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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-09-30
    Description: Earlier spring leaf unfolding is a frequently observed response of plants to climate warming. Many deciduous tree species require chilling for dormancy release, and warming-related reductions in chilling may counteract the advance of leaf unfolding in response to warming. Empirical evidence for this, however, is limited to saplings or twigs in climate-controlled chambers. Using long-term in situ observations of leaf unfolding for seven dominant European tree species at 1,245 sites, here we show that the apparent response of leaf unfolding to climate warming (ST, expressed in days advance of leaf unfolding per degrees C warming) has significantly decreased from 1980 to 2013 in all monitored tree species. Averaged across all species and sites, ST decreased by 40% from 4.0 +/- 1.8 days degrees C(-1) during 1980-1994 to 2.3 +/- 1.6 days degrees C(-1) during 1999-2013. The declining ST was also simulated by chilling-based phenology models, albeit with a weaker decline (24-30%) than observed in situ. The reduction in ST is likely to be partly attributable to reduced chilling. Nonetheless, other mechanisms may also have a role, such as 'photoperiod limitation' mechanisms that may become ultimately limiting when leaf unfolding dates occur too early in the season. Our results provide empirical evidence for a declining ST, but also suggest that the predicted strong winter warming in the future may further reduce ST and therefore result in a slowdown in the advance of tree spring phenology.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fu, Yongshuo H -- Zhao, Hongfang -- Piao, Shilong -- Peaucelle, Marc -- Peng, Shushi -- Zhou, Guiyun -- Ciais, Philippe -- Huang, Mengtian -- Menzel, Annette -- Penuelas, Josep -- Song, Yang -- Vitasse, Yann -- Zeng, Zhenzhong -- Janssens, Ivan A -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 1;526(7571):104-7. doi: 10.1038/nature15402. Epub 2015 Sep 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; Centre of Excellence PLECO (Plant and Vegetation Ecology), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. ; Key Laboratory of Alpine Ecology and Biodiversity, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. ; Center for Excellence in Tibetan Earth Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. ; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA CNRS UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette 91190, France. ; School of Resources and Environment, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China. ; Ecoclimatology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Freising 85354, Germany. ; Technische Universitat Munchen, Institute for Advanced Study, Lichtenbergstrasse 2a, 85748 Garching, Germany. ; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona 08193, Catalonia, Spain. ; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona 08193, Catalonia, Spain. ; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; University of Neuchatel, Institute of Geography, Neuchatel 2000, Switzerland. ; WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Neuchatel 2000, Switzerland. ; WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Group Mountain Ecosystems, Davos 7260, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416746" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cold Temperature ; Europe ; *Global Warming ; Models, Biological ; Photoperiod ; Plant Leaves/*growth & development ; *Seasons ; Time Factors ; Trees/*growth & development
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-04-25
    Description: Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of climate change, and are mainly constrained by rainfall patterns. The severe short-term droughts that occurred recently in Amazonia have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climatic disturbances. The central African rainforests, the second-largest on Earth, have experienced a long-term drying trend whose impacts on vegetation dynamics remain mostly unknown because in situ observations are very limited. The Congolese forest, with its drier conditions and higher percentage of semi-evergreen trees, may be more tolerant to short-term rainfall reduction than are wetter tropical forests, but for a long-term drought there may be critical thresholds of water availability below which higher-biomass, closed-canopy forests transition to more open, lower-biomass forests. Here we present observational evidence for a widespread decline in forest greenness over the past decade based on analyses of satellite data (optical, thermal, microwave and gravity) from several independent sensors over the Congo basin. This decline in vegetation greenness, particularly in the northern Congolese forest, is generally consistent with decreases in rainfall, terrestrial water storage, water content in aboveground woody and leaf biomass, and the canopy backscatter anomaly caused by changes in structure and moisture in upper forest layers. It is also consistent with increases in photosynthetically active radiation and land surface temperature. These multiple lines of evidence indicate that this large-scale vegetation browning, or loss of photosynthetic capacity, may be partially attributable to the long-term drying trend. Our results suggest that a continued gradual decline of photosynthetic capacity and moisture content driven by the persistent drying trend could alter the composition and structure of the Congolese forest to favour the spread of drought-tolerant species.