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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Background/Aim: The family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is responsible for the maintenance of extracellular matrix component homeostasis and the association of MMP-1 genetic polymorphisms with personal susceptibility to prostate cancer has only been investigated in Turkish and Japan populations and never in Taiwan. In the current study, we aimed to examine the contribution of a polymorphism in the promoter region of MMP-1 to Taiwan prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The MMP-1 rs1799705 polymorphic genotypes were genotyped among 218 prostate cancer patients and 436 healthy controls by the typical polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodology. Results: The percentages of 2G/2G, 1G/2G, and 1G/1G for MMP-1 -1607 genotypes were 36.2, 40.4 and 23.4% in the prostate cancer group and 33.7, 44.3, and 22.0% in the healthy control group (p trend=0.6362), respectively. The odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for age and smoking status for those carrying 1G/2G and 1G/1G genotypes at MMP-1 -1607 were 0.84 (95%CI=0.55-1.21, p=0.3862) and 0.94 (95%CI=0.67-1.53, p=0.9586), respectively, compared to those carrying the wild-type 2G/2G genotype. Supporting these findings, the adjusted OR for those carrying the 1G allele at MMP-1 -1607 was 1.03 (95%CI=0.71-1.45, p=0.6910), compared to those carrying the wild-type 2G allele. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the polymorphic genotypes at MMP-1 promoter -1607 may play a major role in determining personal cancer susceptibility for prostate cancer in Taiwan.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Keywords: BREAST-CANCER ; DESIGN ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; COLON-CANCER ; METAANALYSIS ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; MULTIPLE LOCI ; CHROMOSOME 8Q24 ; IDENTIFIES 5
    Abstract: Objective Genome-wide association studies have identified a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a wide array of cancer sites. Several of these variants demonstrate associations with multiple cancers, suggesting pleiotropic effects and shared biological mechanisms across some cancers. We hypothesised that SNPs previously associated with other cancers may additionally be associated with colorectal cancer. In a large-scale study, we examined 171 SNPs previously associated with 18 different cancers for their associations with colorectal cancer. Design We examined 13 338 colorectal cancer cases and 40 967 controls from three consortia: Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE), Genetic Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO), and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR). Study-specific logistic regression results, adjusted for age, sex, principal components of genetic ancestry, and/or study specific factors (as relevant) were combined using fixed-effect meta-analyses to evaluate the association between each SNP and colorectal cancer risk. A Bonferroni-corrected p value of 2.92x10(-4) was used to determine statistical significance of the associations. Results Two correlated SNPs-rs10090154 and rs4242382-in Region 1 of chromosome 8q24, a prostate cancer susceptibility region, demonstrated statistically significant associations with colorectal cancer risk. The most significant association was observed with rs4242382 (meta-analysis OR=1.12; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.18; p = 1.74x10(-5)), which also demonstrated similar associations across racial/ethnic populations and anatomical sub-sites. Conclusions This is the first study to clearly demonstrate Region 1 of chromosome 8q24 as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer; thus, adding colorectal cancer to the list of cancer sites linked to this particular multicancer risk region at 8q24.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23935004
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Inguinal hernia ; Laparoscopic repair ; Prosthetic mesh ; Shouldice repair ; Controlled trial
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: In February 1993 a prospective randomized multicenter trial was initiated to compare laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernioplasty to Shouldice herniorrhaphy as performed by surgeons of nonspecialized clinics. Methods: Until January 1994, 87 patients with 108 hernias took part in the trial (43 Shouldice and 44 laparoscopic repairs). Results: The laparoscopic procedure took significantly longer than did the open operation but caused less pain as measured by pain analogue score and consumption of paracetamol and narcotics. The postoperative complication rate was 26% in the open and 16% in the laparoscopic group. The patients in the laparoscopic group were discharged earlier and their convalescence was shorter than after open hernia repair. There has been one early recurrence in the laparoscopic and two in the open group to date with a mean follow-up of 201 days. Conclusions: Laparoscopic hernia repair causes less pain than the conventional operation and enables the patient to return to full work and usual activities earlier. The recurrence rate will not be known for 5 years.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: Background/Aim: Previous studies have indicated that hyperforin inhibits tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the anticancer effects of hyperforin in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are ambiguous. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effect of hyperforin in NSCLC. NSCLC CL1-5-F4 cells were treated with different concentrations of hyperforin or NF-B inhibitor (QNZ) for different time periods. Materials and Methods: Change of cell viability, NF-B activation, apoptotic signaling pathways, expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, and cell invasion were detected using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, NF-B reporter gene assay, flow cytometry, western blotting, and cell invasion assay. Results: The results demonstrated that hyperforin significantly promotes extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, and inhibits cell viability and NF-B activation. In addition, results also indicated that blockage of NF-B activation reduces the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins and cell invasion in CL1-5-F4 cells. Conclusion: These results suggested hyperforin induces apoptosis and inhibits NF-B-modulated anti-apoptotic and invasive potential in NSCLC.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-12-18
