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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: The variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) B of jawless vertebrates functions as a secreted Ab of jawed vertebrates and has emerged as an alternative Ab with a single polypeptide chain. After observing an upregulated VLRB response in hagfish immunized with avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2, we screened AIV H9N2–specific VLRB using a mammalian expression system. To improve the binding avidity of the Ag-specific VLRB to the Ag, we enabled multimerization of the VLRB by conjugating it with C-terminal domain of human C4b-binding protein. To dramatically enhance the expression and secretion of the Ag-specific VLRB, we introduced a glycine–serine linker and the murine Ig leader sequence. The practical use of the Ag-specific VLRB was also demonstrated through various immunoassays, detected by anti-VLRB Ab (11G5). Finally, we found that the Ag-specific VLRB decreased the infectivity of AIV H9N2. Together, our findings suggest that the generated Ag-specific VLRB could be used for various immunoapplications.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Simultaneous sequencing of the genome and transcriptome at the single-cell level is a powerful tool for characterizing genomic and transcriptomic variation and revealing correlative relationships. However, it remains technically challenging to analyze both the genome and transcriptome in the same cell. Here, we report a novel method for simultaneous isolation of genomic DNA and total RNA (SIDR) from single cells, achieving high recovery rates with minimal cross-contamination, as is crucial for accurate description and integration of the single-cell genome and transcriptome. For reliable and efficient separation of genomic DNA and total RNA from single cells, the method uses hypotonic lysis to preserve nuclear lamina integrity and subsequently captures the cell lysate using antibody-conjugated magnetic microbeads. Evaluating the performance of this method using real-time PCR demonstrated that it efficiently recovered genomic DNA and total RNA. Thorough data quality assessments showed that DNA and RNA simultaneously fractionated by the SIDR method were suitable for genome and transcriptome sequencing analysis at the single-cell level. The integration of single-cell genome and transcriptome sequencing by SIDR (SIDR-seq) showed that genetic alterations, such as copy-number and single-nucleotide variations, were more accurately captured by single-cell SIDR-seq compared with conventional single-cell RNA-seq, although copy-number variations positively correlated with the corresponding gene expression levels. These results suggest that SIDR-seq is potentially a powerful tool to reveal genetic heterogeneity and phenotypic information inferred from gene expression patterns at the single-cell level.
    Electronic ISSN: 1549-5469
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 ( Tet1 ) initiates DNA demethylation by converting 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) at CpG-rich regions of genes, which have key roles in adult neurogenesis and memory. In addition, the overexpression of Tet1 with 5-hmC alteration in patients with psychosis has also been reported, for instance in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. The mechanism underlying Tet1 overexpression in the brain; however, is still elusive. In the present study, we found that Tet1-transgenic (Tet1-TG) mice displayed abnormal behaviors involving elevated anxiety and enhanced fear memories. We confirmed that Tet1 overexpression affected adult neurogenesis with oligodendrocyte differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Tet1-TG mice. In addition, Tet1 overexpression induced the elevated expression of immediate early genes, such as Egr1 , c-fos , Arc , and Bdnf , followed by the activation of intracellular calcium signals ( i.e. , CamKII, ERK, and CREB) in prefrontal and hippocampal neurons. The expression of GABA receptor subunits ( Gabra2 and Gabra4 ) fluctuated in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. We evaluated the effects of Tet1 overexpression on intracellular calcium-dependent cascades by activating the Egr1 promoter in vitro . Tet1 enhanced Egr1 expression, which may have led to alterations in Gabra2 and Gabra4 expression in neurons. Taken together, we suggest that the Tet1 overexpression in our Tet1-TG mice can be applied as an effective model for studying various stress-related diseases that show hyperactivation of intracellular calcium-dependent cascades in the brain.—Kwon, W., Kim, H.-S., Jeong, J., Sung, Y., Choi, M., Park, S., Lee, J., Jang, S., Kim, S. H., Lee, S., Kim, M. O., Ryoo, Z. Y. Tet1 overexpression leads to anxiety-like behavior and enhanced fear memories via the activation of calcium-dependent cascade through Egr1 expression in mice.