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhou, Liming -- Tian, Yuhong -- Myneni, Ranga B -- Ciais, Philippe -- Saatchi, Sassan -- Liu, Yi Y -- Piao, Shilong -- Chen, Haishan -- Vermote, Eric F -- Song, Conghe -- Hwang, Taehee -- England -- Nature. 2014 May 1;509(7498):86-90. doi: 10.1038/nature13265. Epub 2014 Apr 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York (SUNY), Albany, New York 12222, USA. ; I. M. Systems Group (IMSG), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service/The Center for Satellite Applications and Research (NOAA/NESDIS/STAR), 5830 University Research Court, College Park, Maryland 20740, USA. ; Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California 91109, USA. ; ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate Systems Science & Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia. ; Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 619, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA. ; 1] Department of Geography, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 29599, USA [2] School of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036, China. ; Institute for the Environment, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 29599, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24759324" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acclimatization ; Biodiversity ; Biomass ; Chlorophyll/analysis/metabolism ; Climate Change/*statistics & numerical data ; Congo ; Droughts/statistics & numerical data ; Photosynthesis ; Plant Leaves/*growth & development/metabolism ; *Rain ; Satellite Imagery ; Seasons ; Temperature ; Time Factors ; Trees/*growth & development/metabolism ; *Tropical Climate ; Water/analysis/metabolism ; Wood/growth & development/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-09-06
    Description: Temperature data over the past five decades show faster warming of the global land surface during the night than during the day. This asymmetric warming is expected to affect carbon assimilation and consumption in plants, because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during daytime and is more sensitive to the maximum daily temperature, Tmax, whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day and is therefore influenced by both Tmax and the minimum daily temperature, Tmin. Most studies of the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate warming, however, ignore this asymmetric forcing effect on vegetation growth and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes. Here we analyse the interannual covariations of the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, an indicator of vegetation greenness) with Tmax and Tmin over the Northern Hemisphere. After removing the correlation between Tmax and Tmin, we find that the partial correlation between Tmax and NDVI is positive in most wet and cool ecosystems over boreal regions, but negative in dry temperate regions. In contrast, the partial correlation between Tmin and NDVI is negative in boreal regions, and exhibits a more complex behaviour in dry temperate regions. We detect similar patterns in terrestrial net CO2 exchange maps obtained from a global atmospheric inversion model. Additional analysis of the long-term atmospheric CO2 concentration record of the station Point Barrow in Alaska suggests that the peak-to-peak amplitude of CO2 increased by 23 +/- 11% for a +1 degrees C anomaly in Tmax from May to September over lands north of 51 degrees N, but decreased by 28 +/- 14% for a +1 degrees C anomaly in Tmin. These lines of evidence suggest that asymmetric diurnal warming, a process that is currently not taken into account in many global carbon cycle models, leads to a divergent response of Northern Hemisphere vegetation growth and carbon sequestration to rising temperatures.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Peng, Shushi -- Piao, Shilong -- Ciais, Philippe -- Myneni, Ranga B -- Chen, Anping -- Chevallier, Frederic -- Dolman, Albertus J -- Janssens, Ivan A -- Penuelas, Josep -- Zhang, Gengxin -- Vicca, Sara -- Wan, Shiqiang -- Wang, Shiping -- Zeng, Hui -- England -- Nature. 2013 Sep 5;501(7465):88-92. doi: 10.1038/nature12434.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24005415" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Carbon/metabolism ; Carbon Cycle ; Carbon Dioxide/metabolism ; Cell Respiration ; Circadian Rhythm ; *Darkness ; Ecosystem ; *Geography ; *Global Warming ; Photosynthesis/radiation effects ; Plants/*metabolism/radiation effects ; Sunlight ; Temperature
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-01-28
