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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-12-02
    Description: Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most dramatic examples of massive stellar deaths, often associated with supernovae. They release ultra-relativistic jets, which produce non-thermal emission through synchrotron radiation as they interact with the surrounding medium. Here we report observations of the unusual GRB 101225A. Its gamma-ray emission was exceptionally long-lived and was followed by a bright X-ray transient with a hot thermal component and an unusual optical counterpart. During the first 10 days, the optical emission evolved as an expanding, cooling black body, after which an additional component, consistent with a faint supernova, emerged. We estimate its redshift to be z = 0.33 by fitting the spectral-energy distribution and light curve of the optical emission with a GRB-supernova template. Deep optical observations may have revealed a faint, unresolved host galaxy. Our proposed progenitor is a merger of a helium star with a neutron star that underwent a common envelope phase, expelling its hydrogen envelope. The resulting explosion created a GRB-like jet which became thermalized by interacting with the dense, previously ejected material, thus creating the observed black body, until finally the emission from the supernova dominated. An alternative explanation is a minor body falling onto a neutron star in the Galaxy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Thone, C C -- de Ugarte Postigo, A -- Fryer, C L -- Page, K L -- Gorosabel, J -- Aloy, M A -- Perley, D A -- Kouveliotou, C -- Janka, H T -- Mimica, P -- Racusin, J L -- Krimm, H -- Cummings, J -- Oates, S R -- Holland, S T -- Siegel, M H -- De Pasquale, M -- Sonbas, E -- Im, M -- Park, W-K -- Kann, D A -- Guziy, S -- Garcia, L Hernandez -- Llorente, A -- Bundy, K -- Choi, C -- Jeong, H -- Korhonen, H -- Kubanek, P -- Lim, J -- Moskvitin, A -- Munoz-Darias, T -- Pak, S -- Parrish, I -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 30;480(7375):72-4. doi: 10.1038/nature10611.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉IAA - CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada, Spain. cthoene@iaa.es〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22129726" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-03-22
    Description: Behavioural states in mammals, such as the anxious state, are characterized by several features that are coordinately regulated by diverse nervous system outputs, ranging from behavioural choice patterns to changes in physiology (in anxiety, exemplified respectively by risk-avoidance and respiratory rate alterations). Here we investigate if and how defined neural projections arising from a single coordinating brain region in mice could mediate diverse features of anxiety. Integrating behavioural assays, in vivo and in vitro electrophysiology, respiratory physiology and optogenetics, we identify a surprising new role for the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in the coordinated modulation of diverse anxiety features. First, two BNST subregions were unexpectedly found to exert opposite effects on the anxious state: oval BNST activity promoted several independent anxious state features, whereas anterodorsal BNST-associated activity exerted anxiolytic influence for the same features. Notably, we found that three distinct anterodorsal BNST efferent projections-to the lateral hypothalamus, parabrachial nucleus and ventral tegmental area-each implemented an independent feature of anxiolysis: reduced risk-avoidance, reduced respiratory rate, and increased positive valence, respectively. Furthermore, selective inhibition of corresponding circuit elements in freely moving mice showed opposing behavioural effects compared with excitation, and in vivo recordings during free behaviour showed native spiking patterns in anterodorsal BNST neurons that differentiated safe and anxiogenic environments. These results demonstrate that distinct BNST subregions exert opposite effects in modulating anxiety, establish separable anxiolytic roles for different anterodorsal BNST projections, and illustrate circuit mechanisms underlying selection of features for the assembly of the anxious state.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Sung-Yon -- Adhikari, Avishek -- Lee, Soo Yeun -- Marshel, James H -- Kim, Christina K -- Mallory, Caitlin S -- Lo, Maisie -- Pak, Sally -- Mattis, Joanna -- Lim, Byung Kook -- Malenka, Robert C -- Warden, Melissa R -- Neve, Rachael -- Tye, Kay M -- Deisseroth, Karl -- F32 MH088010/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- T32 MH020002/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 11;496(7444):219-23. doi: 10.1038/nature12018. Epub 2013 Mar 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23515158" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Anxiety/pathology/*physiopathology ; Electrophysiology ; Mice ; Neural Pathways/*physiology ; Optogenetics ; Septal Nuclei/anatomy & histology/cytology/*physiopathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-04-12
    Description: Obtaining high-resolution information from a complex system, while maintaining the global perspective needed to understand system function, represents a key challenge in biology. Here we address this challenge with a method (termed CLARITY) for the transformation of intact tissue into a nanoporous hydrogel-hybridized form (crosslinked to a three-dimensional network of hydrophilic polymers) that is fully assembled but optically transparent and macromolecule-permeable. Using mouse brains, we show intact-tissue imaging of long-range projections, local circuit wiring, cellular relationships, subcellular structures, protein complexes, nucleic acids and neurotransmitters. CLARITY also enables intact-tissue in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry with multiple rounds of staining and de-staining in non-sectioned tissue, and antibody labelling throughout the intact adult mouse brain. Finally, we show that CLARITY enables fine structural analysis of clinical samples, including non-sectioned human tissue from a neuropsychiatric-disease setting, establishing a path for the transmutation of human tissue into a stable, intact and accessible form suitable for probing structural and molecular underpinnings of physiological function and disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4092167/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4092167/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chung, Kwanghun -- Wallace, Jenelle -- Kim, Sung-Yon -- Kalyanasundaram, Sandhiya -- Andalman, Aaron S -- Davidson, Thomas J -- Mirzabekov, Julie J -- Zalocusky, Kelly A -- Mattis, Joanna -- Denisin, Aleksandra K -- Pak, Sally -- Bernstein, Hannah -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Grosenick, Logan -- Gradinaru, Viviana -- Deisseroth, Karl -- DP1 OD000616/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA020794/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH099647/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 May 16;497(7449):332-7. doi: 10.1038/nature12107. Epub 2013 Apr 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23575631" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*anatomy & histology ; Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry ; Formaldehyde/chemistry ; Humans ; Hydrogel/chemistry ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional/*methods ; In Situ Hybridization/methods ; Lipids/isolation & purification ; Mice ; Molecular Imaging/*methods ; Permeability ; Phenotype ; Scattering, Radiation
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-11-05
    Description: Anxiety-related conditions are among the most difficult neuropsychiatric diseases to treat pharmacologically, but respond to cognitive therapies. There has therefore been interest in identifying relevant top-down pathways from cognitive control regions in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Identification of such pathways could contribute to our understanding of the cognitive regulation of affect, and provide pathways for intervention. Previous studies have suggested that dorsal and ventral mPFC subregions exert opposing effects on fear, as do subregions of other structures. However, precise causal targets for top-down connections among these diverse possibilities have not been established. Here we show that the basomedial amygdala (BMA) represents the major target of ventral mPFC in amygdala in mice. Moreover, BMA neurons differentiate safe and aversive environments, and BMA activation decreases fear-related freezing and high-anxiety states. Lastly, we show that the ventral mPFC-BMA projection implements top-down control of anxiety state and learned freezing, both at baseline and in stress-induced anxiety, defining a broadly relevant new top-down behavioural regulation pathway.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Adhikari, Avishek -- Lerner, Talia N -- Finkelstein, Joel -- Pak, Sally -- Jennings, Joshua H -- Davidson, Thomas J -- Ferenczi, Emily -- Gunaydin, Lisa A -- Mirzabekov, Julie J -- Ye, Li -- Kim, Sung-Yon -- Lei, Anna -- Deisseroth, Karl -- 1F32MH105053-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- K99 MH106649/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- K99MH106649/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 12;527(7577):179-85. doi: 10.1038/nature15698. Epub 2015 Nov 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; CNC Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94304, USA. ; Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26536109" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amygdala/cytology/*physiology ; Animals ; Anxiety/*physiopathology/psychology ; Extinction, Psychological/physiology ; Fear/*physiology/psychology ; Female ; Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic/physiology ; Learning/physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Neural Pathways/*physiology ; Prefrontal Cortex/cytology/physiology ; Stress, Psychological/physiopathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-13
    Description: Transformation media theory, which steers waves in solids via an effective geometry induced by a refractive material (Fermat’s principle of least action), provides a means of controlling vibrations and elastic waves beyond the traditional dissipative structures regime. In particular, it could be used to create an elastic wave cloak, shielding an interior region against elastic waves while simultaneously preventing scattering in the outside domain. However, as a true elastic wave cloak would generally require materials with stiffness tensors lacking the minor symmetry (implying asymmetric stress), the utility of such an elastic wave cloak has thus far been limited by the challenge of fabricating these materials. Here we develop a means of overcoming this limitation via the development of a symmetrized elastic cloak (SEC), sacrificing some of the performance of the perfect cloak for the sake of restoring the minor symmetry. We test the performance of the SEC for shielding a tunnel...
    Electronic ISSN: 1367-2630
    Topics: Physics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0375-9601
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0375-9601
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1588-2837
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Для исследования гетерогенно-гомогенных реакций путем вымораживания из газовой фазы и регистрации радикалов методом ЭПР предложен и изучен фотолиз алкилперекисных радикалов светом с λ≦250 нм. На примере реакции разложения аминов в присутствии кислорода показано, что в результате фотодиссоциации вымороженного перекисного радикала можно восстановить структуру исходного алкильного радикала.
    Notes: Abstract Photolysis of alkylperoxy radicals with λ≦250 nm light has been studied and proposed for investigation of heterogeneous-homogeneous reactions by freezing out radicals from the gas phase and their ESR identification. Using amine decomposition reaction in the presence of O2 as an example, we have shown that photodissociation of frozen peroxy radicals can be used to reduce the structure of initial alkyl radicals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-935X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The conditions for the appearance of a heterogeneous-homogeneous reaction at atmospheric pressure over the total catalytic oxidation catalysts CuCr2O4/ γ-Al2O3 and Pt/γ-Al2O3 and the relationships governing it were investigated by the matrix isolation method and ESB. Relationships were established between the contribution from the homogeneous component of oxidation to the overall transformation in the presence of the catalyst and the concentrations and ratios of the reagents, the temperature, and the catalyst.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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