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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-07-15
    Description: The use of single crystals has been fundamental to the development of semiconductor microelectronics and solid-state science. Whether based on inorganic or organic materials, the devices that show the highest performance rely on single-crystal interfaces, with their nearly perfect translational symmetry and exceptionally high chemical purity. Attention has recently been focused on developing simple ways of producing electronic devices by means of printing technologies. 'Printed electronics' is being explored for the manufacture of large-area and flexible electronic devices by the patterned application of functional inks containing soluble or dispersed semiconducting materials. However, because of the strong self-organizing tendency of the deposited materials, the production of semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity (indispensable for realizing high carrier mobility) may be incompatible with conventional printing processes. Here we develop a method that combines the technique of antisolvent crystallization with inkjet printing to produce organic semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity. Specifically, we show that mixing fine droplets of an antisolvent and a solution of an active semiconducting component within a confined area on an amorphous substrate can trigger the controlled formation of exceptionally uniform single-crystal or polycrystalline thin films that grow at the liquid-air interfaces. Using this approach, we have printed single crystals of the organic semiconductor 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C(8)-BTBT) (ref. 15), yielding thin-film transistors with average carrier mobilities as high as 16.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This printing technique constitutes a major step towards the use of high-performance single-crystal semiconductor devices for large-area and flexible electronics applications.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Minemawari, Hiromi -- Yamada, Toshikazu -- Matsui, Hiroyuki -- Tsutsumi, Jun'ya -- Haas, Simon -- Chiba, Ryosuke -- Kumai, Reiji -- Hasegawa, Tatsuo -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jul 13;475(7356):364-7. doi: 10.1038/nature10313.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Tsukuba Central 4, Tsukuba 305-8562, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21753752" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anisotropy ; *Crystallization ; Electronics/*instrumentation/*methods ; Plastics/chemistry ; Printing/*methods ; *Semiconductors ; Solvents ; Synchrotrons ; Thiophenes/chemistry ; Transistors, Electronic ; X-Ray Diffraction
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-09-23
    Description: Common diseases are often complex because they are genetically heterogeneous, with many different genetic defects giving rise to clinically indistinguishable phenotypes. This has been amply documented for early-onset cognitive impairment, or intellectual disability, one of the most complex disorders known and a very important health care problem worldwide. More than 90 different gene defects have been identified for X-chromosome-linked intellectual disability alone, but research into the more frequent autosomal forms of intellectual disability is still in its infancy. To expedite the molecular elucidation of autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, we have now performed homozygosity mapping, exon enrichment and next-generation sequencing in 136 consanguineous families with autosomal-recessive intellectual disability from Iran and elsewhere. This study, the largest published so far, has revealed additional mutations in 23 genes previously implicated in intellectual disability or related neurological disorders, as well as single, probably disease-causing variants in 50 novel candidate genes. Proteins encoded by several of these genes interact directly with products of known intellectual disability genes, and many are involved in fundamental cellular processes such as transcription and translation, cell-cycle control, energy metabolism and fatty-acid synthesis, which seem to be pivotal for normal brain development and function.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Najmabadi, Hossein -- Hu, Hao -- Garshasbi, Masoud -- Zemojtel, Tomasz -- Abedini, Seyedeh Sedigheh -- Chen, Wei -- Hosseini, Masoumeh -- Behjati, Farkhondeh -- Haas, Stefan -- Jamali, Payman -- Zecha, Agnes -- Mohseni, Marzieh -- Puttmann, Lucia -- Vahid, Leyla Nouri -- Jensen, Corinna -- Moheb, Lia Abbasi -- Bienek, Melanie -- Larti, Farzaneh -- Mueller, Ines -- Weissmann, Robert -- Darvish, Hossein -- Wrogemann, Klaus -- Hadavi, Valeh -- Lipkowitz, Bettina -- Esmaeeli-Nieh, Sahar -- Wieczorek, Dagmar -- Kariminejad, Roxana -- Firouzabadi, Saghar Ghasemi -- Cohen, Monika -- Fattahi, Zohreh -- Rost, Imma -- Mojahedi, Faezeh -- Hertzberg, Christoph -- Dehghan, Atefeh -- Rajab, Anna -- Banavandi, Mohammad Javad Soltani -- Hoffer, Julia -- Falah, Masoumeh -- Musante, Luciana -- Kalscheuer, Vera -- Ullmann, Reinhard -- Kuss, Andreas Walter -- Tzschach, Andreas -- Kahrizi, Kimia -- Ropers, H Hilger -- England -- Nature. 2011 Sep 21;478(7367):57-63. doi: 10.1038/nature10423.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, 19857 Tehran, Iran.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21937992" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brain/metabolism/physiology ; Cell Cycle ; Cognition Disorders/*genetics ; Consanguinity ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Exons/genetics ; Gene Regulatory Networks ; Genes, Essential/genetics ; Genes, Recessive/*genetics ; *High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Homozygote ; Humans ; Intellectual Disability/*genetics ; Metabolic Networks and Pathways ; Mutation/genetics ; Organ Specificity ; Synapses/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-09-22
    Description: The low-temperature states of bosonic fluids exhibit fundamental quantum effects at the macroscopic scale: the best-known examples are Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity, which have been tested experimentally in a variety of different systems. When bosons interact, disorder can destroy condensation, leading to a 'Bose glass'. This phase has been very elusive in experiments owing to the absence of any broken symmetry and to the simultaneous absence of a finite energy gap in the spectrum. Here we report the observation of a Bose glass of field-induced magnetic quasiparticles in a doped quantum magnet (bromine-doped dichloro-tetrakis-thiourea-nickel, DTN). The physics of DTN in a magnetic field is equivalent to that of a lattice gas of bosons in the grand canonical ensemble; bromine doping introduces disorder into the hopping and interaction strength of the bosons, leading to their localization into a Bose glass down to zero field, where it becomes an incompressible Mott glass. The transition from the Bose glass (corresponding to a gapless spin liquid) to the Bose-Einstein condensate (corresponding to a magnetically ordered phase) is marked by a universal exponent that governs the scaling of the critical temperature with the applied field, in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Our study represents a quantitative experimental account of the universal features of disordered bosons in the grand canonical ensemble.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yu, Rong -- Yin, Liang -- Sullivan, Neil S -- Xia, J S -- Huan, Chao -- Paduan-Filho, Armando -- Oliveira, Nei F Jr -- Haas, Stephan -- Steppke, Alexander -- Miclea, Corneliu F -- Weickert, Franziska -- Movshovich, Roman -- Mun, Eun-Deok -- Scott, Brian L -- Zapf, Vivien S -- Roscilde, Tommaso -- England -- Nature. 2012 Sep 20;489(7416):379-84. doi: 10.1038/nature11406.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22996552" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-10-25
