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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-10-11
    Description: Cell cycle quiescence is a critical feature contributing to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Although various candidate stromal cells have been identified as potential HSC niches, the spatial localization of quiescent HSCs in the bone marrow remains unclear. Here, using a novel approach that combines whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence imaging techniques and computational modelling to analyse significant three-dimensional associations in the mouse bone marrow among vascular structures, stromal cells and HSCs, we show that quiescent HSCs associate specifically with small arterioles that are preferentially found in endosteal bone marrow. These arterioles are ensheathed exclusively by rare NG2 (also known as CSPG4)(+) pericytes, distinct from sinusoid-associated leptin receptor (LEPR)(+) cells. Pharmacological or genetic activation of the HSC cell cycle alters the distribution of HSCs from NG2(+) periarteriolar niches to LEPR(+) perisinusoidal niches. Conditional depletion of NG2(+) cells induces HSC cycling and reduces functional long-term repopulating HSCs in the bone marrow. These results thus indicate that arteriolar niches are indispensable for maintaining HSC quiescence.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3821873/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3821873/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kunisaki, Yuya -- Bruns, Ingmar -- Scheiermann, Christoph -- Ahmed, Jalal -- Pinho, Sandra -- Zhang, Dachuan -- Mizoguchi, Toshihide -- Wei, Qiaozhi -- Lucas, Daniel -- Ito, Keisuke -- Mar, Jessica C -- Bergman, Aviv -- Frenette, Paul S -- HL069438/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL097700/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R00 CA139009/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK056638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK098263/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK100689/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL069438/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL097700/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL116340/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 063754/PHS HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Oct 31;502(7473):637-43. doi: 10.1038/nature12612. Epub 2013 Oct 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA [2] Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107994" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arterioles/*cytology ; Bone Marrow/blood supply ; Cell Division ; Cell Separation ; Female ; Flow Cytometry ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Male ; Mesenchymal Stromal Cells/cytology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Nestin/metabolism ; *Stem Cell Niche
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: Mucosal T lymphocytes from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) were previously shown to display a deficiency in branched N-glycosylation associated with disease severity. However, whether this glycosylation pathway shapes the course of the T cell response constituting a targeted-specific mechanism in UC remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-12-05
    Description: Whereas the cellular basis of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow has been characterized, the nature of the fetal liver niche is not yet elucidated. We show that Nestin(+)NG2(+) pericytes associate with portal vessels, forming a niche promoting HSC expansion. Nestin(+)NG2(+) cells and HSCs scale during development with the fractal branching patterns of portal vessels, tributaries of the umbilical vein. After closure of the umbilical inlet at birth, portal vessels undergo a transition from Neuropilin-1(+)Ephrin-B2(+) artery to EphB4(+) vein phenotype, associated with a loss of periportal Nestin(+)NG2(+) cells and emigration of HSCs away from portal vessels. These data support a model in which HSCs are titrated against a periportal vascular niche with a fractal-like organization enabled by placental circulation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4706788/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4706788/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Khan, Jalal A -- Mendelson, Avital -- Kunisaki, Yuya -- Birbrair, Alexander -- Kou, Yan -- Arnal-Estape, Anna -- Pinho, Sandra -- Ciero, Paul -- Nakahara, Fumio -- Ma'ayan, Avi -- Bergman, Aviv -- Merad, Miriam -- Frenette, Paul S -- CA164468/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DA033788/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DK056638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F30 943257/PHS HHS/ -- F32 HL123224/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL069438/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL097700/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA173861/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA190400/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA033788/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK056638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL069438/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL116340/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01GM098316/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 063754/PHS HHS/ -- U54 HL127624/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U54CA189201/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54HL127624/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):176-80. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0084. Epub 2015 Dec 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. ; Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. ; Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. ; Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. ; Department of Systems and Computational Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. ; Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. ; Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. paul.frenette@einstein.yu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26634440" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens/analysis ; Ephrin-B2/analysis ; Female ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*physiology ; Liver/blood supply/*embryology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Nestin/analysis ; Neuropilin-1/analysis ; Placental Circulation ; Portal System/chemistry/*embryology ; Pregnancy ; Proteoglycans/analysis ; Receptor, EphB4/analysis ; Stem Cell Niche/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; proliferation ; Germany ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; ACTIVATION ; FAMILY ; SEQUENCE ; SIGNALING PATHWAY ; XENOPUS ; HEAD ; HEAD INDUCTION ; BODY ; SEQUENCE-ANALYSIS ; SECRETED PROTEINS ; WNT ; PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS ; GLAND ; AXIS FORMATION ; neurogenesis ; EXPRESSION PATTERNS ; downregulation ; function ; ANTAGONISTS ; PRECHORDAL PLATE ; POLARITY ; regeneration ; ADULT STEM-CELLS ; BETA-CATENIN/TCF ; cnidaria ; CNIDARIAN ; DEVELOPMENTAL MECHANISMS ; dickkopf ; dkk ; HOMEOBOX GENE CLUSTERS ; HYDRA ; TENTACLE MORPHOGENESIS ; Wnt antagonism ; Wnt signalling
    Abstract: The dickkopf (dkk) gene family encodes secreted antagonists of Wnt signalling proteins, which have important functions in the control of cell fate, proliferation, and cell polarity during development. Here, we report the isolation, from a regeneration-specific signal peptide screen, of a novel dickkopf gene from the fresh water cnidarian Hydra. Comparative sequence analysis demonstrates that the Wnt antagonistic subfamily Dkk1/Dkk2/Dkk4 and the non-modulating subfamily Dkk3 separated prior to the divergence of cnidarians and bilaterians. In steady-state Hydra, hydkk1/2/4-expression is inversely related to that of hywnt3a. hydkk1/2/4 is an early injury and regeneration responsive gene, and hydkk1/2/4-expressing gland cells are essential for head regeneration in Hydra, although once the head has regenerated they are excluded from it. Activation of Wnt/beta-Catenin signalling leads to the complete downregulation of hydkk1/2/4 transcripts. When overexpressed in Xenopus, HyDkk1/2/4 has similar Wnt-antagonizing activity to the Xenopus gene Dkk1. Based on the corresponding expression patterns of hydkk1/2/4 and neuronal genes, we suggest that the body column of Hydra is a neurogenic environment suppressing Wnt signalling and facilitating neurogenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16452091
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  • 5
    Keywords: CELLS ; GENE ; DIFFERENTIATION ; MICE ; BIOLOGY ; beta-catenin ; OSTEOPOROSIS ; WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY ; WNT ; signaling ; MATRIX ; INCREASE ; osteoblast ; BONE ; dickkopf ; LRP5 ; OSTEOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION ; RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 ; SCLEROSTEOSIS ; SOST GENE ; VAN-BUCHEM-DISEASE
    Abstract: Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been proven to play a central role in bone biology. Unexpectedly, the Wnt antagonist Dkk2 is required for terminal osteoblast differentiation and mineralized matrix formation. We show that Dkk1, unlike Dkk2, negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16753024
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  • 6
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; CELL ; Germany ; INHIBITION ; PROTEIN ; DIFFERENTIATION ; HEART ; FAMILY ; INDUCTION ; BIOLOGY ; DOWN-REGULATION ; MEMBER ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; oligonucleotides ; HOMOLOG ; XENOPUS ; HEAD ; HEAD INDUCTION ; OVEREXPRESSION ; dkk3 ; SPEMANN ORGANIZER ; CELL-GROWTH ; signaling ; FAMILIES ; LEADS ; DEFECTS ; MESODERM ; TGF-BETA ; GLAND ; development ; LEVEL ; function ; UBIQUITIN ; DEFECT ; DEPLETION ; PRECHORDAL PLATE ; REDUCED EXPRESSION ; ZEBRAFISH DKK1 ; LIGASE ; FGF ; dkk ; activin ; WNT/BETA-CATENIN ; XENOPUS-EMBRYOS ; antisense ; Smad4 ; DICKKOPF GENES ; Ectodermin ; FGF RECEPTOR ; MATERNAL VEGT ; TIF1gamma ; TRIM33 ; VERTEBRATE DEVELOPMENT
