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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: Many biopolymers, including polysaccharides, must be translocated across at least one membrane to reach their site of biological function. Cellulose is a linear glucose polymer synthesized and secreted by a membrane-integrated cellulose synthase. Here, in crystallo enzymology with the catalytically active bacterial cellulose synthase BcsA-BcsB complex reveals structural snapshots of a complete cellulose biosynthesis cycle, from substrate binding to polymer translocation. Substrate- and product-bound structures of BcsA provide the basis for substrate recognition and demonstrate the stepwise elongation of cellulose. Furthermore, the structural snapshots show that BcsA translocates cellulose via a ratcheting mechanism involving a 'finger helix' that contacts the polymer's terminal glucose. Cooperating with BcsA's gating loop, the finger helix moves 'up' and 'down' in response to substrate binding and polymer elongation, respectively, thereby pushing the elongated polymer into BcsA's transmembrane channel. This mechanism is validated experimentally by tethering BcsA's finger helix, which inhibits polymer translocation but not elongation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4843519/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4843519/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Morgan, Jacob L W -- McNamara, Joshua T -- Fischer, Michael -- Rich, Jamie -- Chen, Hong-Ming -- Withers, Stephen G -- Zimmer, Jochen -- 1R01GM101001/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103403/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM101001/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR029205/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):329-34. doi: 10.1038/nature16966. Epub 2016 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Virginia School of Medicine, Center for Membrane Biology, Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, 480 Ray C. Hunt Drive, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26958837" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cellulose/*biosynthesis/chemistry/*metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Glucose/metabolism ; Glucosyltransferases/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Intracellular Membranes/chemistry/*metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Movement ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Proteolipids/chemistry/metabolism ; Rhodobacter sphaeroides/enzymology ; Substrate Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-02-23
    Description: Influenza antiviral agents play important roles in modulating disease severity and in controlling pandemics while vaccines are prepared, but the development of resistance to agents like the commonly used neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir may limit their future utility. We report here on a new class of specific, mechanism-based anti-influenza drugs that function through the formation of a stabilized covalent intermediate in the influenza neuraminidase enzyme, and we confirm this mode of action with structural and mechanistic studies. These compounds function in cell-based assays and in animal models, with efficacies comparable to that of the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir and with broad-spectrum activity against drug-resistant strains in vitro. The similarity of their structure to that of the natural substrate and their mechanism-based design make these attractive antiviral candidates.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Jin-Hyo -- Resende, Ricardo -- Wennekes, Tom -- Chen, Hong-Ming -- Bance, Nicole -- Buchini, Sabrina -- Watts, Andrew G -- Pilling, Pat -- Streltsov, Victor A -- Petric, Martin -- Liggins, Richard -- Barrett, Susan -- McKimm-Breschkin, Jennifer L -- Niikura, Masahiro -- Withers, Stephen G -- G0600514/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Apr 5;340(6128):71-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1232552. Epub 2013 Feb 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23429702" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antiviral Agents/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Dogs ; Enzyme Inhibitors/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Humans ; Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells ; Neuraminidase/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry ; Orthomyxoviridae/*drug effects/enzymology ; Oseltamivir/chemistry/pharmacology ; Protein Conformation ; Sialic Acids/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; Zanamivir/chemistry/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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