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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-06-23
    Description: Breast carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide, with an estimated 1.38 million new cases and 458,000 deaths in 2008 alone. This malignancy represents a heterogeneous group of tumours with characteristic molecular features, prognosis and responses to available therapy. Recurrent somatic alterations in breast cancer have been described, including mutations and copy number alterations, notably ERBB2 amplifications, the first successful therapy target defined by a genomic aberration. Previous DNA sequencing studies of breast cancer genomes have revealed additional candidate mutations and gene rearrangements. Here we report the whole-exome sequences of DNA from 103 human breast cancers of diverse subtypes from patients in Mexico and Vietnam compared to matched-normal DNA, together with whole-genome sequences of 22 breast cancer/normal pairs. Beyond confirming recurrent somatic mutations in PIK3CA, TP53, AKT1, GATA3 and MAP3K1, we discovered recurrent mutations in the CBFB transcription factor gene and deletions of its partner RUNX1. Furthermore, we have identified a recurrent MAGI3-AKT3 fusion enriched in triple-negative breast cancer lacking oestrogen and progesterone receptors and ERBB2 expression. The MAGI3-AKT3 fusion leads to constitutive activation of AKT kinase, which is abolished by treatment with an ATP-competitive AKT small-molecule inhibitor.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4148686/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4148686/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Banerji, Shantanu -- Cibulskis, Kristian -- Rangel-Escareno, Claudia -- Brown, Kristin K -- Carter, Scott L -- Frederick, Abbie M -- Lawrence, Michael S -- Sivachenko, Andrey Y -- Sougnez, Carrie -- Zou, Lihua -- Cortes, Maria L -- Fernandez-Lopez, Juan C -- Peng, Shouyong -- Ardlie, Kristin G -- Auclair, Daniel -- Bautista-Pina, Veronica -- Duke, Fujiko -- Francis, Joshua -- Jung, Joonil -- Maffuz-Aziz, Antonio -- Onofrio, Robert C -- Parkin, Melissa -- Pho, Nam H -- Quintanar-Jurado, Valeria -- Ramos, Alex H -- Rebollar-Vega, Rosa -- Rodriguez-Cuevas, Sergio -- Romero-Cordoba, Sandra L -- Schumacher, Steven E -- Stransky, Nicolas -- Thompson, Kristin M -- Uribe-Figueroa, Laura -- Baselga, Jose -- Beroukhim, Rameen -- Polyak, Kornelia -- Sgroi, Dennis C -- Richardson, Andrea L -- Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo -- Lander, Eric S -- Gabriel, Stacey B -- Garraway, Levi A -- Golub, Todd R -- Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge -- Toker, Alex -- Getz, Gad -- Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo -- Meyerson, Matthew -- CA089393/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA122099/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA122099/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jun 20;486(7403):405-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11154.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22722202" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Breast Neoplasms/*classification/*genetics/pathology ; Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit/genetics ; Core Binding Factor beta Subunit/genetics ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Exome/genetics ; Female ; Gene Fusion/genetics ; Humans ; Membrane Proteins/genetics ; Mexico ; Mutation/*genetics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/metabolism ; Translocation, Genetic/*genetics ; Vietnam
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-04-13
    Description: Fossil dinosaur embryos are surprisingly rare, being almost entirely restricted to Upper Cretaceous strata that record the late stages of non-avian dinosaur evolution. Notable exceptions are the oldest known embryos from the Early Jurassic South African sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Late Jurassic embryos of a theropod from Portugal. The fact that dinosaur embryos are rare and typically enclosed in eggshells limits their availability for tissue and cellular level investigations of development. Consequently, little is known about growth patterns in dinosaur embryos, even though post-hatching ontogeny has been studied in several taxa. Here we report the discovery of an embryonic dinosaur bone bed from the Lower Jurassic of China, the oldest such occurrence in the fossil record. The embryos are similar in geological age to those of Massospondylus and are also assignable to a sauropodomorph dinosaur, probably Lufengosaurus. The preservation of numerous disarticulated skeletal elements and eggshells in this monotaxic bone bed, representing different stages of incubation and therefore derived from different nests, provides opportunities for new investigations of dinosaur embryology in a clade noted for gigantism. For example, comparisons among embryonic femora of different sizes and developmental stages reveal a consistently rapid rate of growth throughout development, possibly indicating that short incubation times were characteristic of sauropodomorphs. In addition, asymmetric radial growth of the femoral shaft and rapid expansion of the fourth trochanter suggest that embryonic muscle activation played an important role in the pre-hatching ontogeny of these dinosaurs. This discovery also provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic remains in a terrestrial vertebrate.