center, Institute for Neuroimaging &Informatics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90292, USA. ; 1] Imaging Genetics Center, Institute for Neuroimaging &Informatics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90292, USA. [2] Neurogenetics Program, Department of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane 4006, Australia. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [3] Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [4] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. ; MRC-SGDP Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK. ; 1] Laboratory of Human Genetics and Cognitive Functions, Institut Pasteur, Paris 75015, France. [2] Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Unite de Recherche Associee (URA) 2182 Genes, Synapses and Cognition, Institut Pasteur, Paris 75015, France. [3] Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris 75015, France. ; 1] German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Rostock/Greifswald, Greifswald 17487, Germany. [2] Department of Psychiatry, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17489, Germany. ; Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 3584 CX, The Netherlands. ; Umea Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI), Umea University, Umea 901 87, Sweden. ; 1] Brain Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. [2] Department of Computer Science, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria. [3] Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; 1] Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia. [2] School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia. ; The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto M5G 1X8, Canada. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [3] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. ; 1] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0316, Norway. [2] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo 0424, Norway. ; 1] Cerebral Imaging Centre, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal H4H 1R3, Canada. [2] Department of Psychiatry and Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 2B4, Canada. ; Lieber Institute for Brain Development, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; 1] Imaging Genetics Center, Institute for Neuroimaging &Informatics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90292, USA. [2] Interdepartmental Neuroscience Graduate Program, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Biological Psychology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam &EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University &VU Medical Center, Amsterdam 1081 BT, The Netherlands. ; 1] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, 5021 Bergen, Norway. [2] Dr. Einar Martens Research Group for Biological Psychiatry, Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen 5021, Norway. ; Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Mannheim 68159, Germany. ; 1] Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen 6525 XD, The Netherlands. [2] International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Nijmegen 6525 XD, The Netherlands. ; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine of the TU Dresden, Dresden 01307 Germany. ; Human Genetics Branch and Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [2] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. ; Department of Psychiatry, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17489, Germany. ; 1] Center for Neuroimaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. [2] Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. [3] Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; Center for Translational Research in Systems Neuroscience and Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center, Goettingen 37075, Germany. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts 02141, USA. [4] Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia. ; 1] Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus DK-8000, Denmark. [2] The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Aarhus and Copenhagen DK-8000, Denmark. [3] Center for integrated Sequencing, iSEQ, Aarhus University, Aarhus DK-8000, Denmark. ; Department of Psychiatry, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center/GGZ inGeest, Amsterdam 1081 HL, The Netherlands. ; Division of Psychiatry, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH10 5HF, UK. ; 1] Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, London SE1 9RT, UK. [2] Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK. ; 1] Center for Neuroimaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. [2] Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Marques de Valdecilla, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria-IDIVAL, Santander 39008, Spain. [2] Cibersam (Centro Investigacion Biomedica en Red Salud Mental), Madrid 28029, Spain. ; 1] Neuropsychiatric Genetics Research Group and Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Institute of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. [2] Center for Translational Research on Adversity, Neurodevelopment and Substance Abuse (C-TRANS), Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21045, USA. ; 1] Umea Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI), Umea University, Umea 901 87, Sweden. [2] Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, 11330 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich 80804, Germany. ; 1] Multimodal Imaging Laboratory, Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA. [2] Department of Cognitive Sciences, University of California, San Diego, California 92161, USA. ; 1] QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane 4006, Australia. [2] School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. [3] Centre for Advanced Imaging, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. ; Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald D-17475, Germany. ; 1] Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. [2] Medical and Population Genetics Program, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Boston, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo 0424, Norway. [2] Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo 0373, Norway. ; 1] The Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford University, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. ; Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. ; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal H3A 2B4, Canada. ; 1] Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine of the TU Dresden, Dresden 01307 Germany. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] The Athinoula A.Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. ; 1] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0316, Norway. [2] Department of Psychiatric Research and Development, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo 0319, Norway. ; NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0316, Norway. ; 1] UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom and Epilepsy Society, London WC1N 3BG, UK. [2] Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK. ; Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. [2] Olin Neuropsychiatric Research Center, Institute of Living, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut 06106, USA. ; Neuropsychiatric Genetics Research Group and Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Institute of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. ; 1] Brain Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. [2] Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. [3] Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; 1] Division of Psychiatry, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH10 5HF, UK. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. [3] Olin Neuropsychiatric Research Center, Institute of Living, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut 06106, USA. ; 1] Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK. [2] Department of Genetics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia. ; 1] Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78245, USA. [2] University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA. ; 1] National Ageing Research Institute, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne 3052, Australia. [2] Academic Unit for Psychiatry of Old Age, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3101, Australia. ; Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Brain Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. [2] Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) Collaboration, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. [3] Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. [4] Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; N.I. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119333, Russia. ; Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78245, USA. ; 1] Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel 4055, Switzerland. [2] Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, D-53127, Germany. [3] Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Centre Julich, Julich, D-52425, Germany. [4] Department of Genomics, Life &Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn D-53127, Germany. ; School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. ; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, CCM, Berlin 10117, Germany. ; Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. [2] Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; 1] University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA. [2] South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA. ; Biofunctional Imaging, Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; 1] Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK. [2] Academic Unit for Psychiatry of Old Age, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3101, Australia. ; 1] Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; Department of Genomics, Life &Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn D-53127, Germany. ; Departments of Cognitive and Clinical Neuropsychology, VU University Amsterdam, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17489, Germany. ; Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake 470-1192, Japan. ; Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. ; FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. ; NICHD Brain and Tissue Bank for Developmental Disorders, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; 1] School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK. [2] Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London WC1N 3AR, UK. ; Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; 1] Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney 2031, Australia. [2] School of Medical Sciences, UNSW, Sydney 2052, Australia. ; 1] Human Genetics Branch and Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. [2] Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA. ; Lymphocyte Cell Biology Unit, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA. ; Centre for Advanced Imaging, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. ; Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, Munich 80336, Germany. ; 1] Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, D-53127, Germany. [2] Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Centre Julich, Julich, D-52425, Germany. [3] Department of Genomics, Life &Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn D-53127, Germany. ; 1] FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. [2] Department of Statistics &WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK. ; 1] Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, D-53127, Germany. [2] Department of Genomics, Life &Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn D-53127, Germany. ; Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; 1] Cibersam (Centro Investigacion Biomedica en Red Salud Mental), Madrid 28029, Spain. [2] Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK. ; 1] Department of Neurology, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 2T9, Canada. [2] Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 2T9, Canada. ; Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, California 92617, USA. ; Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo 0373, Norway. ; 1] Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. [2] Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of General Psychiatry, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg 69115, Germany. ; Department of Neuropathology, MRC Sudden Death Brain Bank Project, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. ; Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, Institute for Neuroimaging and Informatics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. ; Psychology Department and Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30302, USA. ; Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Psychiatry and Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2333 ZA, The Netherlands. ; Neuroimaging Centre, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen 9713 AW, The Netherlands. ; Department of Psychiatry, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE-141 83, Sweden. ; Behavioral Epidemiology Section, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK. ; 1] Center for Integrative and Translational Genomics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA. [2] Department of Genetics, Genomics, and Informatics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA. [3] Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Inflammation and Molecular Drug Target, Medical College of Nantong University, Nantong 226001, China. ; 1] Neuropsychiatric Genetics Research Group and Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Institute of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. [2] Cognitive Genetics and Therapy Group, School of Psychology &Discipline of Biochemistry, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland. ; 1] Center for Integrative and Translational Genomics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA. [2] Department of Genetics, Genomics, and Informatics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [2] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. [3] Department of Clinical Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6200 MD, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Department of Psychology, Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; 1] Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [2] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. [3] Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. ; 1] The Mind Research Network &LBERI, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106, USA. [2] Department of ECE, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA. ; 1] Center for Translational Imaging and Personalized Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA. [2] Departments of Neurosciences, Radiology, Psychiatry, and Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA. ; Avera Institute for Human Genetics, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57108, USA. ; 1] Molecular and Cellular Therapeutics, The Royal College of Surgeons, Dublin 2, Ireland. [2] Neurology Division, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9, Ireland. ; Department of Neurology, Hopital Erasme, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels 1070, Belgium. ; 1] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0316, Norway. [2] Department of Medical Genetics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo 0450, Norway. ; 1] Human Genetics Branch and Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. [2] Janssen Research &Development, Johnson &Johnson, Titusville, New Jersey 08560, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] The Athinoula A.Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. [3] Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. ; 1] German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Rostock/Greifswald, Greifswald 17487, Germany. [2] Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald D-17475, Germany. ; 1] Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich 80804, Germany. [2] Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Munich 81377, Germany. [3] University of Liverpool, Institute of Translational Medicine, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK. ; Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom and Epilepsy Society, London WC1N 3BG, UK. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts 02141, USA. [4] Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Disease, San Francisco VA Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, California 94121, USA. ; 1] Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam 3000 CB, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Radiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam 3015 CN, The Netherlands. ; 1] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0316, Norway. [2] Department of Psychiatric Research and Development, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo 0319, Norway. [3] Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE-171 76, Sweden. ; 1] Human Genetics Branch and Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. [2] Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland. ; 1] Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [2] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. ; 1] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands. [2] Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen 6525 XD, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17489, Germany. [2] Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, HELIOS Hospital Stralsund 18435, Germany. ; 1] Center for Translational Research in Systems Neuroscience and Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center, Goettingen 37075, Germany. [2] Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich 80804, Germany. ; Molecular Research Center for Children's Mental Development, United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; 1] NORMENT - KG Jebsen Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo N-0316, Norway. [2] Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE-171 76, Sweden. ; Medical University of Lodz, Lodz 90-419, Poland. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK. [2] NIHR Dementia Biomedical Research Unit, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK. ; 1] Lieber Institute for Brain Development, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. [2] Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia 06156, Italy. ; Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland. ; 1] Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. [2] Division of Psychiatry, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH10 5HF, UK. ; 1] Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 3584 CX, The Netherlands. [2] Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; 1] Rotman Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto M6A 2E1, Canada. [2] Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto M5T 1R8, Canada. ; 1] The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto M5G 1X8, Canada. [2] Departments of Physiology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3E2, Canada. ; 1] Reta Lila Weston Institute and Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK. [2] Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, London SE1 9RT, UK. ; 1] Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia. [2] Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney 2031, Australia. ; 1] Center for Neuroimaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. [2] Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. [3] Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, CCM, Berlin 10117, Germany. ; 1] Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK. [2] Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK. [3] Biomedical Research Unit for Dementia, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK. ; 1] Institute of Clinical Medicine, Neurology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio FI-70211, Finland. [2] Neurocentre Neurology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio FI-70211, Finland. ; Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, London SE1 9RT, UK. ; 1] Lieber Institute for Brain Development, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. [2] Departments of Psychiatry, Neurology, Neuroscience and the Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; 1] Department of Radiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam 3015 CN, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam 3015 CN, The Netherlands. ; Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Clinical Division of Neurogeriatrics, Medical University Graz, Graz 8010, Austria. ; INSERM U897, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33076, France. ; 1] Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. [2] Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. ; 1] Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA. [2] Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA. [3] Department of Psychology, Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA. ; General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam 3015 CN, The Netherlands. ; 1] The Athinoula A.Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. [2] Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; 1] The Athinoula A.Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. [2] Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. [3] Computer Science and AI Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts 02141, USA. ; Department of Neurology University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria. ; Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Groupe d'Imagerie Neurofonctionnelle, UMR5296 CNRS, CEA and University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33076, France. ; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. ; Icelandic Heart Association, University of Iceland, Faculty of Medicine, Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; 1] Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. [2] Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA. ; 1] QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane 4006, Australia. [2] School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands. [3] Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6500 GL, The Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25607358" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Aging/genetics ; Apoptosis/genetics ; Brain/*anatomy & histology ; Caudate Nucleus/anatomy & histology ; Child ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/genetics ; Genetic Loci/genetics ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; *Genome-Wide Association Study ; Hippocampus/anatomy & histology ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/genetics ; Middle Aged ; Organ Size/genetics ; Putamen/anatomy & histology ; Sex Characteristics ; Skull/anatomy & histology ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-07-02