    Print ISSN: 0892-6638
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-6860
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-27
    Description: The key component currently missing for the next generation of transparent and flexible displays is a high-performance polymer material that is flexible, while showing optical and thermal properties of glass. It must be transparent to visible light and show a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). While specialty plastics such as aromatic polyimides are promising, reducing their CTE and improving transparency simultaneously proved challenging, with increasing coloration the main problem to be resolved. We report a new poly(amide-imide) material that is flexible and displays glass-like behavior with a CTE value of 4 parts per million/°C. This novel polymer was successfully used as a substrate to fabricate transparent and flexible indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Background/Aim: This study aimed to determine the effect of different BRCA1 exonal mutations on the clinical course of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Patients and Methods: Clinicopathological variables and survival outcomes were compared among 53 primary EOC patients with pathogenic BRCA1 mutations in exons 1-11 (5’ mutations) and in exons 12-24 (3’ mutations). Results: BRCA1 5’ exonal mutations were found in 35 (66.0%) patients. The median follow-up period was 40 months. Clinicopathological variables remained unchanged between the two groups. Patients with 5’ mutations had a significantly longer progression-free survival than those with C-terminal mutations (p=0.034), better predicting progression-free survival [2.923 (1.402-6.093), p=0.004], but not overall survival in cases of multiple relapses (p=0.497). Conclusion: N-terminal BRCA1 mutations in EOC patients are associated with favourable primary progression-free survival, a trend observed only in primary progression-free survival, not in overall survival.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-10-11
    Description: Developing and mature chondrocytes constantly interact with and remodel the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). Recent research indicates that integrin-ECM interaction is differentially regulated during cartilage formation (chondrogenesis). Integrin signaling is also a key source of the catabolic reactions responsible for joint destruction in both rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. However, we do not understand how chondrocytes dynamically regulate integrin signaling in such an ECM-rich environment. Here, we found that developing chondrocytes express integrin-β–like 1 ( Itgbl1 ) at specific stages, inhibiting integrin signaling and promoting chondrogenesis. Unlike cytosolic integrin inhibitors, ITGBL1 is secreted and physically interacts with integrins to down-regulate activity. We observed that Itgbl1 expression was strongly reduced in the damaged articular cartilage of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Ectopic expression of Itgbl1 protected joint cartilage against OA development in the destabilization of the medial meniscus–induced OA mouse model. Our results reveal ITGBL1 signaling as an underlying mechanism of protection against destructive cartilage disorders and suggest the potential therapeutic utility of targeting ITGBL1 to modulate integrin signaling in human disease.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-23
    Description: Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) have a photonic bandgap due to the periodic change of refractive index along their helical axes. The CLCs containing optical gain have served as band-edge lasing resonators. In particular, CLCs in a granular format provide omnidirectional lasing, which are promising as a point light source. However, there is no platform that simultaneously achieves high stability in air and wavelength tunability. We encapsulate CLCs with double shells to design a capsule-type laser resonator. The fluidic CLCs are fully enclosed by an aqueous inner shell that promotes the planar alignment of LC molecules along the interface. The outer shell made of silicone elastomer protects the CLC core and the inner shell from the surroundings. Therefore, the helical axes of the CLCs are radially oriented within the capsules, which provide a stable omnidirectional lasing in the air. At the same time, the fluidic CLCs enable the fine-tuning of lasing wavelength with temperature. The capsules retain their double-shell structure during the dynamic deformation. Therefore, the CLCs in the core maintain the planar alignment along the deformed interface, and a lasing direction can be varied from omnidirectional to bi- or multidirectional, depending on the shape of deformed capsules.