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reisz, Robert R -- Huang, Timothy D -- Roberts, Eric M -- Peng, ShinRung -- Sullivan, Corwin -- Stein, Koen -- LeBlanc, Aaron R H -- Shieh, DarBin -- Chang, RongSeng -- Chiang, ChengCheng -- Yang, Chuanwei -- Zhong, Shiming -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 11;496(7444):210-4. doi: 10.1038/nature11978.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, Ontario L5L 1C6, Canada. robert.reisz@utoronto.ca〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23579680" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; China ; Dinosaurs/*anatomy & histology/*embryology ; Femur/anatomy & histology/embryology ; *Fossils ; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared ; Synchrotrons
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-09-30
    Description: Earlier spring leaf unfolding is a frequently observed response of plants to climate warming. Many deciduous tree species require chilling for dormancy release, and warming-related reductions in chilling may counteract the advance of leaf unfolding in response to warming. Empirical evidence for this, however, is limited to saplings or twigs in climate-controlled chambers. Using long-term in situ observations of leaf unfolding for seven dominant European tree species at 1,245 sites, here we show that the apparent response of leaf unfolding to climate warming (ST, expressed in days advance of leaf unfolding per degrees C warming) has significantly decreased from 1980 to 2013 in all monitored tree species. Averaged across all species and sites, ST decreased by 40% from 4.0 +/- 1.8 days degrees C(-1) during 1980-1994 to 2.3 +/- 1.6 days degrees C(-1) during 1999-2013. The declining ST was also simulated by chilling-based phenology models, albeit with a weaker decline (24-30%) than observed in situ. The reduction in ST is likely to be partly attributable to reduced chilling. Nonetheless, other mechanisms may also have a role, such as 'photoperiod limitation' mechanisms that may become ultimately limiting when leaf unfolding dates occur too early in the season. Our results provide empirical evidence for a declining ST, but also suggest that the predicted strong winter warming in the future may further reduce ST and therefore result in a slowdown in the advance of tree spring phenology.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fu, Yongshuo H -- Zhao, Hongfang -- Piao, Shilong -- Peaucelle, Marc -- Peng, Shushi -- Zhou, Guiyun -- Ciais, Philippe -- Huang, Mengtian -- Menzel, Annette -- Penuelas, Josep -- Song, Yang -- Vitasse, Yann -- Zeng, Zhenzhong -- Janssens, Ivan A -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 1;526(7571):104-7. doi: 10.1038/nature15402. Epub 2015 Sep 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; Centre of Excellence PLECO (Plant and Vegetation Ecology), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. ; Key Laboratory of Alpine Ecology and Biodiversity, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. ; Center for Excellence in Tibetan Earth Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. ; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA CNRS UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette 91190, France. ; School of Resources and Environment, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China. ; Ecoclimatology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Freising 85354, Germany. ; Technische Universitat Munchen, Institute for Advanced Study, Lichtenbergstrasse 2a, 85748 Garching, Germany. ; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona 08193, Catalonia, Spain. ; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona 08193, Catalonia, Spain. ; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; University of Neuchatel, Institute of Geography, Neuchatel 2000, Switzerland. ; WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Neuchatel 2000, Switzerland. ; WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Group Mountain Ecosystems, Davos 7260, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416746" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cold Temperature ; Europe ; *Global Warming ; Models, Biological ; Photoperiod ; Plant Leaves/*growth & development ; *Seasons ; Time Factors ; Trees/*growth & development