    Description: Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P 〈 1 x 10(-300), 2.1 x 10(-6), 2.5 x 10(-10) and 1.8 x 10(-10), respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months' less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4516141/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4516141/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Joshi, Peter K -- Esko, Tonu -- Mattsson, Hannele -- Eklund, Niina -- Gandin, Ilaria -- Nutile, Teresa -- Jackson, Anne U -- Schurmann, Claudia -- Smith, Albert V -- Zhang, Weihua -- Okada, Yukinori -- Stancakova, Alena -- Faul, Jessica D -- Zhao, Wei -- Bartz, Traci M -- Concas, Maria Pina -- Franceschini, Nora -- Enroth, Stefan -- Vitart, Veronique -- Trompet, Stella -- Guo, Xiuqing -- Chasman, Daniel I -- O'Connel, Jeffrey R -- Corre, Tanguy -- Nongmaithem, Suraj S -- Chen, Yuning -- Mangino, Massimo -- Ruggiero, Daniela -- Traglia, Michela -- Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni -- Kacprowski, Tim -- Bjonnes, Andrew -- van der Spek, Ashley -- Wu, Ying -- Giri, Anil K -- Yanek, Lisa R -- Wang, Lihua -- Hofer, Edith -- Rietveld, Cornelius A -- McLeod, Olga -- Cornelis, Marilyn C -- Pattaro, Cristian -- Verweij, Niek -- Baumbach, Clemens -- Abdellaoui, Abdel -- Warren, Helen R -- Vuckovic, Dragana -- Mei, Hao -- Bouchard, Claude -- Perry, John R B -- Cappellani, Stefania -- Mirza, Saira S -- Benton, Miles C -- Broeckel, Ulrich -- Medland, Sarah E -- Lind, Penelope A -- Malerba, Giovanni -- Drong, Alexander -- Yengo, Loic -- Bielak, Lawrence F -- Zhi, Degui -- van der Most, Peter J -- Shriner, Daniel -- Magi, Reedik -- Hemani, Gibran -- Karaderi, Tugce -- Wang, Zhaoming -- Liu, Tian -- Demuth, Ilja -- Zhao, Jing Hua -- Meng, Weihua -- Lataniotis, Lazaros -- van der Laan, Sander W -- Bradfield, Jonathan P -- Wood, Andrew R -- Bonnefond, Amelie -- Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S -- Hall, Leanne M -- Salvi, Erika -- Yazar, Seyhan -- Carstensen, Lisbeth -- de Haan, Hugoline G -- Abney, Mark -- Afzal, Uzma -- Allison, Matthew A -- Amin, Najaf -- Asselbergs, Folkert W -- Bakker, Stephan J L -- Barr, R Graham -- Baumeister, Sebastian E -- Benjamin, Daniel J -- Bergmann, Sven -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Bottinger, Erwin P -- Campbell, Archie -- Chakravarti, Aravinda -- Chan, Yingleong -- Chanock, Stephen J -- Chen, Constance -- Chen, Y-D Ida -- Collins, Francis S -- Connell, John -- Correa, Adolfo -- Cupples, L Adrienne -- Smith, George Davey -- Davies, Gail -- Dorr, Marcus -- Ehret, Georg -- Ellis, Stephen B -- Feenstra, Bjarke -- Feitosa, Mary F -- Ford, Ian -- Fox, Caroline S -- Frayling, Timothy M -- Friedrich, Nele -- Geller, Frank -- Scotland, Generation -- Gillham-Nasenya, Irina -- Gottesman, Omri -- Graff, Misa -- Grodstein, Francine -- Gu, Charles -- Haley, Chris -- Hammond, Christopher J -- Harris, Sarah E -- Harris, Tamara B -- Hastie, Nicholas D -- Heard-Costa, Nancy L -- Heikkila, Kauko -- Hocking, Lynne J -- Homuth, Georg -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- Huang, Jinyan -- Huffman, Jennifer E -- Hysi, Pirro G -- Ikram, M Arfan -- Ingelsson, Erik -- Joensuu, Anni -- Johansson, Asa -- Jousilahti, Pekka -- Jukema, J Wouter -- Kahonen, Mika -- Kamatani, Yoichiro -- Kanoni, Stavroula -- Kerr, Shona M -- Khan, Nazir M -- Koellinger, Philipp -- Koistinen, Heikki A -- Kooner, Manraj K -- Kubo, Michiaki -- Kuusisto, Johanna -- Lahti, Jari -- Launer, Lenore J -- Lea, Rodney A -- Lehne, Benjamin -- Lehtimaki, Terho -- Liewald, David C M -- Lind, Lars -- Loh, Marie -- Lokki, Marja-Liisa -- London, Stephanie J -- Loomis, Stephanie J -- Loukola, Anu -- Lu, Yingchang -- Lumley, Thomas -- Lundqvist, Annamari -- Mannisto, Satu -- Marques-Vidal, Pedro -- Masciullo, Corrado -- Matchan, Angela -- Mathias, Rasika A -- Matsuda, Koichi -- Meigs, James B -- Meisinger, Christa -- Meitinger, Thomas -- Menni, Cristina -- Mentch, Frank D -- Mihailov, Evelin -- Milani, Lili -- Montasser, May E -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Morrison, Alanna -- Myers, Richard H -- Nadukuru, Rajiv -- Navarro, Pau -- Nelis, Mari -- Nieminen, Markku S -- Nolte, Ilja M -- O'Connor, George T -- Ogunniyi, Adesola -- Padmanabhan, Sandosh -- Palmas, Walter R -- Pankow, James S -- Patarcic, Inga -- Pavani, Francesca -- Peyser, Patricia A -- Pietilainen, Kirsi -- Poulter, Neil -- Prokopenko, Inga -- Ralhan, Sarju -- Redmond, Paul -- Rich, Stephen S -- Rissanen, Harri -- Robino, Antonietta -- Rose, Lynda M -- Rose, Richard -- Sala, Cinzia -- Salako, Babatunde -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Sarin, Antti-Pekka -- Saxena, Richa -- Schmidt, Helena -- Scott, Laura J -- Scott, William R -- Sennblad, Bengt -- Seshadri, Sudha -- Sever, Peter -- Shrestha, Smeeta -- Smith, Blair H -- Smith, Jennifer A -- Soranzo, Nicole -- Sotoodehnia, Nona -- Southam, Lorraine -- Stanton, Alice V -- Stathopoulou, Maria G -- Strauch, Konstantin -- Strawbridge, Rona J -- Suderman, Matthew J -- Tandon, Nikhil -- Tang, Sian-Tsun -- Taylor, Kent D -- Tayo, Bamidele O -- Toglhofer, Anna Maria -- Tomaszewski, Maciej -- Tsernikova, Natalia -- Tuomilehto, Jaakko -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Vaidya, Dhananjay -- van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid -- van Setten, Jessica -- Vasankari, Tuula -- Vedantam, Sailaja -- Vlachopoulou, Efthymia -- Vozzi, Diego -- Vuoksimaa, Eero -- Waldenberger, Melanie -- Ware, Erin B -- Wentworth-Shields, William -- Whitfield, John B -- Wild, Sarah -- Willemsen, Gonneke -- Yajnik, Chittaranjan S -- Yao, Jie -- Zaza, Gianluigi -- Zhu, Xiaofeng -- BioBank Japan Project -- Salem, Rany M -- Melbye, Mads -- Bisgaard, Hans -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Cusi, Daniele -- Mackey, David A -- Cooper, Richard S -- Froguel, Philippe -- Pasterkamp, Gerard -- Grant, Struan F A -- Hakonarson, Hakon -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Scott, Robert A -- Morris, Andrew D -- Palmer, Colin N A -- Dedoussis, George -- Deloukas, Panos -- Bertram, Lars -- Lindenberger, Ulman -- Berndt, Sonja I -- Lindgren, Cecilia M -- Timpson, Nicholas J -- Tonjes, Anke -- Munroe, Patricia B -- Sorensen, Thorkild I A -- Rotimi, Charles N -- Arnett, Donna K -- Oldehinkel, Albertine J -- Kardia, Sharon L R -- Balkau, Beverley -- Gambaro, Giovanni -- Morris, Andrew P -- Eriksson, Johan G -- Wright, Margie J -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Hunt, Steven C -- Starr, John M -- Deary, Ian J -- Griffiths, Lyn R -- Tiemeier, Henning -- Pirastu, Nicola -- Kaprio, Jaakko -- Wareham, Nicholas J -- Perusse, Louis -- Wilson, James G -- Girotto, Giorgia -- Caulfield, Mark J -- Raitakari, Olli -- Boomsma, Dorret I -- Gieger, Christian -- van der Harst, Pim -- Hicks, Andrew A -- Kraft, Peter -- Sinisalo, Juha -- Knekt, Paul -- Johannesson, Magnus -- Magnusson, Patrik K E -- Hamsten, Anders -- Schmidt, Reinhold -- Borecki, Ingrid B -- Vartiainen, Erkki -- Becker, Diane M -- Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan -- Mohlke, Karen L -- Boehnke, Michael -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Sanghera, Dharambir K -- Teumer, Alexander -- Zeggini, Eleftheria -- Metspalu, Andres -- Gasparini, Paolo -- Ulivi, Sheila -- Ober, Carole -- Toniolo, Daniela -- Rudan, Igor -- Porteous, David J -- Ciullo, Marina -- Spector, Tim D -- Hayward, Caroline -- Dupuis, Josee -- Loos, Ruth J F -- Wright, Alan F -- Chandak, Giriraj R -- Vollenweider, Peter -- Shuldiner, Alan R -- Ridker, Paul M -- Rotter, Jerome I -- Sattar, Naveed -- Gyllensten, Ulf -- North, Kari E -- Pirastu, Mario -- Psaty, Bruce M -- Weir, David R -- Laakso, Markku -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- Takahashi, Atsushi -- Chambers, John C -- Kooner, Jaspal S -- Strachan, David P -- Campbell, Harry -- Hirschhorn, Joel N -- Perola, Markus -- Polasek, Ozren -- Wilson, James F -- 068545/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 072856/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 072960/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 079771/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 084723/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 099194/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 105022/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 250157/European Research Council/International -- 280559/European Research Council/International -- 323195/European Research Council/International -- BARCVBRU-2012-1/Department of Health/United Kingdom -- BB/F019394/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/276/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/505/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/710/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZD/16/6/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZD/16/6/2/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZD/16/6/3/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZD/16/6/4/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- ETM/55/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- G0601966/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700704/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700931/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701863/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9521010/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9815508/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_PC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106179471/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12013/3/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12015/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MR/K026992/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P20 MD006899/MD/NIMHD NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK020572/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK063491/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R03 DC013373/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- RG/2001004/12869/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RP-PG-0407-10371/Department of Health/United Kingdom -- SAG09977/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- UL1 TR000124/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 23;523(7561):459-62. doi: 10.1038/nature14618. Epub 2015 Jul 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, 51010, Tartu, Estonia. [2] Division of Endocrinology and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Cambridge, 02141 Massachusetts, USA. [3] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge Center 7, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02242, USA. [4] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck St, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Unit of Public Health Genomics, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 104, Helsinki, FI-00251, Finland. [2] Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 20, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. ; Unit of Public Health Genomics, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 104, Helsinki, FI-00251, Finland. ; Department of Medical Sciences, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume 447 - Osp. di Cattinara, 34149 Trieste, Italy. ; Institute of Genetics and Biophysics "A. Buzzati-Traverso" CNR, via Pietro Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples, Italy. ; Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; 1] The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA. [2] The Genetics of Obesity and Related Metabolic Traits Program, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; 1] Icelandic Heart Association, Holtasmari 1, 201, Kopavogur, Iceland. [2] Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, 101, Iceland. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK. [2] Department of Cardiology, Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Uxbridge Road, Southall, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics and Disease Diversity, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510, Japan. [2] Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230-0045, Japan. ; Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, 70210 Kuopio, Finland. ; Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 426 Thompson Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Biostatistics and Medicine, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Suite 1360, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. ; Institute of Population Genetics, National Research Council, Trav. La Crucca n. 3 - Reg. Baldinca, 07100 Sassari, Italy. ; Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, 137 E. Franklin St., Suite 306, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Department of Immunology, Genetics, and Pathology, Biomedical Center, SciLifeLab Uppsala, Uppsala University, SE-75108 Uppsala, Sweden. ; MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Crewe Road, EH4 2XU Edinburgh, UK. ; Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, Leiden, 2300 RC, The Netherlands. ; 1] Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, 1124 W. Carson Street, Torrance, California 90502, USA. [2] Department of Pediatrics, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA. ; Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 900 Commonwealth Avenue, East, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition and Program for Personalised and Genomic Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 Baltimore St. MSTF, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; 1] Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 27, Lausanne, 1005, Switzerland. [2] Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Quartier Sorge - batiment genopode, Lausanne, 1015, Switzerland. ; Genomic Research on Complex Diseases (GRC) Group, CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Habshiguda, Uppal Road, Hyderabad, 500007, India. ; Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, 801 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; 1] Department of Twin Research &Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, South Wing, Block D, 3rd Floor, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH, UK. [2] NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Guy's and St. Thomas' Foundation Trust, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; Division of Genetics and Cell Biology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milano, Italy. ; Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, 70, El. Venizelou Ave, Athens 17671, Greece. ; Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str. 15A, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; Center for Human Genetic Research, 55 Fruit Street, Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands. ; Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Genomics and Molecular Medicine, CSIR-Institute of Genomics &Integrative Biology, Mathura Road, New Delhi, 110025, India. ; The GeneSTAR Research Program, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Boulevard, Saint Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; 1] Department of Neurology, Clinical Division of Neurogeriatrics, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 22, Graz, A-8036, Austria. [2] Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz2, Graz, A-8036, Austria. ; Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Burgemeester Oudlaan 50, Rotterdam, 3000 DR, The Netherlands. ; Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, CMM L8:03, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Stockholm, 171 76, Sweden. ; 1] Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham &Women's Hospital, 181 Longwood, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 401 Park Drive, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Center for Biomedicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), 39100 Bolzano, Italy (affiliated Institute of the University of Lubeck, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany). ; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. ; 1] Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. [2] Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. [3] Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. ; Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, Amsterdam, 1081 BT, The Netherlands. ; 1] Clinical Pharmacology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. [2] NIHR Barts Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 N. State St., Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA. ; Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400 Perkins Rd, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA. ; MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. ; Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", via dell'Istria 65, 34137 Trieste, Italy. ; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001, Australia. ; Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA. ; Quantitative Genetics, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Rd, Herston, Brisbane Queensland 4006, Australia. ; Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e della Riproduzione, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona, Italy. ; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; CNRS UMR 8199, European Genomic Institute for Diabetes (EGID), Lille 2 University, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, 59000 Lille, France. ; Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Blvd, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, P.O. box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Center for Research on Genomics and Global Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, Building 12A/Room 4047, 12 South Dr., Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, 51010, Tartu, Estonia. ; MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. ; 1] Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. [2] Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; 1] Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Lentzeallee 94, Berlin 14195, Germany. [2] Vertebrate Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Ihnestr. 