    Description: Earth system models project that the tropical land carbon sink will decrease in size in response to an increase in warming and drought during this century, probably causing a positive climate feedback. But available data are too limited at present to test the predicted changes in the tropical carbon balance in response to climate change. Long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide data provide a global record that integrates the interannual variability of the global carbon balance. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that most of this variability originates in the terrestrial biosphere. In particular, the year-to-year variations in the atmospheric carbon dioxide growth rate (CGR) are thought to be the result of fluctuations in the carbon fluxes of tropical land areas. Recently, the response of CGR to tropical climate interannual variability was used to put a constraint on the sensitivity of tropical land carbon to climate change. Here we use the long-term CGR record from Mauna Loa and the South Pole to show that the sensitivity of CGR to tropical temperature interannual variability has increased by a factor of 1.9 +/- 0.3 in the past five decades. We find that this sensitivity was greater when tropical land regions experienced drier conditions. This suggests that the sensitivity of CGR to interannual temperature variations is regulated by moisture conditions, even though the direct correlation between CGR and tropical precipitation is weak. We also find that present terrestrial carbon cycle models do not capture the observed enhancement in CGR sensitivity in the past five decades. More realistic model predictions of future carbon cycle and climate feedbacks require a better understanding of the processes driving the response of tropical ecosystems to drought and warming.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Xuhui -- Piao, Shilong -- Ciais, Philippe -- Friedlingstein, Pierre -- Myneni, Ranga B -- Cox, Peter -- Heimann, Martin -- Miller, John -- Peng, Shushi -- Wang, Tao -- Yang, Hui -- Chen, Anping -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 13;506(7487):212-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12915. Epub 2014 Jan 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; 1] Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China [2] Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. ; 1] Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China [2] Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA CNRS UVSQ, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France. ; College of Engineering, Mathematics, and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK. ; Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, 07701 Jena, Germany. ; 1] Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA [2] Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1003, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24463514" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antarctic Regions ; Atmosphere/chemistry ; Carbon/analysis/metabolism ; Carbon Cycle/*physiology ; Carbon Dioxide/metabolism ; Carbon Sequestration ; Droughts ; Ecosystem ; Global Warming ; Hawaii ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Humidity ; Models, Theoretical ; Rain ; *Temperature ; *Tropical Climate
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: Knowledge of the contribution that individual countries have made to global radiative forcing is important to the implementation of the agreement on "common but differentiated responsibilities" reached by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Over the past three decades, China has experienced rapid economic development, accompanied by increased emission of greenhouse gases, ozone precursors and aerosols, but the magnitude of the associated radiative forcing has remained unclear. Here we use a global coupled biogeochemistry-climate model and a chemistry and transport model to quantify China's present-day contribution to global radiative forcing due to well-mixed greenhouse gases, short-lived atmospheric climate forcers and land-use-induced regional surface albedo changes. We find that China contributes 10% +/- 4% of the current global radiative forcing. China's relative contribution to the positive (warming) component of global radiative forcing, mainly induced by well-mixed greenhouse gases and black carbon aerosols, is 12% +/- 2%. Its relative contribution to the negative (cooling) component is 15% +/- 6%, dominated by the effect of sulfate and nitrate aerosols. China's strongest contributions are 0.16 +/- 0.02 watts per square metre for CO2 from fossil fuel burning, 0.13 +/- 0.05 watts per square metre for CH4, -0.11 +/- 0.05 watts per square metre for sulfate aerosols, and 0.09 +/- 0.06 watts per square metre for black carbon aerosols. China's eventual goal of improving air quality will result in changes in radiative forcing in the coming years: a reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions would drive a faster future warming, unless offset by larger reductions of radiative forcing from well-mixed greenhouse gases and black carbon.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Bengang -- Gasser, Thomas -- Ciais, Philippe -- Piao, Shilong -- Tao, Shu -- Balkanski, Yves -- Hauglustaine, Didier -- Boisier, Juan-Pablo -- Chen, Zhuo -- Huang, Mengtian -- Li, Laurent Zhaoxin -- Li, Yue -- Liu, Hongyan -- Liu, Junfeng -- Peng, Shushi -- Shen, Zehao -- Sun, Zhenzhong -- Wang, Rong -- Wang, Tao -- Yin, Guodong -- Yin, Yi -- Zeng, Hui -- Zeng, Zhenzhong -- Zhou, Feng -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):357-61. doi: 10.1038/nature17165.