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: Purpose: Previous studies revealed diverging results regarding the role of survivin in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of survivin expression in SCCHN; the function of survivin in DNA-damage repair following ionizing radiation therapy (RT) in SCCHN cells; and the potential of honokiol to enhance RT through downregulation of survivin. Experimental Design: Expression of survivin in SCCHN patient primary tumor tissues ( n = 100) was analyzed and correlated with clinical parameters. SCCHN cell lines were used to evaluate the function of survivin and the effects of honokiol on survivin expression in vitro and in vivo . Results: Overexpression of survivin was significantly associated with lymph nodes' metastatic status ( P = 0.025), worse overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients receiving RT ( n = 65, OS: P = 0.024, DFS: P = 0.006) and in all patients with SCCHN ( n = 100, OS: P = 0.002, DFS: P = 0.003). In SCCHN cells, depletion of survivin led to increased DNA damage and cell death following RT, whereas overexpression of survivin increased clonogenic survival. RT induced nuclear accumulation of survivin and its molecular interaction with -H2AX and DNA-PKCs. Survivin specifically bound to DNA DSB sites induced by I-SceI endonuclease. Honokiol (which downregulates survivin expression) in combination with RT significantly augmented cytotoxicity in SCCHN cells with acquired radioresistance and inhibited growth in SCCHN xenograft tumors. Conclusions: Survivin is a negative prognostic factor and is involved in DNA-damage repair induced by RT. Targeting survivin using honokiol in combination with RT may provide novel therapeutic opportunities. Clin Cancer Res; 24(4); 858–69. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: O ver a ctive b ladder (OAB) syndrome is a condition that has four symptoms: urgency, urinary frequency, nocturia, and urge incontinence and negatively affects a patient's life. Recently, it is considered that the urinary bladder urothelium is closely linked to pathogenesis of OAB. However, the mechanisms of pathogenesis of OAB at the molecular level remain poorly understood, mainly because of lack of modern molecular analysis. The goal of this study is to identify a potential target protein that could act as a predictive factor for effective diagnosis and aid in the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of OAB syndrome. We produced OAB in a rat model and performed the first proteomic analysis on the mucosal layer (urothelium) of the bladders of sham control and OAB rats. The resulting data revealed the differential expression of 355 proteins in the bladder urothelium of OAB rats compared with sham subjects. Signaling pathway analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in the inflammatory response and apoptosis. Our findings suggest a new target for accurate diagnosis of OAB that can provide essential information for the development of drug treatment strategies as well as establish criteria for screening patients in the clinical environment.
    Print ISSN: 1535-9476
    Electronic ISSN: 1535-9484
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-05-31
    Description: Background/Aim: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are closely associated with a number of cellular processes, including cell development, differentiation, proliferation, carcinogenesis, and apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the tumor suppressor activity of miRNA-203 (miR-203) in YD-38 human oral cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Polymerase chain reaction analysis, MTT assay, DNA fragmentation assay, fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis, gene array, immunoblotting, and luciferase assay were carried out in YD-38 cells. Results: miR-203 expression was significantly down-regulated in YD-38 cells compared to expression levels in normal human oral keratinocytes. miR-203 decreased the viability of YD-38 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, over-expression of miR-203 significantly increased not only DNA segmentation, but also the apoptotic population of YD-38 cells. These results indicate that miR-203 overexpression induces apoptosis in YD-38 cells. Target gene array analysis revealed that the expression of the polycomb complex protein gene Bmi-1, a representative oncogene, was significantly down-regulated by miR-203 in YD-38 cells. Moreover, both mRNA and protein levels of Bmi-1 were significantly reduced in YD-38 cells transfected with miR-203. These results indicate that Bmi-1 is a target gene of miR-203. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-203 suppressed Bmi-1 expression by directly targeting the 3’-untranslated region. Conclusion: miR-203 induces apoptosis in YD-38 cells by directly targeting Bmi-1, which suggests its possible application as an anti-cancer therapeutic.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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