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-08-21
    Description: Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = +/-7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Zhu -- Guan, Dabo -- Wei, Wei -- Davis, Steven J -- Ciais, Philippe -- Bai, Jin -- Peng, Shushi -- Zhang, Qiang -- Hubacek, Klaus -- Marland, Gregg -- Andres, Robert J -- Crawford-Brown, Douglas -- Lin, Jintai -- Zhao, Hongyan -- Hong, Chaopeng -- Boden, Thomas A -- Feng, Kuishuang -- Peters, Glen P -- Xi, Fengming -- Liu, Junguo -- Li, Yuan -- Zhao, Yu -- Zeng, Ning -- He, Kebin -- England -- Nature. 2015 Aug 20;524(7565):335-8. doi: 10.1038/nature14677.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China. ; Resnick Sustainability Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. ; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; School of International Development, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. ; CAS Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Conversion Science and Engineering, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China. ; Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA. ; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, CE Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France. ; State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan 030001, China. ; CNRS and UJF Grenoble 1, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE, UMR5183), 38041 Grenoble, France. ; Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA. ; Research Institute for Environment, Energy, and Economics, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina 28608, USA. ; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA. ; Cambridge Centre for Climate Change Mitigation Research, Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge, 19 Silver Street, Cambridge CB3 9EP, UK. ; Laboratory for Climate and Ocean-Atmosphere Studies, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo (CICERO), N-0318 Oslo, Norway. ; CAS Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China. ; School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 10083, China. ; Ecosystems Services &Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. ; School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control &Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China. ; Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2425, USA. ; Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26289204" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Carbon/*analysis ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis ; Carbon Sequestration ; China ; Climate Change ; Coal/utilization ; Construction Materials/*supply & distribution ; Fossil Fuels/*utilization ; Trees/metabolism ; Uncertainty
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    Unknown
    The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (ASPET)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-06
    Description: Nitidine chloride (NC) is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid isolated from the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC, a widely used traditional herbal medicine. Several reports have revealed NC’s multiple pharmacologic properties. The inhibitory effects of NC on human cytochrome P450 enzymes were investigated in the present study. We found that NC caused time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of CYP2D6, and more than 50% of CYP2D6 activity was suppressed after a 15-minute incubation with NC at 100 μ M in the primary incubation mixtures, with K I of 4.36 μ M, k inact of 0.052 minute –1 , and a partition ratio of approximately 290. Moreover, the loss of CYP2D6 activity required the presence of NADPH. Superoxide dismutase/catalase and glutathione showed minor protection against the NC-induced enzyme inhibition. Quinidine as a competitive inhibitor of CYP2D6 slowed down the inactivation by NC. Trapping experiments using N -acetylcysteine demonstrated that quinone and/or carbene intermediate(s) were/was generated in human liver microsomal incubations with NC. In addition, potassium ferricyanide prevented the enzyme from the inactivation mediated by NC, which provided evidence that inhibition of CYP2D6 resulted from heme destruction by the formation of a carbene-iron complex. CYP1A2 was found to be the major enzyme involved in the generation of NC quinone metabolites. In conclusion, NC is a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP2D6. The generation of a carbene intermediate might be mainly responsible for the enzyme inactivation.