72, Berlin, 14195 Germany. ; 1] Charite Research Group on Geriatrics, Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Reinickendorferstr. 61, 13347 Berlin, Germany. [2] Institute of Medical and Human Genetics, Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin 13353, Germany. ; Division of Population Health Sciences, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and School of Medicine, Dundee DD2 4BF, UK. ; William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; Experimental Cardiology, Division Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht, 3584 CX, The Netherlands. ; Center for Applied Genomics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3615 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Genetics of Complex Traits, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Barrack Road, Exeter EX2 5DW, UK. ; 1] COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Ledreborg Alle 34, DK-2820 Copenhagen, Denmark. [2] Novo Nordisk Centre for Basic Metabolic Research, Section of Metabolic Genetics, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 1, Copenhagen, 2100, Denmark. [3] Steno Diabetes Centre, Niels Steensens Vej 2, Gentofte, 2820, Denmark. ; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Groby Road, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. ; Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, via A. di Rudini 8, 20142 Milan, Italy. ; Centre for Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Western Australia, Lions Eye Institute, 2 Verdun Street, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, Copenhagen, 2300, Denmark. ; Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, Leiden, 2300 RC, The Netherlands. ; Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, 920 E. 58th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Department of Cardiology, Division Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht, 3584 CX, The Netherlands. [2] Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, ICIN-Netherlands Heart Institute, Catharijnesingel 52, Utrecht, 3501 DG, The Netherlands. [3] Institute of Cardiovascular Science, faculty of Population Health Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Internal Medicine, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. ; Department of Medicine, Columbia University, 622 W. 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, W.-Rathenau-Str. 48, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; 1] Department of Economics, Cornell University, 480 Uris Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA. [2] Department of Economics and Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California, 314C Dauterive Hall, 635 Downey Way, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; Human Genetics Center, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1200 Pressler Street, Suite 453E, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; 1] Division of Endocrinology and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Cambridge, 02141 Massachusetts, USA. [2] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge Center 7, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02242, USA. [3] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck St, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. ; Program in Genetic Epidemiology and Statistical Genetics, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Genome Technology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; College of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, College Office, Level 10, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK. ; 1] Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, 801 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. [2] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mt. Wayte Ave, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. ; 1] Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. [2] Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; Department of Internal Medicine B, University Medicine Greifswald, Ferdinand-Sauerbruch-Str. NK, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; 1] McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. [2] Cardiology, Geneva University Hospitals, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 4, Geneve 14, 1211, Switzerland. ; Robertson Centre, University of Glasgow, Boyd Orr Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. ; 1] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mt. Wayte Ave, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. [2] Division of Endocrinology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis St, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Ferdinand-Sauerbruch-Str. NK, 17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; Department of Twin Research &Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, South Wing, Block D, 3rd Floor, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 401 Park Drive, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Division of Biostatistics, Washington University, 660 S Euclid, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Crewe Road, EH4 2XU Edinburgh, UK. [2] Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, Edinburgh EH25 9RG, UK. ; 1] Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. [2] Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; National Institutes on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mt. Wayte Ave, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. [2] Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 E Concord St, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Hjelt Institute, P.O.Box 41, Mannerheimintie 172, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. ; Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Division of Applied Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK. ; State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Hematology, Rui Jin Hospital Affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 197 Rui Jin Er Road, Shanghai, 200025, China. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, SE-17121, Sweden. ; 1] Department of Immunology, Genetics, and Pathology, Biomedical Center, SciLifeLab Uppsala, Uppsala University, SE-75108 Uppsala, Sweden. [2] Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, SE-75237, Sweden. ; Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, Helsinki, FI-00271, Finland. ; Department of Cardiology C5-P, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, Leiden, 2300 RC, The Netherlands. ; Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, P.O. Box 2000, Tampere, FI-33521, Finland. ; Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] Diabetes Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O.Box 340, Haartmaninkatu 4, Helsinki, FI-00029, Finland. [3] Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Biomedicum 2U, Tukholmankatu 8, Helsinki, FI-00290, Finland. ; Department of Cardiology, Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Uxbridge Road, Southall, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. ; Laboratory for Genotyping Development RCfIMS, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230-0045, Japan. ; Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, FI-70210, Finland. ; 1] Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 9, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. [2] Folkhalsan Reasearch Centre, PB 63, Helsinki, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. ; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK. ; Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and School of Medicine University of Tampere, Tampere, FI-33520, Finland. ; Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; Department of Medical Sciences, University Hospital, Uppsala, 75185, Sweden. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK. [2] Translational Laboratory in Genetic Medicine (TLGM), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 8A Biomedical Grove, 138648, Singapore. ; Transplantation laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. ; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. ; Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 243 Charles Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Department of Statistics, University of Auckland, 303.325 Science Centre, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand. ; Department of Health, Functional Capacity and Welfare, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, Helsinki, FI-00271, Finland. ; Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Rue du Bugnon 44, Lausanne, 1011, Switzerland. ; Human Genetics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1HH, UK. ; 1] The GeneSTAR Research Program, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. [2] Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA. ; Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Human Genome Center, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan. ; Division of General Internal Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Staniford St, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. ; 1] Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. [2] Institute of Human Genetics, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, Munchen 81675, Germany. ; Molecular Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Rd, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia. ; Genome Science Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, E-304, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; HUCH Heart and Lung center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 340, Helsinki, FI-00029, Finland. ; 1] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mt. Wayte Ave, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. [2] Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 E Concord St, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. ; ICAMS, University of Glasgow, 126 University Way, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK. ; Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, 1300 S 2nd Street, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55454, USA. ; Centre for Global Health and Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Split, Soltanska 2, 21000 Split, Croatia. ; 1] Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 20, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. [2] Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O.Box 340, Haartmaninkatu 4, Helsinki, FI-00029, Finland. [3] Obesity Research Unit, Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, P.O.Box 63, Haartmaninkatu 8, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland. ; International Centre for Circulatory Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1LA, UK. ; Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK. ; Department of Cardiology and Cardio thoracic Surgery Hero DMC Heart Institute, Civil Lines, 141001, Ludhiana, India. ; Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; Department Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia School of Medicine, 3232 West Complex, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. ; Department of Psychological &Brain Sciences, Indiana University Bloomington, 1101 E. 10th Street, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA. ; Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University Graz, Harrachgasse 21, Graz, A-8010, Austria. ; 1] Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, CMM L8:03, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Stockholm, 171 76, Sweden. [2] Science for Life Laboratory, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SE-17121, Sweden. ; University of Dundee, Kirsty Semple Way, Dundee DD2 4DB, UK. ; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Division of Cardiology, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Suite 1360, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Human Genetics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1HH, UK. ; Molecular and Cellular Therapeutics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland. ; UMR INSERM U1122; IGE-PCV "Interactions Gene-Environnement en Physiopathologie Cardio-Vasculaire", INSERM, University of Lorraine, 30 Rue Lionnois, 54000 Nancy, France. ; 1] Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. [2] Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, Munich 81377, Germany. ; Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar East, New Delhi, 110029, India. ; National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK. ; Department of Public Health Sciences, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA. ; 1] Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Groby Road, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. [2] NIHR Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Groby Road, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, 51010, Tartu, Estonia. [2] Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Riia 23, Tartu, 51010, Estonia. ; 1] Diabetes Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Centre for Vascular Prevention, Danube-University Krems, 3500 Krems, Austria. [3] Diabetes Research Group, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands. ; 1] The GeneSTAR Research Program, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. [2] Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Finnish Lung Health Association, Sibeliuksenkatu 11 A 1, Helsinki, FI-00250, Finland. ; 1] Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. [2] Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. ; Genetic Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Rd, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia. ; Centre for Population Health Sciences, Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. ; Diabetes Unit, KEM Hospital and Research Centre, Rasta Peth, Pune, 411011, India. ; Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, 1124 W. Carson Street, Torrance, California 90502, USA. ; Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Piazzale A. Stefani 1, 37124 Verona, Italy. ; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, Copenhagen, 2300, Denmark. [2] Department of Medicine, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Ledreborg Alle 34, DK-2820 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; 1] CNRS UMR 8199, European Genomic Institute for Diabetes (EGID), Lille 2 University, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, 59000 Lille, France. [2] Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK. ; 1] Center for Applied Genomics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3615 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. [2] Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, The University of Pennsylvania, 3615 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Translational Gerontology Branch, National institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21225, USA. ; Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, No. 9 Edinburgh Bioquarter, 9 Little France Road, Edinburgh EH16 4UX, UK. ; Centre for Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and School of Medicine, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK. ; 1] William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, UK [2] Princess Al-Jawhara Al-Brahim Centre of Excellence in Research of Hereditary Disorders (PACER-HD), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia. ; 1] Vertebrate Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Ihnestr. 72, Berlin, 14195 Germany. [2] Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Campus, St Dunstan's Road, London W6 8RP, UK. [3] Institutes for Neurogenetics and Integrative &Experimental Genomics, University of Lubeck, Lubeck 23562, Germany. ; Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Lentzeallee 94, Berlin 14195, Germany. ; 1] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge Center 7, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02242, USA. [2] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig 04103, Germany. ; 1] MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. [2] Novo Nordisk Centre for Basic Metabolic Research, Section of Metabolic Genetics, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 1, Copenhagen, 2100, Denmark. [3] Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, The Capital Region, Copenhagen, 2000, Denmark. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Boulevard, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. ; Epidemiology of diabetes, obesity and chronic kidney disease over the lifecourse, Inserm, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health U1018, 16 Avenue Paul Vaillant Couturier, 94807 Villejuif, France. ; Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Via G. Moscati 31/34, 00168 Roma, Italy. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, 51010, Tartu, Estonia. [2] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [3] Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Duncan Building, Daulby Stree, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK. ; 1] Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, Helsinki, FI-00271, Finland. [2] Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 20, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. [3] Vasa Central Hospital, Sandviksgatan 2-4, Vasa, FI-65130, Finland. [4] Folkhalsan Reasearch Centre, PB 63, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. [5] Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Haartmaninkatu 4, Helsinki, FI-00290, Finland. ; Neuro-Imaging Genetics, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Rd, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia. ; Cardiovascular Genetics Division, University of Utah, 420 Chipeta Way, Room 1160, Salt Lake City, Utah 84117, USA. ; 1] Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. [2] Alzheimer Scotland Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Medical Sciences, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume 447 - Osp. di Cattinara, 34149 Trieste, Italy. [2] Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", via dell'Istria 65, 34137 Trieste, Italy. ; 1] Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 20, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. [2] Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Hjelt Institute, P.O.Box 41, Mannerheimintie 172, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland. [3] National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), P.O.Box 30, Mannerheimintie 166, Helsinki, FI-00271, Finland. ; Department of Kinesiology, Laval University, 2300 rue de la Terrasse, Quebec G1V 0A6, Canada. ; Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 N. State Street, Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA. ; 1] Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, FI-20521, Finland. [2] Research Center of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular medicine, University of Turku, Turku, FI-20521, Finland. ; 1] University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. [2] Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, ICIN-Netherlands Heart Institute, Catharijnesingel 52, Utrecht, 3501 DG, The Netherlands. [3] University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Genetics, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. ; Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Box 6501, Stockholm, SE-113 83, Sweden. ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Box 281, Stockholm, SE-171 77, Sweden. ; Department of Neurology, Clinical Division of Neurogeriatrics, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 22, Graz, A-8036, Austria. ; Department of Genetics and Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Boulevard, Saint Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; 1] The GeneSTAR Research Program, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. [2] Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; 1] Genomics and Molecular Medicine, CSIR-Institute of Genomics &Integrative Biology, Mathura Road, New Delhi, 110025, India. [2] School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India. ; 1] Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 940 Stanton Young Boulevard, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA. [2] Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA. ; 1] Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", via dell'Istria 65, 34137 Trieste, Italy. [2] Sidra Medical and Research Centre, Doha, Qatar. ; 1] The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA. [2] The Genetics of Obesity and Related Metabolic Traits Program, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA. [3] The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; 1] Genomic Research on Complex Diseases (GRC) Group, CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Habshiguda, Uppal Road, Hyderabad, 500007, India. [2] Genome Institute of Singapore, 60 Biopolis Street, #02-01 Genome, Singapore, 138672, Singapore. ; 1] Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition and Program for Personalised and Genomic Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 Baltimore St. MSTF, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. [2] Program for Personalised and Genomic Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 Baltimore St. MSTF, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. [3] Geriatric Research and Education Clinical Center, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 685 W Baltimore MSTF, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, 126 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK. ; 1] Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, 137 E. Franklin St., Suite 306, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 137 E. Franklin Street, Suite 306, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; 1] Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Services, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Suite 1360, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. [2] Group Health Research Institute, Group Health Cooperative, 1730 Minor Ave, Suite 1360, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK. [2] Department of Cardiology, Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Uxbridge Road, Southall, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [3] Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Imperial College London, Praed Street, London W2 1NY, UK. ; 1] Department of Cardiology, Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Uxbridge Road, Southall, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [2] National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK. [3] Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Imperial College London, Praed Street, London W2 1NY, UK. ; Population Health Research Institute, St George's, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, 51010, Tartu, Estonia. [2] Unit of Public Health Genomics, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 104, Helsinki, FI-00251, Finland. ; 1] Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. [2] Centre for Global Health and Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Split, Soltanska 2, 21000 Split, Croatia. ; 1] Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. [2] MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Crewe Road, EH4 2XU Edinburgh, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26131930" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Blood Pressure/genetics ; Body Height/*genetics ; Cholesterol, LDL/genetics ; *Cognition ; Cohort Studies ; Educational Status ; Female ; Forced Expiratory Volume/genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; *Homozygote ; Humans ; Lung Volume Measurements ; Male ; Phenotype
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-02-13
    Description: Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P 〈 5 x 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for approximately 2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for 〉20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382211/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382211/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Locke, Adam E -- Kahali, Bratati -- Berndt, Sonja I -- Justice, Anne E -- Pers, Tune H -- Day, Felix R -- Powell, Corey -- Vedantam, Sailaja -- Buchkovich, Martin L -- Yang, Jian -- Croteau-Chonka, Damien C -- Esko, Tonu -- Fall, Tove -- Ferreira, Teresa -- Gustafsson, Stefan -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Luan, Jian'an -- Magi, Reedik -- Randall, Joshua C -- Winkler, Thomas W -- Wood, Andrew R -- Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie -- Faul, Jessica D -- Smith, Jennifer A -- Hua Zhao, Jing -- Zhao, Wei -- Chen, Jin -- Fehrmann, Rudolf -- Hedman, Asa K -- Karjalainen, Juha -- Schmidt, Ellen M -- Absher, Devin -- Amin, Najaf -- Anderson, Denise -- Beekman, Marian -- Bolton, Jennifer L -- Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L -- Buyske, Steven -- Demirkan, Ayse -- Deng, Guohong -- Ehret, Georg B -- Feenstra, Bjarke -- Feitosa, Mary F -- Fischer, Krista -- Goel, Anuj -- Gong, Jian -- Jackson, Anne U -- Kanoni, Stavroula -- Kleber, Marcus E -- Kristiansson, Kati -- Lim, Unhee -- Lotay, Vaneet -- Mangino, Massimo -- Mateo Leach, Irene -- Medina-Gomez, Carolina -- Medland, Sarah E -- Nalls, Michael A -- Palmer, Cameron D -- Pasko, Dorota -- Pechlivanis, Sonali -- Peters, Marjolein J -- Prokopenko, Inga -- Shungin, Dmitry -- Stancakova, Alena -- Strawbridge, Rona J -- Ju Sung, Yun -- Tanaka, Toshiko -- Teumer, Alexander -- Trompet, Stella -- van der Laan, Sander W -- van Setten, Jessica -- Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V -- Wang, Zhaoming -- Yengo, Loic -- Zhang, Weihua -- Isaacs, Aaron -- Albrecht, Eva -- Arnlov, Johan -- Arscott, Gillian M -- Attwood, Antony P -- Bandinelli, Stefania -- Barrett, Amy -- Bas, Isabelita N -- Bellis, Claire -- Bennett, Amanda J -- Berne, Christian -- Blagieva, Roza -- Bluher, Matthias -- Bohringer, Stefan -- Bonnycastle, Lori L -- Bottcher, Yvonne -- Boyd, Heather A -- Bruinenberg, Marcel -- Caspersen, Ida H -- Ida Chen, Yii-Der -- Clarke, Robert -- Daw, E Warwick -- de Craen, Anton J M -- Delgado, Graciela -- Dimitriou, Maria -- Doney, Alex S F -- Eklund, Niina -- Estrada, Karol -- Eury, Elodie -- Folkersen, Lasse -- Fraser, Ross M -- Garcia, Melissa E -- Geller, Frank -- Giedraitis, Vilmantas -- Gigante, Bruna -- Go, Alan S -- Golay, Alain -- Goodall, Alison H -- Gordon, Scott D -- Gorski, Mathias -- Grabe, Hans-Jorgen -- Grallert, Harald -- Grammer, Tanja B -- Grassler, Jurgen -- Gronberg, Henrik -- Groves, Christopher J -- Gusto, Gaelle -- Haessler, Jeffrey -- Hall, Per -- Haller, Toomas -- Hallmans, Goran -- Hartman, Catharina A -- Hassinen, Maija -- Hayward, Caroline -- Heard-Costa, Nancy L -- Helmer, Quinta -- Hengstenberg, Christian -- Holmen, Oddgeir -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- James, Alan L -- Jeff, Janina M -- Johansson, Asa -- Jolley, Jennifer -- Juliusdottir, Thorhildur -- Kinnunen, Leena -- Koenig, Wolfgang -- Koskenvuo, Markku -- Kratzer, Wolfgang -- Laitinen, Jaana -- Lamina, Claudia -- Leander, Karin -- Lee, Nanette R -- Lichtner, Peter -- Lind, Lars -- Lindstrom, Jaana -- Sin Lo, Ken -- Lobbens, Stephane -- Lorbeer, Roberto -- Lu, Yingchang -- Mach, Francois -- Magnusson, Patrik K E -- Mahajan, Anubha -- McArdle, Wendy L -- McLachlan, Stela -- Menni, Cristina -- Merger, Sigrun -- Mihailov, Evelin -- Milani, Lili -- Moayyeri, Alireza -- Monda, Keri L -- Morken, Mario A -- Mulas, Antonella -- Muller, Gabriele -- Muller-Nurasyid, Martina -- Musk, Arthur W -- Nagaraja, Ramaiah -- Nothen, Markus M -- Nolte, Ilja M -- Pilz, Stefan -- Rayner, Nigel W -- Renstrom, Frida -- Rettig, Rainer -- Ried, Janina S -- Ripke, Stephan -- Robertson, Neil R -- Rose, Lynda M -- Sanna, Serena -- Scharnagl, Hubert -- Scholtens, Salome -- Schumacher, Fredrick R -- Scott, William R -- Seufferlein, Thomas -- Shi, Jianxin -- Vernon Smith, Albert -- Smolonska, Joanna -- Stanton, Alice V -- Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur -- Stirrups, Kathleen -- Stringham, Heather M -- Sundstrom, Johan -- Swertz, Morris A -- Swift, Amy J -- Syvanen, Ann-Christine -- Tan, Sian-Tsung -- Tayo, Bamidele O -- Thorand, Barbara -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Tyrer, Jonathan P -- Uh, Hae-Won -- Vandenput, Liesbeth -- Verhulst, Frank C -- Vermeulen, Sita H -- Verweij, Niek -- Vonk, Judith M -- Waite, Lindsay L -- Warren, Helen R -- Waterworth, Dawn -- Weedon, Michael N -- Wilkens, Lynne R -- Willenborg, Christina -- Wilsgaard, Tom -- Wojczynski, Mary K -- Wong, Andrew -- Wright, Alan F -- Zhang, Qunyuan -- LifeLines Cohort Study -- Brennan, Eoin P -- Choi, Murim -- Dastani, Zari -- Drong, Alexander W -- Eriksson, Per -- Franco-Cereceda, Anders -- Gadin, Jesper R -- Gharavi, Ali G -- Goddard, Michael E -- Handsaker, Robert E -- Huang, Jinyan -- Karpe, Fredrik -- Kathiresan, Sekar -- Keildson, Sarah -- Kiryluk, Krzysztof -- Kubo, Michiaki -- Lee, Jong-Young -- Liang, Liming -- Lifton, Richard P -- Ma, Baoshan -- McCarroll, Steven A -- McKnight, Amy J -- Min, Josine L -- Moffatt, Miriam F -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Murabito, Joanne M -- Nicholson, George -- Nyholt, Dale R -- Okada, Yukinori -- Perry, John R B -- Dorajoo, Rajkumar -- Reinmaa, Eva -- Salem, Rany M -- Sandholm, Niina -- Scott, Robert A -- Stolk, Lisette -- Takahashi, Atsushi -- Tanaka, Toshihiro -- Van't Hooft, Ferdinand M -- Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E -- Westra, Harm-Jan -- Zheng, Wei -- Zondervan, Krina T -- ADIPOGen Consortium -- AGEN-BMI Working Group -- CARDIOGRAMplusC4D Consortium -- CKDGen Consortium -- GLGC -- ICBP -- MAGIC Investigators -- MuTHER Consortium -- MIGen Consortium -- PAGE Consortium -- ReproGen Consortium -- GENIE Consortium -- International Endogene Consortium -- Heath, Andrew C -- Arveiler, Dominique -- Bakker, Stephan J L -- Beilby, John -- Bergman, Richard N -- Blangero, John -- Bovet, Pascal -- Campbell, Harry -- Caulfield, Mark J -- Cesana, Giancarlo -- Chakravarti, Aravinda -- Chasman, Daniel I -- Chines, Peter S -- Collins, Francis S -- Crawford, Dana C -- Cupples, L Adrienne -- Cusi, Daniele -- Danesh, John -- de Faire, Ulf -- den Ruijter, Hester M -- Dominiczak, Anna F -- Erbel, Raimund -- Erdmann, Jeanette -- Eriksson, Johan G -- Farrall, Martin -- Felix, Stephan B -- Ferrannini, Ele -- Ferrieres, Jean -- Ford, Ian -- Forouhi, Nita G -- Forrester, Terrence -- Franco, Oscar H -- Gansevoort, Ron T -- Gejman, Pablo V -- Gieger, Christian -- Gottesman, Omri -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- Gyllensten, Ulf -- Hall, Alistair S -- Harris, Tamara B -- Hattersley, Andrew T -- Hicks, Andrew A -- Hindorff, Lucia A -- Hingorani, Aroon D -- Hofman, Albert -- Homuth, Georg -- Hovingh, G Kees -- Humphries, Steve E -- Hunt, Steven C -- Hypponen, Elina -- Illig, Thomas -- Jacobs, Kevin B -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Jockel, Karl-Heinz -- Johansen, Berit -- Jousilahti, Pekka -- Jukema, J Wouter -- Jula, Antti M -- Kaprio, Jaakko -- Kastelein, John J P -- Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M -- Kiemeney, Lambertus A -- Knekt, Paul -- Kooner, Jaspal S -- Kooperberg, Charles -- Kovacs, Peter -- Kraja, Aldi T -- Kumari, Meena -- Kuusisto, Johanna -- Lakka, Timo A -- Langenberg, Claudia -- Le Marchand, Loic -- Lehtimaki, Terho -- Lyssenko, Valeriya -- Mannisto, Satu -- Marette, Andre -- Matise, Tara C -- McKenzie, Colin A -- McKnight, Barbara -- Moll, Frans L -- Morris, Andrew D -- Morris, Andrew P -- Murray, Jeffrey C -- Nelis, Mari -- Ohlsson, Claes -- Oldehinkel, Albertine J -- Ong, Ken K -- Madden, Pamela A F -- Pasterkamp, Gerard -- Peden, John F -- Peters, Annette -- Postma, Dirkje S -- Pramstaller, Peter P -- Price, Jackie F -- Qi, Lu -- Raitakari, Olli T -- Rankinen, Tuomo -- Rao, D C -- Rice, Treva K -- Ridker, Paul M -- Rioux, John D -- Ritchie, Marylyn D -- Rudan, Igor -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Saramies, Jouko -- Sarzynski, Mark A -- Schunkert, Heribert -- Schwarz, Peter E H -- Sever, Peter -- Shuldiner, Alan R -- Sinisalo, Juha -- Stolk, Ronald P -- Strauch, Konstantin -- Tonjes, Anke -- Tregouet, David-Alexandre -- Tremblay, Angelo -- Tremoli, Elena -- Virtamo, Jarmo -- Vohl, Marie-Claude -- Volker, Uwe -- Waeber, Gerard -- Willemsen, Gonneke -- Witteman, Jacqueline C -- Zillikens, M Carola -- Adair, Linda S -- Amouyel, Philippe -- Asselbergs, Folkert W -- Assimes, Themistocles L -- Bochud, Murielle -- Boehm, Bernhard O -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Bornstein, Stefan R -- Bottinger, Erwin P -- Bouchard, Claude -- Cauchi, Stephane -- Chambers, John C -- Chanock, Stephen J -- Cooper, Richard S -- de Bakker, Paul I W -- Dedoussis, George -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Franks, Paul W -- Froguel, Philippe -- Groop, Leif C -- Haiman, Christopher A -- Hamsten, Anders -- Hui, Jennie -- Hunter, David J -- Hveem, Kristian -- Kaplan, Robert C -- Kivimaki, Mika -- Kuh, Diana -- Laakso, Markku -- Liu, Yongmei -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Marz, Winfried -- Melbye, Mads -- Metspalu, Andres -- Moebus, Susanne -- Munroe, Patricia B -- Njolstad, Inger -- Oostra, Ben A -- Palmer, Colin N A -- Pedersen, Nancy L -- Perola, Markus -- Perusse, Louis -- Peters, Ulrike -- Power, Chris -- Quertermous, Thomas -- Rauramaa, Rainer -- Rivadeneira, Fernando -- Saaristo, Timo E -- Saleheen, Danish -- Sattar, Naveed -- Schadt, Eric E -- Schlessinger, David -- Slagboom, P Eline -- Snieder, Harold -- Spector, Tim D -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Stumvoll, Michael -- Tuomilehto, Jaakko -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Uusitupa, Matti -- van der Harst, Pim -- Walker, Mark -- Wallaschofski, Henri -- Wareham, Nicholas J -- Watkins, Hugh -- Weir, David R -- Wichmann, H-Erich -- Wilson, James F -- Zanen, Pieter -- Borecki, Ingrid B -- Deloukas, Panos -- Fox, Caroline S -- Heid, Iris M -- O'Connell, Jeffrey R -- Strachan, David P -- Stefansson, Kari -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Abecasis, Goncalo R -- Franke, Lude -- Frayling, Timothy M -- McCarthy, Mark I -- Visscher, Peter M -- Scherag, Andre -- Willer, Cristen J -- Boehnke, Michael -- Mohlke, Karen L -- Lindgren, Cecilia M -- Beckmann, Jacques S -- Barroso, Ines -- North, Kari E -- Ingelsson, Erik -- Hirschhorn, Joel N -- Loos, Ruth J F -- Speliotes, Elizabeth K -- 084766/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085235/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 097117/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098381/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 14136/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/672/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/710/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- G0601261/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1000143/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K01 HL116770/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K23 DK080145/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- MC_PC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106179471/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12015/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12015/2/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12015/5/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MR/K013351/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P20 MD006899/MD/NIMHD NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK020541/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK020572/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK063491/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 GM103341/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30 HL107251/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P60 DK020541/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG041517/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK062370/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK072193/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK075787/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK078150/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK089256/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK093757/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL109946/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL117626/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R21 DA027040/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM080178/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007055/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007824/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- TL1 TR001066/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AG009740/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 AG049505/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062370/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG007416/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG007419/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000124/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR001067/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UM1 CA182910/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 12;518(7538):197-206. doi: 10.1038/nature14177.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, and Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; 1] Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [4] Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby 2800, Denmark. ; MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. ; 1] Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; 1] Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. [2] The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The Translation Research Institute, Brisbane 4012, Australia. ; 1] Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [4] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; 1] Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17177, Sweden. [2] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [3] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; 1] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [2] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; 1] Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne 1010, Switzerland. [2] Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland. [3] Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1005, Switzerland. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [2] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany. ; Genetics of Complex Traits, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK. ; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [2] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [3] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, Huntsville, Alabama 35806, USA. ; Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health Research, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6008, Australia. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. ; 1] Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. [2] Kidney Epidemiology and Cost Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; 1] Department of Statistics &Biostatistics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA. [2] Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA. ; 1] Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; 1] Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [2] Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. [3] Institute of infectious Diseases, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. ; 1] Center for Complex Disease Genomics, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. [2] Cardiology, Department of Specialties of Internal Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 1211, Switzerland. ; Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen DK-2300, Denmark. ; Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Division of Cardiovacular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. ; Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; 1] Vth Department of Medicine (Nephrology, Hypertensiology, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Rheumatology), Medical Faculty of Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, D-68187 Mannheim, Germany. [2] Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. ; National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. ; Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813, USA. ; The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [3] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia. ; Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (IMIBE), University Hospital Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. [3] Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK. ; 1] Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic &Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Skane University Hosptial, Malmo 205 02, Sweden. [2] Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Medicine, Umea University, Umea 901 87, Sweden. [3] Department of Odontology, Umea University, Umea 901 85, Sweden. ; University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland. ; Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17176, Sweden. ; Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21225, USA. ; Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; 1] Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Experimental Cardiology Laboratory, Division Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. [2] Core Genotyping Facility, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., NCI-Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; 1] CNRS UMR 8199, F-59019 Lille, France. [2] European Genomic Institute for Diabetes, F-59000 Lille, France. [3] Universite de Lille 2, F-59000 Lille, France. ; 1] Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [2] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. ; 1] Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Center for Medical Sytems Biology, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; 1] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [2] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [3] School of Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, SE-791 88 Falun, Sweden. ; PathWest Laboratory Medicine of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; 1] Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0PT, UK. [2] NHS Blood and Transplant, Cambridge CB2 0PT, UK. ; Geriatric Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Firenze (ASF), 50125 Florence, Italy. ; Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. ; USC-Office of Population Studies Foundation, Inc., University of San Carlos, Cebu City 6000, Philippines. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78227, USA. [2] Genomics Research Centre, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia. ; Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. ; 1] Integrated Research and Treatment Center (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. [2] Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Medical Genomics and Metabolic Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Integrated Research and Treatment Center (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; LifeLines Cohort Study, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway. ; 1] Department of Pediatrics, University of California Los Angeles, Torrance, California 90502, USA. [2] Transgenomics Institute, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Torrance, California 90502, USA. ; Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. ; Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Vth Department of Medicine (Nephrology, Hypertensiology, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Rheumatology), Medical Faculty of Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, D-68187 Mannheim, Germany. ; Department of Dietetics-Nutrition, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece. ; Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK. ; 1] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; 1] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [3] Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; Division of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm 17177, Sweden. ; Kaiser Permanente, Division of Research, Oakland, California 94612, USA. ; Service of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes, Obesity and Chronic Diseases, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva CH-1211, Switzerland. ; 1] Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. [2] National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. ; 1] Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany. [2] Department of Nephrology, University Hospital Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, HELIOS-Hospital Stralsund, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. [2] German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Rostock, Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; 1] Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [3] German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitat Dresden, D-01307 Dresden, Germany. ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17177, Sweden. ; Institut inter Regional pour la Sante, Synergies, F-37520 La Riche, France. ; Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Nutritional Research, Umea University, Umea 90187, Sweden. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, 70100 Kuopio, Finland. ; MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; 1] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. [2] Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. [3] Faculty of Psychology and Education, VU University Amsterdam, 1081BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Deutsches Forschungszentrum fur Herz-Kreislauferkrankungen (DZHK) (German Research Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Munich Heart Alliance, D-80636 Munich, Germany. [2] Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Technische Universitat Munchen, D-80636 Munich, Germany. ; Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7489, Norway. ; Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, 1081BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Pulmonary Physiology and Sleep Medicine, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. [2] School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, Australia. ; Uppsala University, Department of Immunology, Genetics, Pathology, SciLifeLab, Rudbeck Laboratory, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. ; Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. ; Hjelt Institute Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; Department of Internal Medicine I, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. ; Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FI-90100 Oulu, Finland. ; Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Medical Genetics, Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Innsbruck Medical University, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. ; Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec H1T 1C8, Canada. ; Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; 1] The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA. [2] The Genetics of Obesity and Related Metabolic Traits Program, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; Cardiology, Department of Specialties of Internal Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 1211, Switzerland. ; School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [2] Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; 1] Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK. [2] Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, University College London, London NW1 2DA, UK. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] The Center for Observational Research, Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA. ; Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica (IRGB), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Cagliari, Sardinia 09042, Italy. ; Center for Evidence-based Healthcare, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitat Dresden, D-01307 Dresden, Germany. ; 1] Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Deutsches Forschungszentrum fur Herz-Kreislauferkrankungen (DZHK) (German Research Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Munich Heart Alliance, D-80636 Munich, Germany. [3] Department of Medicine I, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, D-81377 Munich, Germany. [4] Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, D-81377 Munich, Germany. ; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA. ; 1] Department of Genomics, Life &Brain Center, University of Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany. [2] Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany. ; Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute for Research in Extramural Medicine, Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, 1081BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. [3] Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. ; Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic &Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Skane University Hosptial, Malmo 205 02, Sweden. ; Institute of Physiology, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17495 Karlsburg, Germany. ; 1] Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. [2] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. ; Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Graz 8036, Austria. ; Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur 201, Iceland. [2] University of Iceland, Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; 1] Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Molecular &Cellular Therapeutics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland. ; deCODE Genetics, Amgen Inc., Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. [2] William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; 1] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [2] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75144, Sweden. ; 1] Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [2] National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London SW3 6LY, UK. ; Department of Public Health Sciences, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University of Chicago, Maywood, Illinois 61053, USA. ; 1] German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. ; Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg 413 45, Sweden. ; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus MC University Medical Centre, 3000 CB Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department for Health Evidence, Radboud University Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Genetics, Radboud University Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. ; Department of Clinical Pharmacology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; Genetics, GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406, USA. ; 1] German Center for Cardiovascular Research, partner site Hamburg/Lubeck/Kiel, 23562 Lubeck, Germany. [2] Institut fur Integrative und Experimentelle Genomik, Universitat zu Lubeck, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany. ; Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromso, Norway. ; MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing at University College London, London WC1B 5JU, UK. ; Diabetes Complications Research Centre, Conway Institute, School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland. ; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. ; Lady Davis Institute, Departments of Human Genetics, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3T1E2, Canada. ; Cardiothoracic Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17176, Sweden. ; Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York 10032, USA. ; 1] Biosciences Research Division, Department of Primary Industries, Victoria 3083, Australia. [2] Department of Food and Agricultural Systems, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia. ; 1] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Hematology, Rui Jin Hospital Affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. ; 1] Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. [2] NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, OUH Trust, Oxford OX3 7LE, UK. ; 1] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. ; Laboratory for Genotyping Development, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; Center for Genome Science, National Institute of Health, Chungcheongbuk-do, Chungbuk 363-951, Republic of Korea. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts 2115, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] College of Information Science and Technology, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026, China. ; 1] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Nephrology Research, Centre for Public Health, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, County Down BT9 7AB, UK. ; National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London SW3 6LY, UK. ; 1] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. [2] Section of General Internal Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; 1] Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, 1 South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3TG, UK. [2] MRC Harwell, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Harwell OX11 0QG, UK. ; 1] QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia. [2] Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4059, Australia. ; 1] Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. [2] Department of Human Genetics and Disease Diversity, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 113-8510 Tokyo, Japan. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Genetics of Complex Traits, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK. [3] Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; Genome Institute of Singapore, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 138672 Singapore. ; 1] Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University School of Science, Helsinki FI-00076, Finland. [2] Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland. [3] Folkhalsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhalsan Research Center, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics and Disease Diversity, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 113-8510 Tokyo, Japan. [2] Laboratory for Cardiovascular Diseases, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. [3] Division of Disease Diversity, Bioresource Research Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 113-8510 Tokyo, Japan. ; Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. ; Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine; Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center; and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37075, USA. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Nuffield Department of Obstetrics &Gynaecology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, EA3430, University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Medicine, Strasbourg, France. ; Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] PathWest Laboratory Medicine of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. [2] Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; Cedars-Sinai Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78227, USA. ; 1] Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, 1010 Lausanne, Switzerland. [2] Ministry of Health, Victoria, Republic of Seychelles. ; University of Milano, Bicocca, 20126, Italy. ; Center for Complex Disease Genomics, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; 1] Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. [2] Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA. [2] Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; 1] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. [2] Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; 1] Department of Health Sciences, University of Milano, I 20142, Italy. [2] Fondazione Filarete, Milano I 20139, Italy. ; Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK. ; 1] Experimental Cardiology Laboratory, Division Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. [2] Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK. ; Clinic of Cardiology, West-German Heart Centre, University Hospital Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany. ; 1] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland. [3] Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki 00290, Finland. ; 1] Department of Internal Medicine B, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. [2] DZHK (Deutsches Zentrum fur Herz-Kreislaufforschung - German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; 1] Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, 56100 Pisa, Italy. [2] National Research Council Institute of Clinical Physiology, University of Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy. ; Department of Cardiology, Toulouse University School of Medicine, Rangueil Hospital, 31400 Toulouse, France. ; Robertson Center for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. ; UWI Solutions for Developing Countries, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL 60201, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA. ; Leeds MRC Medical Bioinformatics Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9LU, UK. ; Institute of Biomedical &Clinical Science, University of Exeter, Barrack Road, Exeter EX2 5DW, UK. ; Center for Biomedicine, European Academy Bozen, Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano 39100, Italy (affiliated institute of the University of Lubeck, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany). ; Division of Genomic Medicine, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; Centre for Cardiovascular Genetics, Institute Cardiovascular Sciences, University College London, London WC1E 6JJ, UK. ; Cardiovascular Genetics Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA. ; 1] Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, South Australia, Australia. [2] School of Population Health, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, South Australia, Australia. [3] South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia. [4] Population, Policy, and Practice, University College London Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK. ; 1] Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Hannover Unified Biobank, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, D-30625 Hannover, Germany. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. [2] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-90101 Oulu, Finland. [3] MRC Health Protection Agency (HPA) Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. [4] Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, FI-90220 Oulu, Finland. [5] Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland. [6] Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland. ; 1] Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. [2] Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, Interuniversity Cardiology Institute Netherlands (ICIN), 3501 DG Utrecht, The Netherlands. [3] Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (ICIN), 3501 DG Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; 1] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. [3] Hjelt Institute Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; 1] Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland. [2] Unit of Primary Health Care/General Practice, Oulu University Hospital, FI-90220 Oulu, Finland. ; 1] Department for Health Evidence, Radboud University Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Urology, Radboud University Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [2] National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London SW3 6LY, UK. [3] Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London W12 0HS, UK. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. [2] Department of Biological and Social Epidemiology, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, UK. ; Department of Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland. ; 1] Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, 70100 Kuopio, Finland. [2] Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland. [3] Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland. ; 1] MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. [2] Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and School of Medicine University of Tampere, FI-33520 Tampere, Finland. ; 1] Steno Diabetes Center A/S, Gentofte DK-2820, Denmark. [2] Lund University Diabetes Centre and Department of Clinical Science, Diabetes &Endocrinology Unit, Lund University, Malmo 221 00, Sweden. ; 1] Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Quebec, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. [2] Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. ; Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [2] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [3] Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK. ; Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. ; 1] MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. [2] MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing at University College London, London WC1B 5JU, UK. ; Illumina, Inc, Little Chesterford, Cambridge CB10 1XL, UK. ; 1] Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Deutsches Forschungszentrum fur Herz-Kreislauferkrankungen (DZHK) (German Research Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Munich Heart Alliance, D-80636 Munich, Germany. [3] Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Tuberculosis, Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Center for Biomedicine, European Academy Bozen, Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano 39100, Italy (affiliated institute of the University of Lubeck, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany). [2] Department of Neurology, General Central Hospital, Bolzano 39100, Italy. ; 1] Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, FI-20521 Turku, Finland. [2] Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, FI-20521 Turku, Finland. ; Human Genomics Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. [2] Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. [3] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec H1T 1C8, Canada. [2] Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H1T 1C8, Canada. ; Center for Systems Genomics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; 1] Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. [2] Croatian Centre for Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia. ; South Carelia Central Hospital, 53130 Lappeenranta, Finland. ; 1] Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitat Dresden, D-01307 Dresden, Germany. [2] Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden, German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 01307 Dresden, Germany. ; International Centre for Circulatory Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. ; 1] Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. [2] Program for Personalized and Genomic Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. [3] Geriatric Research and Education Clinical Center, Vetrans Administration Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; Helsinki University Central Hospital Heart and Lung Center, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland. ; 1] Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, D-81377 Munich, Germany. ; 1] Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR S 1166, F-75013 Paris, France. [2] INSERM, UMR S 1166, Team Genomics and Physiopathology of Cardiovascular Diseases, F-75013 Paris, France. [3] Institute for Cardiometabolism And Nutrition (ICAN), F-75013 Paris, France. ; Department of Kinesiology, Laval University, Quebec QC G1V 0A6, Canada. ; Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Universita di Milano &Centro Cardiologico Monzino, Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Milan 20133, Italy. ; 1] Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. [2] Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Laval University, Quebec QC G1V 0A6, Canada. ; 1] Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. [2] DZHK (Deutsches Zentrum fur Herz-Kreislaufforschung - German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital (CHUV) and University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1011, Switzerland. ; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Institut Pasteur de Lille; INSERM, U744; Universite de Lille 2; F-59000 Lille, France. ; 1] Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. [2] Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, Interuniversity Cardiology Institute Netherlands (ICIN), 3501 DG Utrecht, The Netherlands. [3] Department of Cardiology, Division Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA. ; 1] Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Imperial College London and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637553 Singapore, Singapore. [2] Department of Internal Medicine I, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. ; Health Science Center at Houston, University of Texas, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [2] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. [3] Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London W12 0HS, UK. ; 1] Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Medicine, Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic &Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Skane University Hosptial, Malmo 205 02, Sweden. [3] Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Medicine, Umea University, Umea 901 87, Sweden. ; 1] Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK. [2] CNRS UMR 8199, F-59019 Lille, France. [3] European Genomic Institute for Diabetes, F-59000 Lille, France. [4] Universite de Lille 2, F-59000 Lille, France. ; 1] Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Lund University Diabetes Centre and Department of Clinical Science, Diabetes &Endocrinology Unit, Lund University, Malmo 221 00, Sweden. ; 1] PathWest Laboratory Medicine of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. [2] Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. [3] School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; 1] Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Belfer 1306, New York 10461, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Center for Human Genetics, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA. ; 1] Vth Department of Medicine (Nephrology, Hypertensiology, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Rheumatology), Medical Faculty of Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, D-68187 Mannheim, Germany. [2] Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Graz 8036, Austria. [3] Synlab Academy, Synlab Services GmbH, 68163 Mannheim, Germany. ; 1] Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA. [2] Department of Clinical Medicine, Copenhagen University, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; 1] Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Center for Medical Sytems Biology, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. [3] Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [2] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [3] Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; 1] Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada. [2] Department of Kinesiology, Laval University, Quebec QC G1V 0A6, Canada. ; Population, Policy, and Practice, University College London Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK. ; 1] Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, 70100 Kuopio, Finland. [2] Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland. ; 1] Finnish Diabetes Association, Kirjoniementie 15, FI-33680 Tampere, Finland. [2] Pirkanmaa Hospital District, FI-33521 Tampere, Finland. ; 1] Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK. [2] Center for Non-Communicable Diseases, Karatchi, Pakistan. [3] Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK. ; Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10580, USA. ; 1] deCODE Genetics, Amgen Inc., Reykjavik 101, Iceland. [2] Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; 1] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Institute for Health Research, University Hospital of La Paz (IdiPaz), 28046 Madrid, Spain. [3] Diabetes Research Group, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. [4] Centre for Vascular Prevention, Danube-University Krems, 3500 Krems, Austria. ; 1] Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Finland. [2] Research Unit, Kuopio University Hospital, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland. ; 1] Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands. [3] Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, Interuniversity Cardiology Institute Netherlands (ICIN), 3501 DG Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle NE1 7RU, UK. ; 1] DZHK (Deutsches Zentrum fur Herz-Kreislaufforschung - German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. [2] Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; 1] Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, D-85764 Munich, Germany. [2] Klinikum Grosshadern, D-81377 Munich, Germany. [3] Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; Department of Pulmonology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. [2] William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. [3] Princess Al-Jawhara Al-Brahim Centre of Excellence in Research of Hereditary Disorders (PACER-HD), King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. ; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany. [2] Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; 1] Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. [2] Program for Personalized and Genomic Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; Division of Population Health Sciences &Education, St George's, University of London, London SW17 0RE, UK. ; 1] Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [3] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [4] Center for Medical Sytems Biology, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. [3] Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. ; 1] Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (IMIBE), University Hospital Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany. [2] Clinical Epidemiology, Integrated Research and Treatment Center, Center for Sepsis Control and Care (CSCC), Jena University Hospital, 07743 Jena, Germany. ; 1] Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. [2] Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. [3] Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; 1] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; 1] Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland. [2] Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1005, Switzerland. [3] Service of Medical Genetics, CHUV University Hospital, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. [2] University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 OQQ, UK. [3] NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 OQQ, UK. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; 1] MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. [2] The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA. [3] The Genetics of Obesity and Related Metabolic Traits Program, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA. [4] The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25673413" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipogenesis/genetics ; Adiposity/genetics ; Age Factors ; *Body Mass Index ; Continental Population Groups/genetics ; Energy Metabolism/genetics ; Europe/ethnology ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; *Genome-Wide Association Study ; Glutamic Acid/metabolism ; Humans ; Insulin/metabolism/secretion ; Male ; Obesity/*genetics/*metabolism ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics ; Synapses/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-09-18
    Description: There is evidence across several species for genetic control of phenotypic variation of complex traits, such that the variance among phenotypes is genotype dependent. Understanding genetic control of variability is important in evolutionary biology, agricultural selection programmes and human medicine, yet for complex traits, no individual genetic variants associated with variance, as opposed to the mean, have been identified. Here we perform a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of phenotypic variation using approximately 170,000 samples on height and body mass index (BMI) in human populations. We report evidence that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7202116 at the FTO gene locus, which is known to be associated with obesity (as measured by mean BMI for each rs7202116 genotype), is also associated with phenotypic variability. We show that the results are not due to scale effects or other artefacts, and find no other experiment-wise significant evidence for effects on variability, either at loci other than FTO for BMI or at any locus for height. The difference in variance for BMI among individuals with opposite homozygous genotypes at the FTO locus is approximately 7%, corresponding to a difference of approximately 0.5 kilograms in the standard deviation of weight. Our results indicate that genetic variants can be discovered that are associated with variability, and that between-person variability in obesity can partly be explained by the genotype at the FTO locus. The results are consistent with reported FTO by environment interactions for BMI, possibly mediated by DNA methylation. Our BMI results for other SNPs and our height results for all SNPs suggest that most genetic variants, including those that influence mean height or mean BMI, are not associated with phenotypic variance, or that their effects on variability are too small to detect even with samples sizes greater than 100,000.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3564953/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3564953/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yang, Jian -- Loos, Ruth J F -- Powell, Joseph E -- Medland, Sarah E -- Speliotes, Elizabeth K -- Chasman, Daniel I -- Rose, Lynda M -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur -- Magi, Reedik -- Waite, Lindsay -- Smith, Albert Vernon -- Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M -- Monda, Keri L -- Hadley, David -- Mahajan, Anubha -- Li, Guo -- Kapur, Karen -- Vitart, Veronique -- Huffman, Jennifer E -- Wang, Sophie R -- Palmer, Cameron -- Esko, Tonu -- Fischer, Krista -- Zhao, Jing Hua -- Demirkan, Ayse -- Isaacs, Aaron -- Feitosa, Mary F -- Luan, Jian'an -- Heard-Costa, Nancy L -- White, Charles -- Jackson, Anne U -- Preuss, Michael -- Ziegler, Andreas -- Eriksson, Joel -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Frau, Francesca -- Nolte, Ilja M -- Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- Jacobs, Kevin B -- Verweij, Niek -- Goel, Anuj -- Medina-Gomez, Carolina -- Estrada, Karol -- Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer Lynn -- Sanna, Serena -- Sidore, Carlo -- Tyrer, Jonathan -- Teumer, Alexander -- Prokopenko, Inga -- Mangino, Massimo -- Lindgren, Cecilia M -- Assimes, Themistocles L -- Shuldiner, Alan R -- Hui, Jennie -- Beilby, John P -- McArdle, Wendy L -- Hall, Per -- Haritunians, Talin -- Zgaga, Lina -- Kolcic, Ivana -- Polasek, Ozren -- Zemunik, Tatijana -- Oostra, Ben A -- Junttila, M Juhani -- Gronberg, Henrik -- Schreiber, Stefan -- Peters, Annette -- Hicks, Andrew A -- Stephens, Jonathan -- Foad, Nicola S -- Laitinen, Jaana -- Pouta, Anneli -- Kaakinen, Marika -- Willemsen, Gonneke -- Vink, Jacqueline M -- Wild, Sarah H -- Navis, Gerjan -- Asselbergs, Folkert W -- Homuth, Georg -- John, Ulrich -- Iribarren, Carlos -- Harris, Tamara -- Launer, Lenore -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- O'Connell, Jeffrey R -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Cadby, Gemma -- Palmer, Lyle J -- James, Alan L -- Musk, Arthur W -- Ingelsson, Erik -- Psaty, Bruce M -- Beckmann, Jacques S -- Waeber, Gerard -- Vollenweider, Peter -- Hayward, Caroline -- Wright, Alan F -- Rudan, Igor -- Groop, Leif C -- Metspalu, Andres -- Khaw, Kay Tee -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Borecki, Ingrid B -- Province, Michael A -- Wareham, Nicholas J -- Tardif, Jean-Claude -- Huikuri, Heikki V -- Cupples, L Adrienne -- Atwood, Larry D -- Fox, Caroline S -- Boehnke, Michael -- Collins, Francis S -- Mohlke, Karen L -- Erdmann, Jeanette -- Schunkert, Heribert -- Hengstenberg, Christian -- Stark, Klaus -- Lorentzon, Mattias -- Ohlsson, Claes -- Cusi, Daniele -- Staessen, Jan A -- Van der Klauw, Melanie M -- Pramstaller, Peter P -- Kathiresan, Sekar -- Jolley, Jennifer D -- Ripatti, Samuli -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- de Geus, Eco J C -- Boomsma, Dorret I -- Penninx, Brenda -- Wilson, James F -- Campbell, Harry -- Chanock, Stephen J -- van der Harst, Pim -- Hamsten, Anders -- Watkins, Hugh -- Hofman, Albert -- Witteman, Jacqueline C -- Zillikens, M Carola -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Rivadeneira, Fernando -- Kiemeney, Lambertus A -- Vermeulen, Sita H -- Abecasis, Goncalo R -- Schlessinger, David -- Schipf, Sabine -- Stumvoll, Michael -- Tonjes, Anke -- Spector, Tim D -- North, Kari E -- Lettre, Guillaume -- McCarthy, Mark I -- Berndt, Sonja I -- Heath, Andrew C -- Madden, Pamela A F -- Nyholt, Dale R -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Martin, Nicholas G -- McKnight, Barbara -- Strachan, David P -- Hill, William G -- Snieder, Harold -- Ridker, Paul M -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Stefansson, Kari -- Frayling, Timothy M -- Hirschhorn, Joel N -- Goddard, Michael E -- Visscher, Peter M -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 14136/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- AA014041/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA07535/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA10248/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA13320/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA13321/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA13326/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- CZB/4/710/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- DA12854/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- F32 AR059469/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- F32 DK079466/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- G0601261/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1000143/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- GM057091/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100005C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100006C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100007C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100008C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100009C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100010C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100011C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100012C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K05 AA017688/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- K23 DK080145/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- MC_PC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106179471/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- N01 AG012100/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC015103/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC025195/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC035129/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC045133/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC055222/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC075150/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC085079/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HG065403/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- N01HC85086/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N02 HL64278/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK063491/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK072488/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 