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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-11-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schultz, Matthew D -- He, Yupeng -- Whitaker, John W -- Hariharan, Manoj -- Mukamel, Eran A -- Leung, Danny -- Rajagopal, Nisha -- Nery, Joseph R -- Urich, Mark A -- Chen, Huaming -- Lin, Shin -- Lin, Yiing -- Jung, Inkyung -- Schmitt, Anthony D -- Selvaraj, Siddarth -- Ren, Bing -- Sejnowski, Terrence J -- Wang, Wei -- Ecker, Joseph R -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):242. doi: 10.1038/nature16179. Epub 2015 Nov 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26605523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-10-22
    Description: A large number of cis-regulatory sequences have been annotated in the human genome, but defining their target genes remains a challenge. One strategy is to identify the long-range looping interactions at these elements with the use of chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based techniques. However, previous studies lack either the resolution or coverage to permit a whole-genome, unbiased view of chromatin interactions. Here we report a comprehensive chromatin interaction map generated in human fibroblasts using a genome-wide 3C analysis method (Hi-C). We determined over one million long-range chromatin interactions at 5-10-kb resolution, and uncovered general principles of chromatin organization at different types of genomic features. We also characterized the dynamics of promoter-enhancer contacts after TNF-alpha signalling in these cells. Unexpectedly, we found that TNF-alpha-responsive enhancers are already in contact with their target promoters before signalling. Such pre-existing chromatin looping, which also exists in other cell types with different extracellular signalling, is a strong predictor of gene induction. Our observations suggest that the three-dimensional chromatin landscape, once established in a particular cell type, is relatively stable and could influence the selection or activation of target genes by a ubiquitous transcription activator in a cell-specific manner.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3838900/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3838900/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jin, Fulai -- Li, Yan -- Dixon, Jesse R -- Selvaraj, Siddarth -- Ye, Zhen -- Lee, Ah Young -- Yen, Chia-An -- Schmitt, Anthony D -- Espinoza, Celso A -- Ren, Bing -- P50 GM085764/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM085764-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008666/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017166/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Nov 14;503(7475):290-4. doi: 10.1038/nature12644. Epub 2013 Oct 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24141950" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line ; Chromatin/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *Chromosome Mapping ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation ; *Genome, Human ; Humans ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/physiology ; Protein Binding ; Signal Transduction ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-02-20
    Description: Higher-order chromatin structure is emerging as an important regulator of gene expression. Although dynamic chromatin structures have been identified in the genome, the full scope of chromatin dynamics during mammalian development and lineage specification remains to be determined. By mapping genome-wide chromatin interactions in human embryonic stem (ES) cells and four human ES-cell-derived lineages, we uncover extensive chromatin reorganization during lineage specification. We observe that although self-associating chromatin domains are stable during differentiation, chromatin interactions both within and between domains change in a striking manner, altering 36% of active and inactive chromosomal compartments throughout the genome. By integrating chromatin interaction maps with haplotype-resolved epigenome and transcriptome data sets, we find widespread allelic bias in gene expression correlated with allele-biased chromatin states of linked promoters and distal enhancers. Our results therefore provide a global view of chromatin dynamics and a resource for studying long-range control of gene expression in distinct human cell lineages.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4515363/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4515363/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dixon, Jesse R -- Jung, Inkyung -- Selvaraj, Siddarth -- Shen, Yin -- Antosiewicz-Bourget, Jessica E -- Lee, Ah Young -- Ye, Zhen -- Kim, Audrey -- Rajagopal, Nisha -- Xie, Wei -- Diao, Yarui -- Liang, Jing -- Zhao, Huimin -- Lobanenkov, Victor V -- Ecker, Joseph R -- Thomson, James A -- Ren, Bing -- R01 ES024984/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007198/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017166/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 19;518(7539):331-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14222.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0653, USA [2] Medical Scientist Training Program, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0653, USA. ; 1] Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0653, USA [2] Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; The Morgridge Institute for Research, 309 North Orchard Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53715, USA. ; Tsinghua University-Peking University Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Twinbrook I NIAID Facility, Room 1417, 5640 Fishers Lane, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; 1] The Morgridge Institute for Research, 309 North Orchard Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53715, USA [2] Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA [3] Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA. ; 1] Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0653, USA [2] University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Institute of Genomic Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0653, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25693564" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Allelic Imbalance/genetics ; *Cell Differentiation/genetics ; Cell Lineage/genetics ; Chromatin/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/genetics ; Embryonic Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; Epigenomics ; Gene Regulatory Networks ; Humans ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Reproducibility of Results