    Print ISSN: 0090-9556
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-009X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-10-05
    Description: Knowledge of the past variability of climate at high northern latitudes during astronomical analogues of the present interglacial may help to inform our understanding of future climate change. Unfortunately, long-term continuous records of ice-sheet variability in the Northern Hemisphere only are scarce because records of benthic (18)O content represent an integrated signal of changes in ice volume in both polar regions. However, variations in Northern Hemisphere ice sheets influence the Siberian High (an atmospheric pressure system), so variations in the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM)--as recorded in the aeolian dust deposits on the Chinese Loess Plateau--can serve as a useful proxy of Arctic climate variability before the ice-core record begins. Here we present an EAWM proxy record using grain-size variations in two parallel loess sections representative of sequences across the whole of the Chinese Loess Plateau over the past 900,000 years. The results show that during periods of low eccentricity and precessional variability at approximately 400,000-year intervals, the grain-size-inferred intensity of the EAWM remains weak for up to 20,000 years after the end of the interglacial episode of high summer monsoon activity and strong pedogenesis. In contrast, there is a rapid increase in the EAWM after the end of most other interglacials. We conclude that, for both the 400,000-year interglacials, the weak EAWM winds maintain a mild, non-glacial climate at high northern latitudes for much longer than expected from the conventional loess and marine oxygen isotope records. During these times, the less-severe summer insolation minima at 65 degrees N (ref. 4) would have suppressed ice and snow accumulation, leading to a weak Siberian High and, consequently, weak EAWM winds.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hao, Qingzhen -- Wang, Luo -- Oldfield, Frank -- Peng, Shuzhen -- Qin, Li -- Song, Yang -- Xu, Bing -- Qiao, Yansong -- Bloemendal, Jan -- Guo, Zhengtang -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 18;490(7420):393-6. doi: 10.1038/nature11493. Epub 2012 Oct 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Key Laboratory of Cenozoic Geology and Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. haoqz@mail.iggcas.ac.cn〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23034648" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arctic Regions ; China ; Edible Grain/anatomy & histology/growth & development ; Global Warming/*history/*statistics & numerical data ; History, Ancient ; *Ice Cover ; Oxygen/analysis/metabolism ; Oxygen Isotopes ; Particle Size ; Rain ; Seasons ; Siberia ; *Sunlight ; Wind
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-09-06
    Description: Temperature data over the past five decades show faster warming of the global land surface during the night than during the day. This asymmetric warming is expected to affect carbon assimilation and consumption in plants, because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during daytime and is more sensitive to the maximum daily temperature, Tmax, whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day and is therefore influenced by both Tmax and the minimum daily temperature, Tmin. Most studies of the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate warming, however, ignore this asymmetric forcing effect on vegetation growth and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes. Here we analyse the interannual covariations of the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, an indicator of vegetation greenness) with Tmax and Tmin over the Northern Hemisphere. After removing the correlation between Tmax and Tmin, we find that the partial correlation between Tmax and NDVI is positive in most wet and cool ecosystems over boreal regions, but negative in dry temperate regions. In contrast, the partial correlation between Tmin and NDVI is negative in boreal regions, and exhibits a more complex behaviour in dry temperate regions. We detect similar patterns in terrestrial net CO2 exchange maps obtained from a global atmospheric inversion model. Additional analysis of the long-term atmospheric CO2 concentration record of the station Point Barrow in Alaska suggests that the peak-to-peak amplitude of CO2 increased by 23 +/- 11% for a +1 degrees C anomaly in Tmax from May to September over lands north of 51 degrees N, but decreased by 28 +/- 14% for a +1 degrees C anomaly in Tmin. These lines of evidence suggest that asymmetric diurnal warming, a process that is currently not taken into account in many global carbon cycle models, leads to a divergent response of Northern Hemisphere vegetation growth and carbon sequestration to rising temperatures.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Peng, Shushi -- Piao, Shilong -- Ciais, Philippe -- Myneni, Ranga B -- Chen, Anping -- Chevallier, Frederic -- Dolman, Albertus J -- Janssens, Ivan A -- Penuelas, Josep -- Zhang, Gengxin -- Vicca, Sara -- Wan, Shiqiang -- Wang, Shiping -- Zeng, Hui -- England -- Nature. 2013 Sep 5;501(7465):88-92. doi: 10.1038/nature12434.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24005415" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Carbon/metabolism ; Carbon Cycle ; Carbon Dioxide/metabolism ; Cell Respiration ; Circadian Rhythm ; *Darkness ; Ecosystem ; *Geography ; *Global Warming ; Photosynthesis/radiation effects ; Plants/*metabolism/radiation effects ; Sunlight ; Temperature
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-01-28