    Abstract: The Dickkopf (Dkk) family is composed of four main members (Dkk1-4), which typically regulate Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. An exception is Dkk3, which does not affect Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and whose function is poorly characterized. Here, we describe the Xenopus dkk3 homolog and characterize its expression and function during embryogenesis. Dkk3 is maternally expressed and zygotically in the cement gland, head mesenchyme, and heart. We show that depletion of Dkk3 in Xenopus embryos by Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides induces axial defects as a result of Spemann organizer and mesoderm inhibition. Dkk3 depletion leads to down-regulation of Activin/Nodal signaling by reducing levels of Smad4 protein. Dkk3 overexpression can rescue phenotypic effects resulting from overexpression of the Smad4 ubiquitin ligase Ectodermin. Furthermore, depletion of Dkk3 up-regulates FGF signaling, while Dkk3 overexpression reduces it. These results indicate that Dkk3 modulates FGF and Activin/Nodal signaling to regulate mesoderm induction during early Xenopus development
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17490412
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract. We analyze the ferromagnetic Ising model on non-Euclidean scale invariant lattices with aperiodic interactions (J A ,J B ,J C ,J D ) defined by Rudin-Shapiro substitution rules with Migdal-Kadanoff renormalization (MKR) and transfer matrix (TM) techniques. The analysis of the invariant sets of the zero-field MKR transformation indicates that the critical behavior, completely distinct from the one of the uniform model, is described by a new off-diagonal fixed point. This contrasts with other aperiodic models where the new critical behavior is described by a period-two cycle. With the new fixed point, values for the thermal critical exponents, $\alpha $ and $\nu$ , as well as the period of log-periodic oscillations, are obtained. Exact recursive maps for all thermodynamical functions are derived within the TM approach. The explicit dependence of the thermodynamical functions with respect to temperature is evaluated by the numerical iteration of the set of maps until a previously chosen convergence is achieved. They also indicate that, depending on the actual choice for the aperiodic coupling constants, the magnetic exponents ( $\beta $ and $\gamma$ ) assume different values. However the Rushbrook relation is always satisfied.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this study was to compare qualitative and quantitative methods for coating characterization on internal surfaces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing used in procedures of extracorporeal circulation. The methods of characterization included optical microscopy (OM) after dyeing with toluidine blue, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). OM after sample dyeing was excellent in allowing early detection of any absence or irregularities of coatings among the used methods. SEM was the most effective in observing the structure and thickness either in heparin coatings or in lipid coatings. AFM provided a good evaluation of the surface topography. A conjunction of all methods is recommended for complete characterization. The quantification methods based on colorimetric tests were efficient in determining the concentrations of heparin and lipid on internal surface tubes, the coating stability and the reproducibility of the results. © 1998 Kluwer Academic Publishers
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Phytochemistry 12 (1973), S. 1184-1186 
    ISSN: 0031-9422
    Keywords: Aldina heterophylla ; Andira parviflora ; Crudia amazonica ; Diplotropis purpurea ; Eperua bijuga ; Leguminosae ; flavonoids.
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-10-30
    Description: Richard Kaschula, Sofia Pinho, and Claudio R. Alonso Disruptions of normal Hox gene expression can lead to severe morphological defects, revealing a link between the regulation of Hox expression and pattern formation. Here, we explore these links, focusing on the impact of microRNA regulation on the expression of the Drosophila Hox gene Ultrabithorax ( Ubx ) during haltere development. Through a combination of bioinformatic and transcriptomic analyses, we identify the miR-310/313 cluster ( miR-310C ) as a candidate regulator of Ubx . Several experiments confirm this. First, miR-310C and Ubx protein show complementary expression patterns in haltere imaginal discs; second, artificial activation of miR-310C expression in haltere discs leads to Ubx -like phenotypes. Third, expression of a fluorescent reporter bearing Ubx 3'UTR sequences is reduced when co-expressed with miR-310C . Fourth, deletion of miR-310C leads to Ubx upregulation and changes the array of mechanosensory sensilla at the base of the haltere. Fifth, an artificial increase of Ubx levels within the miR-310C expression domain phenocopies the mechanosensory defects observed in miR-310C mutants. We propose that miR-310C -mediated repression delimits Ubx fine-grain expression, contributing to the sculpting of complex morphologies in the Drosophila haltere with implications for flight control. Our work reveals a novel role of microRNA regulation in the control of Hox gene expression with impact on morphology.
    Print ISSN: 0950-1991
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-9129
    Topics: Biology
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