AA007535/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AA013320/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AA013321/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AA013326/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AA014041/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG015928/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG020098/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG023629/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG027058/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA012854/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK062370/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK072193/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK073490/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK075681/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK075787/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002651/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL043851/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL059367/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL075366/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL080295/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL086694/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087641/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087647/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087652/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087676/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087679/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL105756/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 LM010098/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH063706/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- RL1 MH083268/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062418/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004402/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL054527/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL069757/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL072515/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL084729/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL084756/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U54 RR020278/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR033176/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Z01 HG000024-14/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 11;490(7419):267-72. doi: 10.1038/nature11401. Epub 2012 Sep 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4102, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22982992" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Body Height/genetics ; *Body Mass Index ; Co-Repressor Proteins ; Female ; *Genetic Variation ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Male ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics ; *Phenotype ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Proteins/*genetics ; Repressor Proteins/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okbay, Aysu -- Beauchamp, Jonathan P -- Fontana, Mark Alan -- Lee, James J -- Pers, Tune H -- Rietveld, Cornelius A -- Turley, Patrick -- Chen, Guo-Bo -- Emilsson, Valur -- Meddens, S Fleur W -- Oskarsson, Sven -- Pickrell, Joseph K -- Thom, Kevin -- Timshel, Pascal -- de Vlaming, Ronald -- Abdellaoui, Abdel -- Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S -- Bacelis, Jonas -- Baumbach, Clemens -- Bjornsdottir, Gyda -- Brandsma, Johannes H -- Pina Concas, Maria -- Derringer, Jaime -- Furlotte, Nicholas A -- Galesloot, Tessel E -- Girotto, Giorgia -- Gupta, Richa -- Hall, Leanne M -- Harris, Sarah E -- Hofer, Edith -- Horikoshi, Momoko -- Huffman, Jennifer E -- Kaasik, Kadri -- Kalafati, Ioanna P -- Karlsson, Robert -- Kong, Augustine -- Lahti, Jari -- van der Lee, Sven J -- deLeeuw, Christiaan -- Lind, Penelope A -- Lindgren, Karl-Oskar -- Liu, Tian -- Mangino, Massimo -- Marten, Jonathan -- Mihailov, Evelin -- Miller, Michael B -- van der Most, Peter J -- Oldmeadow, Christopher -- Payton, Antony -- Pervjakova, Natalia -- Peyrot, Wouter J -- Qian, Yong -- Raitakari, Olli -- Rueedi, Rico -- Salvi, Erika -- Schmidt, Borge -- Schraut, Katharina E -- Shi, Jianxin -- Smith, Albert V -- Poot, Raymond A -- St Pourcain, Beate -- Teumer, Alexander -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Verweij, Niek -- Vuckovic, Dragana -- Wellmann, Juergen -- Westra, Harm-Jan -- Yang, Jingyun -- Zhao, Wei -- Zhu, Zhihong -- Alizadeh, Behrooz Z -- Amin, Najaf -- Bakshi, Andrew -- Baumeister, Sebastian E -- Biino, Ginevra -- Bonnelykke, Klaus -- Boyle, Patricia A -- Campbell, Harry -- Cappuccio, Francesco P -- Davies, Gail -- De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel -- Deloukas, Panos -- Demuth, Ilja -- Ding, Jun -- Eibich, Peter -- Eisele, Lewin -- Eklund, Niina -- Evans, David M -- Faul, Jessica D -- Feitosa, Mary F -- Forstner, Andreas J -- Gandin, Ilaria -- Gunnarsson, Bjarni -- Halldorsson, Bjarni V -- Harris, Tamara B -- Heath, Andrew C -- Hocking, Lynne J -- Holliday, Elizabeth G -- Homuth, Georg -- Horan, Michael A -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- de Jager, Philip L -- Joshi, Peter K -- Jugessur, Astanand -- Kaakinen, Marika A -- Kahonen, Mika -- Kanoni, Stavroula -- Keltigangas-Jarvinen, Liisa -- Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M -- Kolcic, Ivana -- Koskinen, Seppo -- Kraja, Aldi T -- Kroh, Martin -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Latvala, Antti -- Launer, Lenore J -- Lebreton, Mael P -- Levinson, Douglas F -- Lichtenstein, Paul -- Lichtner, Peter -- Liewald, David C M -- LifeLines Cohort Study -- Loukola, Anu -- Madden, Pamela A -- Magi, Reedik -- Maki-Opas, Tomi -- Marioni, Riccardo E -- Marques-Vidal, Pedro -- Meddens, Gerardus A -- McMahon, George -- Meisinger, Christa -- Meitinger, Thomas -- Milaneschi, Yusplitri -- Milani, Lili -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Myhre, Ronny -- Nelson, Christopher P -- Nyholt, Dale R -- Ollier, William E R -- Palotie, Aarno -- Paternoster, Lavinia -- Pedersen, Nancy L -- Petrovic, Katja E -- Porteous, David J -- Raikkonen, Katri -- Ring, Susan M -- Robino, Antonietta -- Rostapshova, Olga -- Rudan, Igor -- Rustichini, Aldo -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Sanders, Alan R -- Sarin, Antti-Pekka -- Schmidt, Helena -- Scott, Rodney J -- Smith, Blair H -- Smith, Jennifer A -- Staessen, Jan A -- Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth -- Strauch, Konstantin -- Terracciano, Antonio -- Tobin, Martin D -- Ulivi, Sheila -- Vaccargiu, Simona -- Quaye, Lydia -- van Rooij, Frank J A -- Venturini, Cristina -- Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E -- Volker, Uwe -- Volzke, Henry -- Vonk, Judith M -- Vozzi, Diego -- Waage, Johannes -- Ware, Erin B -- Willemsen, Gonneke -- Attia, John R -- Bennett, David A -- Berger, Klaus -- Bertram, Lars -- Bisgaard, Hans -- Boomsma, Dorret I -- Borecki, Ingrid B -- Bultmann, Ute -- Chabris, Christopher F -- Cucca, Francesco -- Cusi, Daniele -- Deary, Ian J -- Dedoussis, George V -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Eriksson, Johan G -- Franke, Barbara -- Franke, Lude -- Gasparini, Paolo -- Gejman, Pablo V -- Gieger, Christian -- Grabe, Hans-Jorgen -- Gratten, Jacob -- Groenen, Patrick J F -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- van der Harst, Pim -- Hayward, Caroline -- Hinds, David A -- Hoffmann, Wolfgang -- Hypponen, Elina -- Iacono, William G -- Jacobsson, Bo -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Jockel, Karl-Heinz -- Kaprio, Jaakko -- Kardia, Sharon L R -- Lehtimaki, Terho -- Lehrer, Steven F -- Magnusson, Patrik K E -- Martin, Nicholas G -- McGue, Matt -- Metspalu, Andres -- Pendleton, Neil -- Penninx, Brenda W J H -- Perola, Markus -- Pirastu, Nicola -- Pirastu, Mario -- Polasek, Ozren -- Posthuma, Danielle -- Power, Christine -- Province, Michael A -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Schlessinger, David -- Schmidt, Reinhold -- Sorensen, Thorkild I A -- Spector, Tim D -- Stefansson, Kari -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Thurik, A Roy -- Timpson, Nicholas J -- Tiemeier, Henning -- Tung, Joyce Y -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Vitart, Veronique -- Vollenweider, Peter -- Weir, David R -- Wilson, James F -- Wright, Alan F -- Conley, Dalton C -- Krueger, Robert F -- Davey Smith, George -- Hofman, Albert -- Laibson, David I -- Medland, Sarah E -- Meyer, Michelle N -- Yang, Jian -- Johannesson, Magnus -- Visscher, Peter M -- Esko, Tonu -- Koellinger, Philipp D -- Cesarini, David -- Benjamin, Daniel J -- P01-AG005842/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01-AG005842-20S2/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P30-AG012810/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG042568/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- T32-AG000186-23/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7604):539-42. doi: 10.1038/nature17671.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Applied Economics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 3062 PA, The Netherlands. ; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, 3015 GE, The Netherlands. ; Erasmus University Rotterdam Institute for Behavior and Biology, Rotterdam, 3062 PA, The Netherlands. ; Department of Economics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-3332, USA. ; Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; Division of Endocrinology and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 2116, USA. ; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Section of Metabolic Genetics, University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark. ; Statens Serum Institut, Department of Epidemiology Research, Copenhagen 2300, Denmark. ; Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia. ; Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur 201, Iceland. ; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik 107, Iceland. ; Department of Complex Trait Genetics, VU University, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Amsterdam, 1081 HV, The Netherlands. ; Amsterdam Business School, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1018 TV, The Netherlands. ; Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 20, Sweden. ; New York Genome Center, New York, New York 10013, USA. ; Department of Economics, New York University, New York, New York 10012, USA. ; Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark Lyngby 2800, Denmark. ; Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1081 BT, The Netherlands. ; COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2820, Denmark. ; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte 2820, Denmark. ; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg 416 85, Sweden. ; Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. ; Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. ; deCODE Genetics/Amgen Inc., Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; Department of Cell Biology, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, 3015 CN, The Netherlands. ; Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica U.O.S. di Sassari, National Research Council of Italy, Sassari 07100, Italy. ; Psychology, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois 61820, USA. ; 23andMe, Inc., Mountain View, California 94041, USA. ; Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 6500 HB, The Netherlands. ; Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste 34100, Italy. ; Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. ; NIHR Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. ; Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; Department of Neurology, General Hospital and Medical University Graz, Graz 8036, Austria. ; Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, General Hospital and Medical University Graz, Graz 8036, Austria. ; Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology &Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LE, UK. ; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; Nutrition and Dietetics, Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens 17671, Greece. ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden. ; Folkhalsan Research Centre, 00014 Helsingfors, Finland. ; Institute for Computing and Information Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, 6525 EC, The Netherlands. ; Quantitative Genetics, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia. ; Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin 14195, Germany. ; Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Guy's and St. Thomas' Foundation Trust, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. ; Public Health Stream, Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton, NSW 2305, Australia. ; Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2300, Australia. ; Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK. ; Human Communication and Deafness, School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. ; Department of Health, THL-National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271 Helsinki, Finland. ; Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center &GGZ inGeest, Amsterdam, 1081 HL, The Netherlands. ; Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA. ; Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, 20521 Turku, Finland. ; Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1005, Switzerland. ; Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland. ; Department Of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milano 20142, Italy. ; Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital of Essen, Essen 45147, Germany. ; Centre for Global Health Research, The Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. ; Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-9780, USA. ; Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. ; School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS1 2LY, UK. ; Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Munster, Munster 48149, Germany. ; Divisions of Genetics and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Partners Center for Personalized Genetic Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA. ; Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, 9713 GZ, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, Regensburg D-93053, Germany. ; Institute of Molecular Genetics, National Research Council of Italy, Pavia 27100, Italy. ; Department of Behavioral Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA. ; Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK. ; Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK. ; Said Business School, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 1HP, UK. ; William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; Princess Al-Jawhara Al-Brahim Centre of Excellence in Research of Hereditary Disorders (PACER-HD), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. ; The Berlin Aging Study II; Research Group on Geriatrics, Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany, Berlin 13347, Germany. ; Institute of Medical and Human Genetics, Charite-Universitatsmedizin, Berlin, Berlin 13353, Germany. ; German Socio- Economic Panel Study, DIW Berlin, Berlin 10117, Germany. ; Health Economics Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. ; The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD 4102, Australia. ; Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Division of Statistical Genomics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63018, USA. ; Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn 53127, Germany. ; Department of Genomics, Life and Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn 53127, Germany. ; Institute of Biomedical and Neural Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-9205, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Division of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK. ; Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; Manchester Medical School, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK. ; Program in Translational NeuroPsychiatric Genomics, Departments of Neurology &Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Genes and Environment, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo, Norway. ; Department of Genomics of Common Disease, Imperial College London, London, W12 0NN, UK. ; Department of Clinical Physiology, Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere, Finland. ; Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere, School of Medicine, 33014 Tampere, Finland. ; Public Health, Medical School, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia. ; Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne 1010, Switzerland. ; Neuroepidemiology Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-9205, USA. ; Amsterdam Brain and Cognition Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1018 XA, The Netherlands. ; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5797, USA. ; Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. ; Medical Genetics Section, Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne 1011, Switzerland. ; Tema BV, Hoofddorp, 2131 HE, The Netherlands. ; Molecular Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia. ; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland Institute of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059, Australia. ; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; The Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Psychiatric &Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland. ; Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Medical Genetics, Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste 34100, Italy. ; Social Impact, Arlington, Virginia 22201, USA. ; Department of Economics, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois 60201-3137, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Public Health Genomics Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00300 Helsinki, Finland. ; Research Unit for Genetic Epidemiology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Center of Molecular Medicine, General Hospital and Medical University, Graz, Graz 8010, Austria. ; Information Based Medicine Stream, Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton, NSW 2305, Australia. ; Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK. ; Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Cardiovascular Science, University of Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium. ; R&D VitaK Group, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 6229 EV, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. ; Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, Ludwig Maximilians-Universitat, Munich 81377, Germany. ; Department of Geriatrics, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, USA. ; Department of Health Sciences and Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, 3015 GE, The Netherlands. ; Research Center for Group Dynamics, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, USA. ; Platform for Genome Analytics, Institutes of Neurogenetics &Integrative and Experimental Genomics, University of Lubeck, Lubeck 23562, Germany. ; Neuroepidemiology and Ageing Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 2AZ, UK. ; Department of Health Sciences, Community &Occupational Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, 9713 AV, The Netherlands. ; Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, New York 12308, USA. ; Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica (IRGB), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, c/o Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, Monserrato, Cagliari 9042, Italy. ; Institute of Biomedical Technologies, Italian National Research Council, Segrate (Milano) 20090, Italy. ; Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; Departments of Human Genetics and Psychiatry, Donders Centre for Neuroscience, Nijmegen, 6500 HB, The Netherlands. ; Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. ; Sidra, Experimental Genetics Division, Sidra, Doha 26999, Qatar. ; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17475, Germany. ; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, HELIOS-Hospital Stralsund, Stralsund 18437, Germany. ; Econometric Institute, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 3062 PA, The Netherlands. ; Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, ICIN-Netherlands Heart Institute, Utrecht, 1105 AZ, The Netherlands. ; Generation Scotland, Centre for Genomics and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; Centre for Population Health Research, School of Health Sciences and Sansom Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia. ; South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia. ; Population, Policy and Practice, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK. ; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment &Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. ; Center for Life Course Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland. ; Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, 90029 Oulu, Finland. ; Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland. ; Fimlab Laboratories, 33520 Tampere, Finland. ; Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Tampere, School of Medicine, 33014 Tampere, Finland. ; Economics, NYU Shanghai, 200122 Pudong, China. ; Policy Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. ; Genetic Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia. ; Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; Centre for Clinical and Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute Brain Behaviour and Mental Health, Salford Royal Hospital, Manchester M6 8HD, UK. ; Manchester Institute for Collaborative Research in Ageing, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. ; Faculty of Medicine, University of Split, Split 21000, Croatia. ; Department of Clinical Genetics, VU Medical Centre, Amsterdam, 1081 HV, The Netherlands. ; Institute of Preventive Medicine. Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals, The Capital Region, Frederiksberg 2000, Denmark. ; Montpellier Business School, Montpellier 34080, France. ; Panteia, Zoetermeer, 2715 CA, The Netherlands. ; Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, 3015 GE, The Netherlands. ; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, 3015 GE, The Netherlands. ; Department of Sociology, New York University, New York, New York 10012, USA. ; School of Medicine, New York University, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Bioethics Program, Union Graduate College - Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Schenectady, New York 12308, USA. ; Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm 113 83, Sweden. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Research Institute for Industrial Economics, Stockholm 10215, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225129" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-06-01