    Description: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk variants for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). These common variants have replicable but small effects on LOAD risk and generally do not have obvious functional effects. Low-frequency coding variants, not detected by GWAS, are predicted to include functional variants with larger effects on risk. To identify low-frequency coding variants with large effects on LOAD risk, we carried out whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 14 large LOAD families and follow-up analyses of the candidate variants in several large LOAD case-control data sets. A rare variant in PLD3 (phospholipase D3; Val232Met) segregated with disease status in two independent families and doubled risk for Alzheimer's disease in seven independent case-control series with a total of more than 11,000 cases and controls of European descent. Gene-based burden analyses in 4,387 cases and controls of European descent and 302 African American cases and controls, with complete sequence data for PLD3, reveal that several variants in this gene increase risk for Alzheimer's disease in both populations. PLD3 is highly expressed in brain regions that are vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease pathology, including hippocampus and cortex, and is expressed at significantly lower levels in neurons from Alzheimer's disease brains compared to control brains. Overexpression of PLD3 leads to a significant decrease in intracellular amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) and extracellular Abeta42 and Abeta40 (the 42- and 40-residue isoforms of the amyloid-beta peptide), and knockdown of PLD3 leads to a significant increase in extracellular Abeta42 and Abeta40. Together, our genetic and functional data indicate that carriers of PLD3 coding variants have a twofold increased risk for LOAD and that PLD3 influences APP processing. This study provides an example of how densely affected families may help to identify rare variants with large effects on risk for disease or other complex traits.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050701/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050701/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cruchaga, Carlos -- Karch, Celeste M -- Jin, Sheng Chih -- Benitez, Bruno A -- Cai, Yefei -- Guerreiro, Rita -- Harari, Oscar -- Norton, Joanne -- Budde, John -- Bertelsen, Sarah -- Jeng, Amanda T -- Cooper, Breanna -- Skorupa, Tara -- Carrell, David -- Levitch, Denise -- Hsu, Simon -- Choi, Jiyoon -- Ryten, Mina -- UK Brain Expression Consortium -- Hardy, John -- Trabzuni, Daniah -- Weale, Michael E -- Ramasamy, Adaikalavan -- Smith, Colin -- Sassi, Celeste -- Bras, Jose -- Gibbs, J Raphael -- Hernandez, Dena G -- Lupton, Michelle K -- Powell, John -- Forabosco, Paola -- Ridge, Perry G -- Corcoran, Christopher D -- Tschanz, Joann T -- Norton, Maria C -- Munger, Ronald G -- Schmutz, Cameron -- Leary, Maegan -- Demirci, F Yesim -- Bamne, Mikhil N -- Wang, Xingbin -- Lopez, Oscar L -- Ganguli, Mary -- Medway, Christopher -- Turton, James -- Lord, Jenny -- Braae, Anne -- Barber, Imelda -- Brown, Kristelle -- Alzheimer's Research UK Consortium -- Passmore, Peter -- Craig, David -- Johnston, Janet -- McGuinness, Bernadette -- Todd, Stephen -- Heun, Reinhard -- Kolsch, Heike -- Kehoe, Patrick G -- Hooper, Nigel M -- Vardy, Emma R L C -- Mann, David M -- Pickering-Brown, Stuart -- Kalsheker, Noor -- Lowe, James -- Morgan, Kevin -- David Smith, A -- Wilcock, Gordon -- Warden, Donald -- Holmes, Clive -- Pastor, Pau -- Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo -- Brkanac, Zoran -- Scott, Erick -- Topol, Eric -- Rogaeva, Ekaterina -- Singleton, Andrew B -- Kamboh, M Ilyas -- St George-Hyslop, Peter -- Cairns, Nigel -- Morris, John C -- Kauwe, John S K -- Goate, Alison M -- 081864/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089698/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089703/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 100140/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1R01AG041797/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- 5U24AG026395/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG005133/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG023652/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG030653/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG041718/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG07562/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- G0802189/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0802462/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0901254/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1100695/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K01 AG046374/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- MC_G1000734/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- NIH P50 AG05681/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- NIH R01039700/PHS HHS/ -- P01 AG003991/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG026276/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG03991/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P30 NS069329/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30-NS069329/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P50 AG005133/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P50 AG005681/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG011380/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG030653/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG035083/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG039700/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG041718/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG041797/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG042611/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG044546/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG035083/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG042611/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG044546/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG11380/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG18712/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG21136/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01AG21136/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R25 DA027995/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U24 AG021886/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U24 AG026395/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U24AG21886/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- WT089698/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- ZIA AG000950-11/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZO1 AG000950-10/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- ZO1AG000950-11/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jan 23;505(7484):550-4. doi: 10.1038/nature12825. Epub 2013 Dec 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Hope Center Program on Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration, Washington University 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Hope Center Program on Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration, Washington University 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [3]. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2]. ; Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK [2] Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Building 35 Room 1A1014, 35 Lincoln Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK. ; Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF UK. ; MRC Sudden Death Brain Bank Project, University of Edinburgh, South Bridge, Edinburgh EH8 9YL UK. ; 1] Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK [2] Neuroimaging Genetics, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Road, Herston, Queensland 4006, Australia. ; Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK. ; Istituto di Genetica delle Popolazioni - CNR, Trav. La Crucca, 3 - Reg. Baldinca - 07100 Li Punti, Sassari, Italy. ; Department of Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, USA. ; 1] Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA [2] Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. ; 1] Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA [2] Department of Psychology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. ; 1] Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA [2] Department of Psychology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA [3] Department of Family Consumer and Human Development, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. ; 1] Department of Family Consumer and Human Development, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA [2] Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. ; Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; 1] Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA [2] Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; Human Genetics, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK. ; Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK. ; Royal Derby Hospital, Uttoxeter Road, Derby, DE22 3NE, UK. ; University of Bonn, Regina-Pacis-Weg 3, 53113 Bonn, Germany. ; University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, City of Bristol BS8 1TH, UK. ; University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT, UK. ; University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear NE1 7RU, UK. ; University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, Greater Manchester M13 9PL, UK. ; University of Oxford (OPTIMA), Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK. ; 1] Neurogenetics Laboratory, Division of Neurosciences, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 55. 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain [2] Department of Neurology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, School of Medicine, University of Navarra Avenida Pio XII, 36. 31008 Pamplona, Spain [3] CIBERNED, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain. ; Neurogenetics Laboratory, Division of Neurosciences, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 55. 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain. ; University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, Washington 98104-2499, USA. ; The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 3344 North Torrey Pines Court, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, 60 Leonard Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada. ; Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Building 35 Room 1A1014, 35 Lincoln Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA [2] Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA [3] Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; 1] Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, 60 Leonard Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada [2] Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK. ; 1] Hope Center Program on Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration, Washington University 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Pathology and Immunology, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Pathology and Immunology, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Department of Neurology, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [3] Knight ADRC, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Hope Center Program on Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration, Washington University 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [3] Department of Neurology, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [4] Knight ADRC, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [5] Department of Genetics, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24336208" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: African Americans/genetics ; Age of Onset ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Alzheimer Disease/*genetics/metabolism ; Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism ; Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism ; Brain/metabolism ; Case-Control Studies ; Europe/ethnology ; Exome/genetics ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Peptide Fragments/metabolism ; Phospholipase D/deficiency/*genetics/metabolism ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational/genetics ; Proteolysis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-09-08
    Description: Background/Aim: The aim of present study was to verify the effect of fluoxetine on DNA repair and metastatic potential in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in vitro. Materials and Methods: Highly metastatic NSCLC CL1-5-F4 cells were used in this study. Cells were treated with different concentrations of fluoxetine or QNZ (NF-ĸB inhibitor) for 48 h. After treatment, cell viability, apoptotic signaling, NF-ĸB activation, expression of DNA repair and metastasis-associated proteins, and cell migration/invasion were evaluated by (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium assay, flow cytometry, NF-ĸB reporter gene, western blotting, and cell migration/invasion assay, respectively. Results: Fluoxetine induced apoptosis and reduced cell viability, NF-ĸB activation, expression of DNA repair and metastasis-associated proteins, and cell migration/invasion in CL1-5-F4 cells. Also, NF-ĸB activation was the critical factor in fluoxetine-inhibited metastatic potential. Conclusion: Fluoxetine induced apoptosis and inhibited DNA repair and metastatic potential in NSCLC CL1-5-F4 cells.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-19