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-04-13
    Description: The spatial organization of the genome is intimately linked to its biological function, yet our understanding of higher order genomic structure is coarse, fragmented and incomplete. In the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, interphase chromosomes occupy distinct chromosome territories, and numerous models have been proposed for how chromosomes fold within chromosome territories. These models, however, provide only few mechanistic details about the relationship between higher order chromatin structure and genome function. Recent advances in genomic technologies have led to rapid advances in the study of three-dimensional genome organization. In particular, Hi-C has been introduced as a method for identifying higher order chromatin interactions genome wide. Here we investigate the three-dimensional organization of the human and mouse genomes in embryonic stem cells and terminally differentiated cell types at unprecedented resolution. We identify large, megabase-sized local chromatin interaction domains, which we term 'topological domains', as a pervasive structural feature of the genome organization. These domains correlate with regions of the genome that constrain the spread of heterochromatin. The domains are stable across different cell types and highly conserved across species, indicating that topological domains are an inherent property of mammalian genomes. Finally, we find that the boundaries of topological domains are enriched for the insulator binding protein CTCF, housekeeping genes, transfer RNAs and short interspersed element (SINE) retrotransposons, indicating that these factors may have a role in establishing the topological domain structure of the genome.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3356448/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3356448/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dixon, Jesse R -- Selvaraj, Siddarth -- Yue, Feng -- Kim, Audrey -- Li, Yan -- Shen, Yin -- Hu, Ming -- Liu, Jun S -- Ren, Bing -- R01 HG003991/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003991-03/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003991-03S1/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01GH003991/GH/CGH CDC HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Apr 11;485(7398):376-80. doi: 10.1038/nature11082.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22495300" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Binding Sites ; Cell Differentiation ; Chromatin/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism ; Chromosomes/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism ; Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Genes, Essential/genetics ; *Genome ; Heterochromatin/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Mammals/genetics ; Mice ; RNA, Transfer/genetics ; Repressor Proteins/metabolism ; Short Interspersed Nucleotide Elements/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-02-20
    Description: Allelic differences between the two homologous chromosomes can affect the propensity of inheritance in humans; however, the extent of such differences in the human genome has yet to be fully explored. Here we delineate allelic chromatin modifications and transcriptomes among a broad set of human tissues, enabled by a chromosome-spanning haplotype reconstruction strategy. The resulting large collection of haplotype-resolved epigenomic maps reveals extensive allelic biases in both chromatin state and transcription, which show considerable variation across tissues and between individuals, and allow us to investigate cis-regulatory relationships between genes and their control sequences. Analyses of histone modification maps also uncover intriguing characteristics of cis-regulatory elements and tissue-restricted activities of repetitive elements. The rich data sets described here will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms by which cis-regulatory elements control gene expression programs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4449149/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4449149/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Leung, Danny -- Jung, Inkyung -- Rajagopal, Nisha -- Schmitt, Anthony -- Selvaraj, Siddarth -- Lee, Ah Young -- Yen, Chia-An -- Lin, Shin -- Lin, Yiing -- Qiu, Yunjiang -- Xie, Wei -- Yue, Feng -- Hariharan, Manoj -- Ray, Pradipta -- Kuan, Samantha -- Edsall, Lee -- Yang, Hongbo -- Chi, Neil C -- Zhang, Michael Q -- Ecker, Joseph R -- Ren, Bing -- ES017166/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- F32 HL110473/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- F32HL110473/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K99 HL119617/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K99HL119617/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES024984/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008666/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017166/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 19;518(7539):350-4. doi: 10.1038/nature14217.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, M-344 Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University, Falk Building, 870 Quarry Road Stanford, California 94304, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, M-344 Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Ave, Campus Box 8109, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Tsinghua University-Peking University Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA. ; Genomic Analysis Laboratory, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Biological Sciences, Center for Systems Biology, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of California, San Diego, California 92093-0613, USA. ; 1] Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of California, San Diego, California 92093-0613, USA [2] Institute of Genomic Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Biological Sciences, Center for Systems Biology, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080, USA [2] Bioinformatics Division, Center for Synthetic and Systems Biology, TNLIST Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; 1] Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Institute of Genomic Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA [3] Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [4] UCSD Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25693566" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; *Alleles ; Chromatin/genetics/metabolism ; Chromosomes, Human/genetics ; Datasets as Topic ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; *Epigenomics ; Genetic Variation/genetics ; Haplotypes/*genetics ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; Nucleotide Motifs ; Organ Specificity/genetics ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-06-02