    Description: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) approximately 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for approximately 2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3751588/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3751588/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rietveld, Cornelius A -- Medland, Sarah E -- Derringer, Jaime -- Yang, Jian -- Esko, Tonu -- Martin, Nicolas W -- Westra, Harm-Jan -- Shakhbazov, Konstantin -- Abdellaoui, Abdel -- Agrawal, Arpana -- Albrecht, Eva -- Alizadeh, Behrooz Z -- Amin, Najaf -- Barnard, John -- Baumeister, Sebastian E -- Benke, Kelly S -- Bielak, Lawrence F -- Boatman, Jeffrey A -- Boyle, Patricia A -- Davies, Gail -- de Leeuw, Christiaan -- Eklund, Niina -- Evans, Daniel S -- Ferhmann, Rudolf -- Fischer, Krista -- Gieger, Christian -- Gjessing, Hakon K -- Hagg, Sara -- Harris, Jennifer R -- Hayward, Caroline -- Holzapfel, Christina -- Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A -- Ingelsson, Erik -- Jacobsson, Bo -- Joshi, Peter K -- Jugessur, Astanand -- Kaakinen, Marika -- Kanoni, Stavroula -- Karjalainen, Juha -- Kolcic, Ivana -- Kristiansson, Kati -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Lahti, Jari -- Lee, Sang H -- Lin, Peng -- Lind, Penelope A -- Liu, Yongmei -- Lohman, Kurt -- Loitfelder, Marisa -- McMahon, George -- Vidal, Pedro Marques -- Meirelles, Osorio -- Milani, Lili -- Myhre, Ronny -- Nuotio, Marja-Liisa -- Oldmeadow, Christopher J -- Petrovic, Katja E -- Peyrot, Wouter J -- Polasek, Ozren -- Quaye, Lydia -- Reinmaa, Eva -- Rice, John P -- Rizzi, Thais S -- Schmidt, Helena -- Schmidt, Reinhold -- Smith, Albert V -- Smith, Jennifer A -- Tanaka, Toshiko -- Terracciano, Antonio -- van der Loos, Matthijs J H M -- Vitart, Veronique -- Volzke, Henry -- Wellmann, Jurgen -- Yu, Lei -- Zhao, Wei -- Allik, Juri -- Attia, John R -- Bandinelli, Stefania -- Bastardot, Francois -- Beauchamp, Jonathan -- Bennett, David A -- Berger, Klaus -- Bierut, Laura J -- Boomsma, Dorret I -- Bultmann, Ute -- Campbell, Harry -- Chabris, Christopher F -- Cherkas, Lynn -- Chung, Mina K -- Cucca, Francesco -- de Andrade, Mariza -- De Jager, Philip L -- De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel -- Deary, Ian J -- Dedoussis, George V -- Deloukas, Panos -- Dimitriou, Maria -- Eiriksdottir, Guethny -- Elderson, Martin F -- Eriksson, Johan G -- Evans, David M -- Faul, Jessica D -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Garcia, Melissa E -- Gronberg, Henrik -- Guethnason, Vilmundur -- Hall, Per -- Harris, Juliette M -- Harris, Tamara B -- Hastie, Nicholas D -- Heath, Andrew C -- Hernandez, Dena G -- Hoffmann, Wolfgang -- Hofman, Adriaan -- Holle, Rolf -- Holliday, Elizabeth G -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- Iacono, William G -- Illig, Thomas -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Kahonen, Mika -- Kaprio, Jaakko -- Kirkpatrick, Robert M -- Kowgier, Matthew -- Latvala, Antti -- Launer, Lenore J -- Lawlor, Debbie A -- Lehtimaki, Terho -- Li, Jingmei -- Lichtenstein, Paul -- Lichtner, Peter -- Liewald, David C -- Madden, Pamela A -- Magnusson, Patrik K E -- Makinen, Tomi E -- Masala, Marco -- McGue, Matt -- Metspalu, Andres -- Mielck, Andreas -- Miller, Michael B -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Mukherjee, Sutapa -- Nyholt, Dale R -- Oostra, Ben A -- Palmer, Lyle J -- Palotie, Aarno -- Penninx, Brenda W J H -- Perola, Markus -- Peyser, Patricia A -- Preisig, Martin -- Raikkonen, Katri -- Raitakari, Olli T -- Realo, Anu -- Ring, Susan M -- Ripatti, Samuli -- Rivadeneira, Fernando -- Rudan, Igor -- Rustichini, Aldo -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Sarin, Antti-Pekka -- Schlessinger, David -- Scott, Rodney J -- Snieder, Harold -- St Pourcain, Beate -- Starr, John M -- Sul, Jae Hoon -- Surakka, Ida -- Svento, Rauli -- Teumer, Alexander -- LifeLines Cohort Study -- Tiemeier, Henning -- van Rooij, Frank J A -- Van Wagoner, David R -- Vartiainen, Erkki -- Viikari, Jorma -- Vollenweider, Peter -- Vonk, Judith M -- Waeber, Gerard -- Weir, David R -- Wichmann, H-Erich -- Widen, Elisabeth -- Willemsen, Gonneke -- Wilson, James F -- Wright, Alan F -- Conley, Dalton -- Davey-Smith, George -- Franke, Lude -- Groenen, Patrick J F -- Hofman, Albert -- Johannesson, Magnus -- Kardia, Sharon L R -- Krueger, Robert F -- Laibson, David -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Meyer, Michelle N -- Posthuma, Danielle -- Thurik, A Roy -- Timpson, Nicholas J -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Visscher, Peter M -- Benjamin, Daniel J -- Cesarini, David -- Koellinger, Philipp D -- AA09367/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA11886/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- BB/F019394/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/710/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- DA024417/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DA029377/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DA05147/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DA13240/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- ETM/55/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- F31 DA029377/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- G0600705/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700704/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9815508/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K05 AA017688/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- MC_PC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12013/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12013/3/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12013/5/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MH016880/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH066140/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MR/K026992/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P01 AG005842/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA089392/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 GM099568/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01-AG005842/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01-AG005842-20S2/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P30 AG012810/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P30-AG012810/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AA009367/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AA011886/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA013240/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL090620/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL105756/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL111314/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH066140/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R37 DA005147/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- T32 AG000186/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- T32 MH016880/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- T32-AG000186-23/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 AG009740/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 DA024417/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- Z01 AG001050-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AG000196-03/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AG000196-04/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jun 21;340(6139):1467-71. doi: 10.1126/science.1235488. Epub 2013 May 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Applied Economics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23722424" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cognition ; *Educational Status ; Endophenotypes ; Female ; Genetic Loci ; *Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Male ; Multifactorial Inheritance ; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
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    Unknown
    The Brainstorm Consortium, Anttila, V., Bulik-Sullivan, B., Finucane, H. K., Walters, R. K., Bras, J., Duncan, L., Escott-Price, V., Falcone, G. J., Gormley, P., Malik, R., Patsopoulos, N. A., Ripke, S., Wei, Z., Yu, D., Lee, P. H., Turley, P., Grenier-Boley, B., Chouraki, V., Kamatani, Y., Berr, C., Letenneur, L., Hannequin, D., Amouyel, P., Boland, A., Deleuze, J.-F., Duron, E., Vardarajan, B. N., Reitz, C., Goate, A. M., Huentelman, M. J., Kamboh, M. I., Larson, E. B., Rogaeva, E., St George-Hyslop, P., Hakonarson, H., Kukull, W. A., Farrer, L. A., Barnes, L. L., Beach, T. G., Demirci, F. Y., Head, E., Hulette, C. M., Jicha, G. A., Kauwe, J. S. K., Kaye, J. A., Leverenz, J. B., Levey, A. I., Lieberman, A. P., Pankratz, V. S., Poon, W. W., Quinn, J. F., Saykin, A. J., Schneider, L. S., Smith, A. G., Sonnen, J. A., Stern, R. A., Van Deerlin, V. M., Van Eldik, L. J., Harold, D., Russo, G., Rubinsztein, D. C., Bayer, A., Tsolaki, M., Proitsi, P., Fox, N. C., Hampel, H., Owen, M. J., Mead, S., Passmore, P., Morgan, K., Nöthen, M. M., Rossor, M., Lupton, M. K., Hoffmann, P., Kornhuber, J., Lawlor, B., McQuillin, A., Al-Chalabi, A., Bis, J. C., Ruiz, A., Boada, M., Seshadri, S., Beiser, A., Rice, K., van der Lee, S. J., De Jager, P. L., Geschwind, D. H., Riemenschneider, M., Riedel-Heller, S., Rotter, J. I., Ransmayr, G., Hyman, B. T., Cruchaga, C., Alegret, M., Winsvold, B., Palta, P., Farh, K.-H., Cuenca-Leon, E., Furlotte, N., Kurth, T., Ligthart, L., Terwindt, G. M., Freilinger, T., Ran, C., Gordon, S. D., Borck, G., Adams, H. H. H., Lehtimäki, T., Wedenoja, J., Buring, J. E., Schürks, M., Hrafnsdottir, M., Hottenga, J.-J., Penninx, B., Artto, V., Kaunisto, M., Vepsäläinen, S., Martin, N. G., Montgomery, G. W., Kurki, M. I., Hämäläinen, E., Huang, H., Huang, J., Sandor, C., Webber, C., Muller-Myhsok, B., Schreiber, S., Salomaa, V., Loehrer, E., Göbel, H., Macaya, A., Pozo-Rosich, P., Hansen, T., Werge, T., Kaprio, J., Metspalu, A., Kubisch, C., Ferrari, M. D., Belin, A. C., van den Maagdenberg, A. M. J. M., Zwart, J.-A., Boomsma, D., Eriksson, N., Olesen, J., Chasman, D. I., Nyholt, D. R., Avbersek, A., Baum, L., Berkovic, S., Bradfield, J., Buono, R., Catarino, C. B., Cossette, P., De Jonghe, P., Depondt, C., Dlugos, D., Ferraro, T. N., French, J., Hjalgrim, H., Jamnadas-Khoda, J., Kälviäinen, R., Kunz, W. S., Lerche, H., Leu, C., Lindhout, D., Lo, W., Lowenstein, D., McCormack, M., Moller, R. S., Molloy, A., Ng, P.-W., Oliver, K., Privitera, M., Radtke, R., Ruppert, A.-K., Sander, T., Schachter, S., Schankin, C., Scheffer, I., Schoch, S., Sisodiya, S. M., Smith, P., Sperling, M., Striano, P., Surges, R., Thomas, G. N., Visscher, F., Whelan, C. D., Zara, F., Heinzen, E. L., Marson, A., Becker, F., Stroink, H., Zimprich, F., Gasser, T., Gibbs, R., Heutink, P., Martinez, M., Morris, H. R., Sharma, M., Ryten, M., Mok, K. Y., Pulit, S., Bevan, S., Holliday, E., Attia, J., Battey, T., Boncoraglio, G., Thijs, V., Chen, W.-M., Mitchell, B., Rothwell, P., Sharma, P., Sudlow, C., Vicente, A., Markus, H., Kourkoulis, C., Pera, J., Raffeld, M., Silliman, S., Boraska Perica, V., Thornton, L. M., Huckins, L. M., William Rayner, N., Lewis, C. M., Gratacos, M., Rybakowski, F., Keski-Rahkonen, A., Raevuori, A., Hudson, J. I., Reichborn-Kjennerud, T., Monteleone, P., Karwautz, A., Mannik, K., Baker, J. H., OToole, J. K., Trace, S. E., Davis, O. S. P., Helder, S. G., Ehrlich, S., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., Danner, U. N., van Elburg, A. A., Clementi, M., Forzan, M., Docampo, E., Lissowska, J., Hauser, J., Tortorella, A., Maj, M., Gonidakis, F., Tziouvas, K., Papezova, H., Yilmaz, Z., Wagner, G., Cohen-Woods, S., Herms, S., Julia, A., Rabionet, R., Dick, D. M., Ripatti, S., Andreassen, O. A., Espeseth, T., Lundervold, A. J., Steen, V. M., Pinto, D., Scherer, S. 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M., Hickie, I., Pergadia, M., Mehta, D., Smit, J. H., Jansen, R., de Geus, E., Dunn, E., Li, Q. S., Nauck, M., Schoevers, R. A., Beekman, A. T., Knowles, J. A., Viktorin, A., Arnold, P., Barr, C. L., Bedoya-Berrio, G., Bienvenu, O. J., Brentani, H., Burton, C., Camarena, B., Cappi, C., Cath, D., Cavallini, M., Cusi, D., Darrow, S., Denys, D., Derks, E. M., Dietrich, A., Fernandez, T., Figee, M., Freimer, N., Gerber, G., Grados, M., Greenberg, E., Hanna, G. L., Hartmann, A., Hirschtritt, M. E., Hoekstra, P. J., Huang, A., Huyser, C., Illmann, C., Jenike, M., Kuperman, S., Leventhal, B., Lochner, C., Lyon, G. J., Macciardi, F., Madruga-Garrido, M., Malaty, I. A., Maras, A., McGrath, L., Miguel, E. C., Mir, P., Nestadt, G., Nicolini, H., Okun, M. S., Pakstis, A., Paschou, P., Piacentini, J., Pittenger, C., Plessen, K., Ramensky, V., Ramos, E. M., Reus, V., Richter, M. A., Riddle, M. A., Robertson, M. M., Roessner, V., Rosario, M., Samuels, J. F., Sandor, P., Stein, D. J., Tsetsos, F., Van Nieuwerburgh, F., Weatherall, S., Wendland, J. R., Wolanczyk, T., Worbe, Y., Zai, G., Goes, F. S., McLaughlin, N., Nestadt, P. S., Grabe, H.-J., Depienne, C., Konkashbaev, A., Lanzagorta, N., Valencia-Duarte, A., Bramon, E., Buccola, N., Cahn, W., Cairns, M., Chong, S. A., Cohen, D., Crespo-Facorro, B., Crowley, J., Davidson, M., De; Lisi, L., Dinan, T., Donohoe, G., Drapeau, E., Duan, J., Haan, L., Hougaard, D., Karachanak-Yankova, S., Khrunin, A., Klovins, J., Kucinskas, V., Lee Chee Keong, J., Limborska, S., Loughland, C., Lönnqvist, J., Maher, B., Mattheisen, M., McDonald, C., Murphy, K. C., Nenadic, I., van Os, J., Pantelis, C., Pato, M., Petryshen, T., Quested, D., Roussos, P., Sanders, A. R., Schall, U., Schwab, S. G., Sim, K., So, H.-C., Stögmann, E., Subramaniam, M., Toncheva, D., Waddington, J., Walters, J., Weiser, M., Cheng, W., Cloninger, R., Curtis, D., Gejman, P. V., Henskens, F., Mattingsdal, M., Oh, S.-Y., Scott, R., Webb, B., Breen, G., Churchhouse, C., Bulik, C. M., Daly, M., Dichgans, M., Faraone, S. V., Guerreiro, R., Holmans, P., Kendler, K. S., Koeleman, B., Mathews, C. A., Price, A., Scharf, J., Sklar, P., Williams, J., Wood, N. W., Cotsapas, C., Palotie, A., Smoller, J. W., Sullivan, P., Rosand, J., Corvin, A., Neale, B. M.
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-06-22
    Description: Disorders of the brain can exhibit considerable epidemiological comorbidity and often share symptoms, provoking debate about their etiologic overlap. We quantified the genetic sharing of 25 brain disorders from genome-wide association studies of 265,218 patients and 784,643 control participants and assessed their relationship to 17 phenotypes from 1,191,588 individuals. Psychiatric disorders share common variant risk, whereas neurological disorders appear more distinct from one another and from the psychiatric disorders. We also identified significant sharing between disorders and a number of brain phenotypes, including cognitive measures. Further, we conducted simulations to explore how statistical power, diagnostic misclassification, and phenotypic heterogeneity affect genetic correlations. These results highlight the importance of common genetic variation as a risk factor for brain disorders and the value of heritability-based methods in understanding their etiology.
    Keywords: Genetics, Medicine, Diseases, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-18
    Description: Purpose The Nineteen and Up study (19Up) assessed a range of mental health and behavioural problems and associated risk factors in a genetically informative Australian cohort of young adult twins and their non-twin siblings. As such, 19Up enables detailed investigation of genetic and environmental pathways to mental illness and substance misuse within the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Sample (BLTS). Participants Twins and their non-twin siblings from Queensland, Australia; mostly from European ancestry. Data were collected between 2009 and 2016 on 2773 participants (age range 18–38, 57.8% female, 372 complete monozygotic pairs, 493 dizygotic pairs, 640 non-twin siblings, 403 singleton twins). Findings to date A structured clinical assessment (Composite International Diagnostic Interview) was used to collect lifetime prevalence of diagnostic statistical manual (4th edition) (DSM-IV) diagnoses of major depressive disorder, (hypo)mania, social anxiety, cannabis use disorder, alcohol use disorder, panic disorder and psychotic symptoms. Here, we further describe the comorbidities and ages of onset for these mental disorders. Notably, two-thirds of the sample reported one or more lifetime mental disorder. In addition, the 19Up study assessed general health, drug use, work activity, education level, personality, migraine/headaches, suicidal thoughts, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology, sleep–wake patterns, romantic preferences, friendships, familial environment, stress, anorexia and bulimia as well as baldness, acne, asthma, endometriosis, joint flexibility and internet use. The overlap with previous waves of the BLTS means that 84% of the 19Up participants are genotyped, 36% imaged using multimodal MRI and most have been assessed for psychological symptoms at up to four time points. Furthermore, IQ is available for 57%, parental report of ADHD symptomatology for 100% and electroencephalography for 30%. Future plans The 19Up study complements a phenotypically rich, longitudinal collection of environmental and psychological risk factors. Future publications will explore hypotheses related to disease onset and development across the waves of the cohort. A follow-up study at 25+years is ongoing.
    Keywords: Open access, Mental health
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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