    Description: Earth system models project that the tropical land carbon sink will decrease in size in response to an increase in warming and drought during this century, probably causing a positive climate feedback. But available data are too limited at present to test the predicted changes in the tropical carbon balance in response to climate change. Long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide data provide a global record that integrates the interannual variability of the global carbon balance. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that most of this variability originates in the terrestrial biosphere. In particular, the year-to-year variations in the atmospheric carbon dioxide growth rate (CGR) are thought to be the result of fluctuations in the carbon fluxes of tropical land areas. Recently, the response of CGR to tropical climate interannual variability was used to put a constraint on the sensitivity of tropical land carbon to climate change. Here we use the long-term CGR record from Mauna Loa and the South Pole to show that the sensitivity of CGR to tropical temperature interannual variability has increased by a factor of 1.9 +/- 0.3 in the past five decades. We find that this sensitivity was greater when tropical land regions experienced drier conditions. This suggests that the sensitivity of CGR to interannual temperature variations is regulated by moisture conditions, even though the direct correlation between CGR and tropical precipitation is weak. We also find that present terrestrial carbon cycle models do not capture the observed enhancement in CGR sensitivity in the past five decades. More realistic model predictions of future carbon cycle and climate feedbacks require a better understanding of the processes driving the response of tropical ecosystems to drought and warming.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Xuhui -- Piao, Shilong -- Ciais, Philippe -- Friedlingstein, Pierre -- Myneni, Ranga B -- Cox, Peter -- Heimann, Martin -- Miller, John -- Peng, Shushi -- Wang, Tao -- Yang, Hui -- Chen, Anping -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 13;506(7487):212-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12915. Epub 2014 Jan 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; 1] Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China [2] Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. ; 1] Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China [2] Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA CNRS UVSQ, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France. ; College of Engineering, Mathematics, and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK. ; Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, 07701 Jena, Germany. ; 1] Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA [2] Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1003, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24463514" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antarctic Regions ; Atmosphere/chemistry ; Carbon/analysis/metabolism ; Carbon Cycle/*physiology ; Carbon Dioxide/metabolism ; Carbon Sequestration ; Droughts ; Ecosystem ; Global Warming ; Hawaii ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Humidity ; Models, Theoretical ; Rain ; *Temperature ; *Tropical Climate
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-11-02
    Description: Purpose: Previous human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-derived resistance studies were based on ex vivo models, which could not mirror evolutionary expression of HER2 during therapy. To investigate dynamic expression of HER2 and its contribution to developing therapeutic resistance conferred by chromosome aneuploidy, both the HER2 phenotype and chromosome 8 (Chr 8) aneuploidy on circulating tumor cells (CTC) were coexamined in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients. Experimental Design: A total of 115 AGC patients, including 56 of histopathologic HER2 + (hHER2 + ) subjects who received first-line HER2-targeted therapy plus chemotherapy, and 59 of hHER2 – patients who received chemotherapy alone, were prospectively enrolled. Both HER2 phenotype and Chr8 aneuploidy of CTCs in patients were coexamined by HER2-iFISH during therapy. Results: A fluctuated positive HER2 phenotype on CTCs (cHER2 + ) was revealed, showing cHER2 + at different time intervals during treatment. Acquisition of the cHER2 + phenotype in 91.0% of hHER2 + and 76.2% hHER2 – patients was demonstrated to correlate with development of resistance to trastuzumab-targeted therapy for hHER2 + patients and chemotherapy alone for hHER2 – patients. Aneuploid Chr8 was demonstrated to participate in the acquisition of the cHER2 + phenotype, which provides a growth advantage to HER2 + CTCs against therapeutic pressure, leading to the development of therapeutic resistance. Conclusions: Compared with low positivity of conventional histopathologic hHER2 examination routinely performed once, significant higher positivity of cHER2 + on CTCs was observed. Continuously examining cHER2 shows unique advantages with respect to monitoring therapeutic resistance in real time in carcinoma patients. Moreover, contribution of chromosome aneuploidy to the phenotypic evolution of HER2 expression on CTCs may help elucidate underlying mechanisms of developing therapeutic resistance. Clin Cancer Res; 24(21); 5261–71. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: The emergence of Turing structures is of fundamental importance, and designing these structures and developing their applications have practical effects in chemistry and biology. We use a facile route based on interfacial polymerization to generate Turing-type polyamide membranes for water purification. Manipulation of shapes by control of reaction conditions enabled the creation of membranes with bubble or tube structures. These membranes exhibit excellent water-salt separation performance that surpasses the upper-bound line of traditional desalination membranes. Furthermore, we show the existence of high water permeability sites in the Turing structures, where water transport through the membranes is enhanced.
    Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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