    Description: Understanding the diversity of human tissues is fundamental to disease and requires linking genetic information, which is identical in most of an individual's cells, with epigenetic mechanisms that could have tissue-specific roles. Surveys of DNA methylation in human tissues have established a complex landscape including both tissue-specific and invariant methylation patterns. Here we report high coverage methylomes that catalogue cytosine methylation in all contexts for the major human organ systems, integrated with matched transcriptomes and genomic sequence. By combining these diverse data types with each individuals' phased genome, we identified widespread tissue-specific differential CG methylation (mCG), partially methylated domains, allele-specific methylation and transcription, and the unexpected presence of non-CG methylation (mCH) in almost all human tissues. mCH correlated with tissue-specific functions, and using this mark, we made novel predictions of genes that escape X-chromosome inactivation in specific tissues. Overall, DNA methylation in several genomic contexts varies substantially among human tissues.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4499021/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4499021/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schultz, Matthew D -- He, Yupeng -- Whitaker, John W -- Hariharan, Manoj -- Mukamel, Eran A -- Leung, Danny -- Rajagopal, Nisha -- Nery, Joseph R -- Urich, Mark A -- Chen, Huaming -- Lin, Shin -- Lin, Yiing -- Jung, Inkyung -- Schmitt, Anthony D -- Selvaraj, Siddarth -- Ren, Bing -- Sejnowski, Terrence J -- Wang, Wei -- Ecker, Joseph R -- F32 HL110473/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- F32HL110473/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K99 HL119617/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K99 NS080911/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- K99HL119617/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R00 NS080911/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R00NS080911/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES024984/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008666/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017166/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 9;523(7559):212-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14465. Epub 2015 Jun 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Bioinformatics Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Genomic Analysis Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Genomic Analysis Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; 1] Computational Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, M-344 Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8109, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Bioinformatics Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Institute of Genomic Medicine, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Computational Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] Division of Biological Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Genomic Analysis Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26030523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; Alleles ; Chromosome Mapping ; *DNA Methylation ; *Epigenesis, Genetic ; Female ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Genetic Variation ; Humans ; Male ; Organ Specificity
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 83 (1998), S. 3696-3702 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Thin films of Bi2Te2Se1 of various thicknesses have been deposited on clean glass plates using the flash evaporation technique. Electrical resistance and thermoelectric power measurements have been carried out on these films in the temperature range 300–485 K. The thickness dependences of electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of the films have been analyzed using the effective mean-free path model. The thickness dependence of activation energy of the films is explained by Seto's polycrystalline model. Various material parameters such as mean-free path and Fermi energy have been calculated from the analysis of experimental data. The thermoelectric power factor of the films has been calculated using the measured electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power values. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    The @journal of organic chemistry 45 (1980), S. 3726-3727 
    ISSN: 1520-6904
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 86 (1999), S. 1518-1522 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Thin films of different thicknesses have been vacuum deposited onto clean glass plates held at room temperature using the flash evaporation technique in a vacuum of 2×10−5 Torr. The structural characterization of the bulk and the thin films was carried out using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction techniques. Electrical resistance and thermoelectric power of the films were measured in the same vacuum of 2×10−5 Torr in the temperature range 300–450 K. The conduction activation energy of the films was calculated using the electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power data of the films. The thickness dependence of the activation energy observed is attributed to the polycrystalline nature of the films. Grain growth and reorientation of the grains take place during the annealing process. The thickness dependence of electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of the films are explained by the effective mean free path model [C. R. Tellier, Thin Solid Films 51, 311 (1978)]. The important physical parameters like mean free path, Fermi energy, power index of the energy dependant expression for the mean free path, the hypothetical bulk resistivity and the thermoelectric power have been calculated by the combined analysis of electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power. The electron-phonon scattering mechanism is found to be dominant in the material. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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