    Description: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are known suppressors of antitumor immunity, affecting amino acid metabolism and T cell function in the tumor microenvironment. However, it is unknown whether MDSCs regulate B cell responses during tumor progression. Using a syngeneic mouse model of lung cancer, we show reduction in percentages and absolute numbers of B cell subsets including pro–, pre–, and mature B cells in the bone marrow (BM) of tumor-bearing mice. The kinetics of this impaired B cell response correlated with the progressive infiltration of MDSCs. We identified that IL-7 and downstream STAT5 signaling that play a critical role in B cell development and differentiation were also impaired during tumor progression. Global impairment of B cell function was indicated by reduced serum IgG levels. Importantly, we show that anti–Gr-1 Ab-mediated depletion of MDSCs not only rescued serum IgG and IL-7 levels but also reduced TGF-β1, a known regulator of stromal IL-7, suggesting MDSC-mediated regulation of B cell responses. Furthermore, blockade of IL-7 resulted in reduced phosphorylation of downstream STAT5 and B cell differentiation in tumor-bearing mice and administration of TGF-β–blocking Ab rescued these IL-7–dependent B cell responses. Adoptive transfer of BM-derived MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice into congenic recipients resulted in significant reductions of B cell subsets in the BM and in circulation. MDSCs also suppressed B cell proliferation in vitro in an arginase-dependent manner that required cell-to-cell contact. Our results indicate that tumor-infiltrating MDSCs may suppress humoral immune responses and promote tumor escape from immune surveillance.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: Background: Despite age and sex differences in fecal hemoglobin (f-Hb) concentrations, most fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening programs use population-average cut-points for test positivity. The impact of age/sex-specific threshold on FIT accuracy and colonoscopy demand for colorectal cancer screening are unknown. Methods: Using data from 723,113 participants enrolled in a Taiwanese population-based colorectal cancer screening with single FIT between 2004 and 2009, sensitivity and specificity were estimated for various f-Hb thresholds for test positivity. This included estimates based on a "universal" threshold, receiver-operating-characteristic curve–derived threshold, targeted sensitivity, targeted false-positive rate, and a colonoscopy-capacity-adjusted method integrating colonoscopy workload with and without age/sex adjustments. Results: Optimal age/sex-specific thresholds were found to be equal to or lower than the universal 20 μg Hb/g threshold. For older males, a higher threshold (24 μg Hb/g) was identified using a 5% false-positive rate. Importantly, a nonlinear relationship was observed between sensitivity and colonoscopy workload with workload rising disproportionately to sensitivity at 16 μg Hb/g. At this "colonoscopy-capacity-adjusted" threshold, the test positivity (colonoscopy workload) was 4.67% and sensitivity was 79.5%, compared with a lower 4.0% workload and a lower 78.7% sensitivity using 20 μg Hb/g. When constrained on capacity, age/sex-adjusted estimates were generally lower. However, optimizing age/-sex-adjusted thresholds increased colonoscopy demand across models by 17% or greater compared with a universal threshold. Conclusions: Age/sex-specific thresholds improve FIT accuracy with modest increases in colonoscopy demand. Impact: Colonoscopy-capacity-adjusted and age/sex-specific f-Hb thresholds may be useful in optimizing individual screening programs based on detection accuracy, population characteristics, and clinical capacity. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(6); 704–9. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1055-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7755
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Synthetic biology offers opportunities for experiential educational activities at the intersection of the life sciences, engineering, and design. However, implementation of hands-on biology activities in classrooms is challenging because of the need for specialized equipment and expertise to grow living cells. We present BioBits™ Bright, a shelf-stable, just-add-water synthetic biology education kit with easy visual outputs enabled by expression of fluorescent proteins in freeze-dried, cell-free reactions. We introduce activities and supporting curricula for teaching the central dogma, tunable protein expression, and design-build-test cycles and report data generated by K-12 teachers and students. We also develop inexpensive incubators and imagers, resulting in a comprehensive kit costing 〈US$100 per 30-person classroom. The user-friendly resources of this kit promise to enhance biology education both inside and outside the classroom.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-08-07
    Description: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD , encoding the p110 subunit of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), cause a primary immunodeficiency. Affected individuals display impaired humoral immune responses following infection or immunization. To establish mechanisms underlying these immune defects, we studied a large cohort of patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations and established a novel mouse model using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing to introduce a common pathogenic mutation in Pik3cd . In both species, hyperactive PI3K severely affected B cell development and differentiation in the bone marrow and the periphery. Furthermore, PI3K GOF B cells exhibited intrinsic defects in class-switch recombination (CSR) due to impaired induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and failure to acquire a plasmablast gene signature and phenotype. Importantly, defects in CSR, AID expression, and Ig secretion were restored by leniolisib, a specific p110 inhibitor. Our findings reveal key roles for balanced PI3K signaling in B cell development and long-lived humoral immunity and memory and establish the validity of treating affected individuals with p110 inhibitors.
    Keywords: Immunodeficiency, Human Disease Genetics
    Print ISSN: 0022-1007
    Electronic ISSN: 1540-9538
    Topics: Medicine
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