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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-08-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhao, Ling -- Chen, Xiang-Jun -- Zhu, Jie -- Xi, Yi-Bo -- Yang, Xu -- Hu, Li-Dan -- Ouyang, Hong -- Patel, Sherrina H -- Jin, Xin -- Lin, Danni -- Wu, Frances -- Flagg, Ken -- Cai, Huimin -- Li, Gen -- Cao, Guiqun -- Lin, Ying -- Chen, Daniel -- Wen, Cindy -- Chung, Christopher -- Wang, Yandong -- Qiu, Austin -- Yeh, Emily -- Wang, Wenqiu -- Hu, Xun -- Grob, Seanna -- Abagyan, Ruben -- Su, Zhiguang -- Tjondro, Harry Christianto -- Zhao, Xi-Juan -- Luo, Hongrong -- Hou, Rui -- Perry, J Jefferson P -- Gao, Weiwei -- Kozak, Igor -- Granet, David -- Li, Yingrui -- Sun, Xiaodong -- Wang, Jun -- Zhang, Liangfang -- Liu, Yizhi -- Yan, Yong-Bin -- Zhang, Kang -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 22;526(7574):595. doi: 10.1038/nature15253. Epub 2015 Aug 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308894" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-07-23
    Description: The human lens is comprised largely of crystallin proteins assembled into a highly ordered, interactive macro-structure essential for lens transparency and refractive index. Any disruption of intra- or inter-protein interactions will alter this delicate structure, exposing hydrophobic surfaces, with consequent protein aggregation and cataract formation. Cataracts are the most common cause of blindness worldwide, affecting tens of millions of people, and currently the only treatment is surgical removal of cataractous lenses. The precise mechanisms by which lens proteins both prevent aggregation and maintain lens transparency are largely unknown. Lanosterol is an amphipathic molecule enriched in the lens. It is synthesized by lanosterol synthase (LSS) in a key cyclization reaction of a cholesterol synthesis pathway. Here we identify two distinct homozygous LSS missense mutations (W581R and G588S) in two families with extensive congenital cataracts. Both of these mutations affect highly conserved amino acid residues and impair key catalytic functions of LSS. Engineered expression of wild-type, but not mutant, LSS prevents intracellular protein aggregation of various cataract-causing mutant crystallins. Treatment by lanosterol, but not cholesterol, significantly decreased preformed protein aggregates both in vitro and in cell-transfection experiments. We further show that lanosterol treatment could reduce cataract severity and increase transparency in dissected rabbit cataractous lenses in vitro and cataract severity in vivo in dogs. Our study identifies lanosterol as a key molecule in the prevention of lens protein aggregation and points to a novel strategy for cataract prevention and treatment.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhao, Ling -- Chen, Xiang-Jun -- Zhu, Jie -- Xi, Yi-Bo -- Yang, Xu -- Hu, Li-Dan -- Ouyang, Hong -- Patel, Sherrina H -- Jin, Xin -- Lin, Danni -- Wu, Frances -- Flagg, Ken -- Cai, Huimin -- Li, Gen -- Cao, Guiqun -- Lin, Ying -- Chen, Daniel -- Wen, Cindy -- Chung, Christopher -- Wang, Yandong -- Qiu, Austin -- Yeh, Emily -- Wang, Wenqiu -- Hu, Xun -- Grob, Seanna -- Abagyan, Ruben -- Su, Zhiguang -- Tjondro, Harry Christianto -- Zhao, Xi-Juan -- Luo, Hongrong -- Hou, Rui -- Perry, J Jefferson P -- Gao, Weiwei -- Kozak, Igor -- Granet, David -- Li, Yingrui -- Sun, Xiaodong -- Wang, Jun -- Zhang, Liangfang -- Liu, Yizhi -- Yan, Yong-Bin -- Zhang, Kang -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 30;523(7562):607-11. doi: 10.1038/nature14650. Epub 2015 Jul 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Molecular Medicine Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China [2] State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China [3] Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; 1] Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Department of Ophthalmology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China. ; BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China. ; 1] State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China [2] Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Molecular Medicine Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China [2] Guangzhou KangRui Biological Pharmaceutical Technology Company, Guangzhou 510005, China. ; Molecular Medicine Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China. ; 1] Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] CapitalBio Genomics Co., Ltd., Dongguan 523808, China. ; 1] Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai 20080, China. ; Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Guangzhou KangRui Biological Pharmaceutical Technology Company, Guangzhou 510005, China. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California 92521, USA. ; 1] Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ; Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai 20080, China. ; Department of Ophthalmology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China. ; 1] Molecular Medicine Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China [2] State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China [3] Department of Ophthalmology and Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [4] Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [5] Veterans Administration Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200341" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Amyloid/chemistry/drug effects/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Cataract/congenital/*drug therapy/genetics/*metabolism/pathology ; Cell Line ; Child ; Crystallins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Dogs ; Female ; Humans ; Lanosterol/administration & dosage/*pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Lens, Crystalline/drug effects/metabolism/pathology ; Male ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Pedigree ; Protein Aggregates/*drug effects ; Protein Aggregation, Pathological/*drug therapy/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-09-17
    Description: Development of functional nanoparticles can be encumbered by unanticipated material properties and biological events, which can affect nanoparticle effectiveness in complex, physiologically relevant systems. Despite the advances in bottom-up nanoengineering and surface chemistry, reductionist functionalization approaches remain inadequate in replicating the complex interfaces present in nature and cannot avoid exposure of foreign materials. Here we report on the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles enclosed in the plasma membrane of human platelets, which are a unique population of cellular fragments that adhere to a variety of disease-relevant substrates. The resulting nanoparticles possess a right-side-out unilamellar membrane coating functionalized with immunomodulatory and adhesion antigens associated with platelets. Compared to uncoated particles, the platelet membrane-cloaked nanoparticles have reduced cellular uptake by macrophage-like cells and lack particle-induced complement activation in autologous human plasma. The cloaked nanoparticles also display platelet-mimicking properties such as selective adhesion to damaged human and rodent vasculatures as well as enhanced binding to platelet-adhering pathogens. In an experimental rat model of coronary restenosis and a mouse model of systemic bacterial infection, docetaxel and vancomycin, respectively, show enhanced therapeutic efficacy when delivered by the platelet-mimetic nanoparticles. The multifaceted biointerfacing enabled by the platelet membrane cloaking method provides a new approach in developing functional nanoparticles for disease-targeted delivery.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hu, Che-Ming J -- Fang, Ronnie H -- Wang, Kuei-Chun -- Luk, Brian T -- Thamphiwatana, Soracha -- Dehaini, Diana -- Nguyen, Phu -- Angsantikul, Pavimol -- Wen, Cindy H -- Kroll, Ashley V -- Carpenter, Cody -- Ramesh, Manikantan -- Qu, Vivian -- Patel, Sherrina H -- Zhu, Jie -- Shi, William -- Hofman, Florence M -- Chen, Thomas C -- Gao, Weiwei -- Zhang, Kang -- Chien, Shu -- Zhang, Liangfang -- R01DK095168/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01EY25090/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL108735/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R25CA153915/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 1;526(7571):118-21. doi: 10.1038/nature15373. Epub 2015 Sep 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Shiley Eye Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA. ; Veterans Administration Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374997" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*administration & dosage/pharmacokinetics ; Blood Platelets/*cytology ; Blood Vessels/cytology/metabolism/pathology ; Cell Membrane/*metabolism ; Collagen/chemistry/immunology ; Complement Activation/immunology ; Coronary Restenosis/blood/drug therapy/metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Drug Delivery Systems/*methods ; Humans ; Macrophages/immunology ; Male ; Mice ; Nanoparticles/*administration & dosage/*chemistry ; *Platelet Adhesiveness ; Polymers/chemistry ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Staphylococcal Infections/blood/drug therapy/metabolism/microbiology ; Staphylococcus aureus/cytology/metabolism ; Taxoids/administration & dosage/pharmacokinetics ; Unilamellar Liposomes/chemistry ; Vancomycin/administration & dosage/pharmacokinetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: To establish the parameters for converting sheet molding compounds (SMCs) to useful products, various technical approaches, viz., solvent extraction, hydrolysis, and pyrolysis, have been explored. Thermogravimetric analysis of an SMC sample indicated that it contains about 25% by weight organics and 75% inorganics, mainly glass fibers and CaCO3 as filler. Solvent extraction of ground SMC with acetone, methylene chloride, chloroform, or chloroform : benzene (1 : 1 vol) yielded low quantities of a gummy, viscous extract. Hydrolysis of the extracted SMC sample under strong alkaline conditions was also studied. A unit structure was postulated for the hydrolysate based upon elemental and molecular weight analysis. Pyrolysis of both extracted and unextracted SMCs in nitrogen at 500°C and in air at 400°C yielded organic oils. These oils were characterized for their calorific values. The products of pyrolysis consisted of mainly aromatics along with some oligomers. The extract and the oil from pyrolysis appear to be compatible with epoxy systems. Their use as an extender for epoxy systems, while that of the inorganic residue (glass fibers and CaCO3) as a filler for epoxy system, have been explored. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0003-3146