    Description: Use-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity have been extensively characterized at chemical synapses, but a relationship between natural activity and strength at electrical synapses remains elusive. The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a brain area rich in gap-junctional (electrical) synapses, regulates cortical attention to the sensory surround and participates in shifts between arousal states; plasticity of electrical synapses may be a key mechanism underlying these processes. We observed long-term depression resulting from coordinated burst firing in pairs of coupled TRN neurons. Changes in gap-junctional communication were asymmetrical, indicating that regulation of connectivity depends on the direction of use. Modification of electrical synapses resulting from activity in coupled neurons is likely to be a widespread and powerful mechanism for dynamic reorganization of electrically coupled neuronal networks.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Haas, Julie S -- Zavala, Baltazar -- Landisman, Carole E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Oct 21;334(6054):389-93. doi: 10.1126/science.1207502.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Children's Hospital, Department of Neurology, Harvard University, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. julie.haas@gmail.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021860" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Electrical Synapses/*physiology ; In Vitro Techniques ; Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei/cytology/*physiology ; *Long-Term Synaptic Depression ; Membrane Potentials ; Nerve Net/physiology ; Neurons/*physiology ; Patch-Clamp Techniques ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Sodium/metabolism ; Tetrodotoxin/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Purpose: Increased vascularity is a hallmark of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Microvessel density (MVD) is one measurement of tumor angiogenesis; however, its utility as a biomarker of outcome is unknown. ECOG-ACRIN 2805 (E2805) enrolled 1,943 resected high-risk RCC patients randomized to adjuvant sunitinib, sorafenib, or placebo. We aimed to determine the prognostic and predictive role of MVD in RCC. Experimental Design: We obtained pretreatment primary RCC nephrectomy tissues from 822 patients on E2805 and constructed tissue microarrays. Using quantitative immunofluorescence, we measured tumor MVD as the area of CD34-expressing cells. We determined the association with disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), treatment arm, and clinicopathologic variables. Results: High MVD (above the median) was associated with prolonged OS for the entire cohort ( P = 0.021) and for patients treated with placebo ( P = 0.028). The association between high MVD and OS was weaker in patients treated with sunitinib or sorafenib ( P = 0.060). MVD was not associated with DFS ( P = 1.00). On multivariable analysis, MVD remained independently associated with improved OS ( P = 0.013). High MVD correlated with Fuhrman grade 1–2 ( P 〈 0.001), clear cell histology ( P 〈 0.001), and absence of necrosis ( P 〈 0.001) but not with gender, age, sarcomatoid features, lymphovascular invasion, or tumor size. Conclusions: High MVD in resected high-risk RCC patients is an independent prognostic, rather than predictive, biomarker of improved OS. Further studies should assess whether incorporating MVD into clinical models will enhance our ability to predict outcome and if low MVD can be used for selection of high-risk patients for adjuvant therapy trials. Clin Cancer Res; 24(1); 217–23. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: The highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen ( HLA ) locus encodes cell surface proteins that are critical for immunity. HLA-A expression levels vary in an allele-dependent manner, diversifying allele-specific effects beyond peptide-binding preference. Analysis of 9763 HIV-infected individuals from 21 cohorts shows that higher HLA-A levels confer poorer control of HIV. Elevated HLA-A expression provides enhanced levels of an HLA-A–derived signal peptide that specifically binds and determines expression levels of HLA-E, the ligand for the inhibitory NKG2A natural killer (NK) cell receptor. HLA-B haplotypes that favor NKG2A-mediated NK cell licensing (i.e., education) exacerbate the deleterious effect of high HLA-A on HIV control, consistent with NKG2A-mediated inhibition impairing NK cell clearance of HIV-infected targets. Therapeutic blockade of HLA-E:NKG2A interaction may yield benefit in HIV disease.
    Keywords: Genetics, Immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Deutscher Kongress für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie; 72. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, 94. Tagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie, 49. Tagung des Berufsverbandes der Fachärzte für Orthopädie; 20081022-20081025; Berlin; DOCWI59-1110 /20081016/
    Publication Date: 2008-10-17
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 8
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    Springer Verlag
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  • 9
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Deutscher Kongress für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie; 73. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, 95. Tagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie, 50. Tagung des Berufsverbandes der Fachärzte für Orthopädie; 20091021-20091024; Berlin; DOCEF17-236 /20091015/
    Publication Date: 2009-10-16
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 10
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Deutscher Kongress für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie; 72. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, 94. Tagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie, 49. Tagung des Berufsverbandes der Fachärzte für Orthopädie; 20081022-20081025; Berlin; DOCWI59-862 /20081016/
    Publication Date: 2008-10-17
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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