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, 210023, China. ; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France. ; Centre International de Recherche en Environnement et Developpement, CNRS-PontsParisTech-EHESS-AgroParisTech-CIRAD, 94736 Nogent-sur-Marne, France. ; Key Laboratory of Alpine Ecology and Biodiversity, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Center for Excellence in Tibetan Earth Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. ; Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 75252 Paris, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983540" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aerosols/analysis/chemistry ; Air Pollution/*analysis ; Atmosphere/*chemistry ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis ; China ; Fossil Fuels ; *Greenhouse Effect ; Methane/analysis ; Soot/analysis ; Sulfates/analysis ; Sulfur Dioxide/analysis ; Uncertainty
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-07-19
    Description: The terrestrial carbon sink has been large in recent decades, but its size and location remain uncertain. Using forest inventory data and long-term ecosystem carbon studies, we estimate a total forest sink of 2.4 +/- 0.4 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year(-1)) globally for 1990 to 2007. We also estimate a source of 1.3 +/- 0.7 Pg C year(-1) from tropical land-use change, consisting of a gross tropical deforestation emission of 2.9 +/- 0.5 Pg C year(-1) partially compensated by a carbon sink in tropical forest regrowth of 1.6 +/- 0.5 Pg C year(-1). Together, the fluxes comprise a net global forest sink of 1.1 +/- 0.8 Pg C year(-1), with tropical estimates having the largest uncertainties. Our total forest sink estimate is equivalent in magnitude to the terrestrial sink deduced from fossil fuel emissions and land-use change sources minus ocean and atmospheric sinks.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pan, Yude -- Birdsey, Richard A -- Fang, Jingyun -- Houghton, Richard -- Kauppi, Pekka E -- Kurz, Werner A -- Phillips, Oliver L -- Shvidenko, Anatoly -- Lewis, Simon L -- Canadell, Josep G -- Ciais, Philippe -- Jackson, Robert B -- Pacala, Stephen W -- McGuire, A David -- Piao, Shilong -- Rautiainen, Aapo -- Sitch, Stephen -- Hayes, Daniel -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Aug 19;333(6045):988-93. doi: 10.1126/science.1201609. Epub 2011 Jul 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Newtown Square, PA 19073, USA. ypan@fs.fed.us〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21764754" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Atmosphere ; Biomass ; Carbon/analysis ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis ; *Carbon Sequestration ; Climate Change ; Conservation of Natural Resources ; *Ecosystem ; *Trees ; Tropical Climate
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-15
    Description: Forzieri et al . (Reports, 16 June 2017, p. 1180) used satellite data to show that boreal greening caused regional warming. We show that this positive sensitivity of temperature to the greening can be derived from the positive response of vegetation to boreal warming, which indicates that results from a statistical regression with satellite data should be carefully interpreted.
    Keywords: Atmospheric Science
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-05-10
    Description: China has experienced substantial changes in vegetation cover, with a 10% increase in the leaf area index and an ~41.5 million-hectare increase in forest area since the 1980s. Earlier studies have suggested that increases in leaf area and tree cover have led to a decline in soil moisture and runoff due to increased evapotranspiration (ET), especially in dry regions of China. However, those studies often ignored precipitation responses to vegetation increases, which could offset some of the negative impact on soil moisture by increased ET. We investigated 30-year vegetation impacts on regional hydrology by allowing for vegetation-induced changes in precipitation using a coupled land-atmosphere global climate model, with a higher spatial resolution zoomed grid over China. We found high spatial heterogeneity in the vegetation impacts on key hydrological variables across China. In North and Southeast China, the increased precipitation from vegetation greening and the increased forest area, although statistically insignificant, supplied enough water to cancel out enhanced ET, resulting in weak impact on soil moisture. In Southwest China, however, the increase in vegetation cover significantly reduced soil moisture while precipitation was suppressed by the weakened summer monsoon. In Northeast China, the only area where forest cover declined, soil moisture was significantly reduced, by –8.1 mm decade –1 , likely because of an intensified anticyclonic circulation anomaly during summer. These results suggest that offline model simulations can overestimate the increase of soil dryness in response to afforestation in North China, if vegetation feedbacks lead to increased precipitation like in our study.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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