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: In dieser Arbeit wird die Herstellung von Methylacrylat/N-Phenylmaleimid-Co-polymeren verschiedener Zusammensetzung durch radikalische Polymerisation in Cyclohexanon mit Azoisobutyronitril als Initiator untersucht. Die Molenbrüche für N-Phenylmaleimid der vier Copolymeren MP-1, MP-2, MP-3 und MP-4 sind 0,0664,0,2344, 0,3905 und 0,5445. Die Zusammensetzung der Copolymeren wurde durch Elementaranalyse bestimmt. Weiter wird die änderung der Huggins-Konstante KH mit der Zusammensetzung für die Copolymeren in den Lösungsmitteln Dimethyl-formamid, Methylethylketon und Cyclohexanon beschrieben. KH hängt vom Lösungsmittel und von der Zusammensetzung der Copolymeren ab.
    Notes: This paper deals with the synthesis of methyl acrylate/N-phenylmaleimide copolymers having different compositions, (mole fractions of N-phenylmaleimide for the four copolymers MP-1, MP-2, MP-3, and MP-4 are 0.0664, 0.3905 and 0.5445, respectively) by free radical solution polymerization in cyclohexanone using azoisobutyronitrile as an initiator. The compositions of the copolymers have been determined by elemental analysis. The variation of the Huggins constant KH with composition for the copolymers in three solvents, methyl ethyl ketone, dimethylformamide and cyclohexanone is described. KH is found to be dependent both on solvent and composition of the copolymers.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The effect of a simulated marine environment on unstabilized polyethylene-polyethylene oxide blends, having varying polyethylene oxide content (up to 40% by weight), with or without a metal catalyst (e.g., cobalt (III) acetylacetonate) and a metal containing plasticizer (e.g., aluminum stearate), has been studied for 10 weeks exposure time. In the absence of metal catalyst and plasticizer, phase separation of polyethylene oxide was quite evident visually after melt mixing and subsequent regular compression molding of polyethylene-polyethylene oxide blends. However, these blends rendered better and uniform mixing in the presence of metal catalyst and plasticizer. Since polyethylene oxide is a water soluble component of the system, % weight loss increased significantly with increase in its content after exposure to brine. These blends have been further characterized by tensile properties, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and thermal analysis in order to monitor mechanical as well as morphological changes.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0193-7197
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The mechanism of color development during processing of polyolefin formulations containing phenolic antioxidant/hydrotalcite acid neutralizers was investigated in the absence and presence of polymer with residual acidity. IR spectroscopy was used to follow antioxidant/hydrotalcite interactions and thermal analysis to evaluate differences between commercial hydrotalcites from two different sources. Performance characteristics in terms of yellowness index and melt flow were evaluated by multiple extrusion of fully formulated PP and HDPE resins.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12 (1993), S. 215-215 
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advances in Polymer Technology 14 (1995), S. 67-77 
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Types and amounts of volatiles emitted during thermoplastics processing depend upon the chemical structure of the material and the choice of processing conditions. The identification of volatiles and the development of analytical techniques for measuring their concentration in the workplace are of paramount importance to establish or revise threshold limit values that would minimize exposure to hazardous chemical substances and lead to corrective action. In this review, information related to the types of volatiles emanating from injection molding machines and extruders as well as analytical methods for their measurement was collected, analyzed, and tabulated. Emphasis was placed on the four major commodity plastics, viz., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polystyrene (PS). Although the main emphasis is on emissions during processing, related literature under simulated conditions is also mentioned. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 12 Tab.
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