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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: BiP and other endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–resident proteins are thought to be metabolically stable and to function primarily in the ER lumen. We sought to assess how the abundance of these proteins dynamically fluctuates in response to various stresses and how their subpopulations are relocated to non-ER compartments such as the cytosol. We showed that the molecular chaperone BiP (also known as GRP78) was short-lived under basal conditions and ER stress. The turnover of BiP was in part driven by its amino-terminal arginylation (Nt-arginylation) by the arginyltransferase ATE1, which generated an autophagic N-degron of the N-end rule pathway. ER stress elicited the formation of R-BiP, an effect that was increased when the proteasome was also inhibited. Nt-arginylation correlated with the cytosolic relocalization of BiP under the types of stress tested. The cytosolic relocalization of BiP did not require the functionality of the unfolded protein response or the Sec61- or Derlin1-containing translocon. A key inhibitor of the turnover and Nt-arginylation of BiP was HERP (homocysteine-responsive ER protein), a 43-kDa ER membrane–integrated protein that is an essential component of ER-associated protein degradation. Pharmacological inhibition of the ER-Golgi secretory pathway also suppressed R-BiP formation. Finally, we showed that cytosolic R-BiP induced by ER stress and proteasomal inhibition was routed to autophagic vacuoles and possibly additional metabolic fates. These results suggest that Nt-arginylation is a posttranslational modification that modulates the function, localization, and metabolic fate of ER-resident proteins.
    Print ISSN: 1945-0877
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-04-18
    Description: The geochemistry of Martian meteorites provides a wealth of information about the solid planet and the surface and atmospheric processes that occurred on Mars. The degree to which Martian magmas may have assimilated crustal material, thus altering the geochemical signatures acquired from their mantle sources, is unclear. This issue features prominently in efforts to understand whether the source of light rare-earth elements in enriched shergottites lies in crustal material incorporated into melts or in mixing between enriched and depleted mantle reservoirs. Sulphur isotope systematics offer insight into some aspects of crustal assimilation. The presence of igneous sulphides in Martian meteorites with sulphur isotope signatures indicative of mass-independent fractionation suggests the assimilation of sulphur both during passage of magmas through the crust of Mars and at sites of emplacement. Here we report isotopic analyses of 40 Martian meteorites that represent more than half of the distinct known Martian meteorites, including 30 shergottites (28 plus 2 pairs, where pairs are separate fragments of a single meteorite), 8 nakhlites (5 plus 3 pairs), Allan Hills 84001 and Chassigny. Our data provide strong evidence that assimilation of sulphur into Martian magmas was a common occurrence throughout much of the planet's history. The signature of mass-independent fractionation observed also indicates that the atmospheric imprint of photochemical processing preserved in Martian meteoritic sulphide and sulphate is distinct from that observed in terrestrial analogues, suggesting fundamental differences between the dominant sulphur chemistry in the atmosphere of Mars and that in the atmosphere of Earth.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Franz, Heather B -- Kim, Sang-Tae -- Farquhar, James -- Day, James M D -- Economos, Rita C -- McKeegan, Kevin D -- Schmitt, Axel K -- Irving, Anthony J -- Hoek, Joost -- Dottin, James 3rd -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 17;508(7496):364-8. doi: 10.1038/nature13175.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA [2] Department of Geology and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA. ; School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. ; Department of Geology and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA. ; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24740066" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-10-05
    Description: Grain boundaries in graphene are formed by the joining of islands during the initial growth stage, and these boundaries govern transport properties and related device performance. Although information on the atomic rearrangement at graphene grain boundaries can be obtained using transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy, large-scale information regarding the distribution of graphene grain boundaries is not easily accessible. Here we use optical microscopy to observe the grain boundaries of large-area graphene (grown on copper foil) directly, without transfer of the graphene. This imaging technique was realized by selectively oxidizing the underlying copper foil through graphene grain boundaries functionalized with O and OH radicals generated by ultraviolet irradiation under moisture-rich ambient conditions: selective diffusion of oxygen radicals through OH-functionalized defect sites was demonstrated by density functional calculations. The sheet resistance of large-area graphene decreased as the graphene grain sizes increased, but no strong correlation with the grain size of the copper was revealed, in contrast to a previous report. Furthermore, the influence of graphene grain boundaries on crack propagation (initialized by bending) and termination was clearly visualized using our technique. Our approach can be used as a simple protocol for evaluating the grain boundaries of other two-dimensional layered structures, such as boron nitride and exfoliated clays.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Duong, Dinh Loc -- Han, Gang Hee -- Lee, Seung Mi -- Gunes, Fethullah -- Kim, Eun Sung -- Kim, Sung Tae -- Kim, Heetae -- Ta, Quang Huy -- So, Kang Pyo -- Yoon, Seok Jun -- Chae, Seung Jin -- Jo, Young Woo -- Park, Min Ho -- Chae, Sang Hoon -- Lim, Seong Chu -- Choi, Jae Young -- Lee, Young Hee -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 11;490(7419):235-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11562. Epub 2012 Oct 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, South Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23034653" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-11-08
    Description: In the low-oxygen Archean world (〉2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column of Lake Matano, Indonesia, a low-sulfate analog for the Archean ocean, we find large (〉20 per mil) sulfur isotope fractionations between sulfate and sulfide, but the underlying sediment sulfides preserve a muted range of delta(34)S values. Using models informed by sulfur cycling in Lake Matano, we infer Archean seawater sulfate concentrations of less than 2.5 micromolar. At these low concentrations, marine sulfate residence times were likely 10(3) to 10(4) years, and sulfate scarcity would have shaped early global biogeochemical cycles, possibly restricting biological productivity in Archean oceans.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Crowe, Sean A -- Paris, Guillaume -- Katsev, Sergei -- Jones, CarriAyne -- Kim, Sang-Tae -- Zerkle, Aubrey L -- Nomosatryo, Sulung -- Fowle, David A -- Adkins, Jess F -- Sessions, Alex L -- Farquhar, James -- Canfield, Donald E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 7;346(6210):735-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1258966.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NordCEE and Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. sacrowe1@gmail.com. ; Department of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Large Lakes Observatory and Department of Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55812, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NordCEE and Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. ; School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. ; Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, UK. ; Research Center for Limnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Cibinong, West Java, Indonesia. ; Department of Geology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA. ; Department of Geology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. ; NordCEE and Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25378621" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biological Products/chemical synthesis/chemistry/*history ; History, Ancient ; Indonesia ; Seawater/*chemistry ; Sulfates/analysis/*history ; Sulfur Isotopes/analysis/history
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1011-1344
    Keywords: arylamine. ; pyrimidine dinner splitting
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1011-1344
    Keywords: DNA photolyase ; DNA repair ; UV effects ; flavins. ; photoreactivation
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2230
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Eleven cases of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL) were studied. The ages at presentation ranged from 34 to 79 years (mean = 59·9 years). Six patients were female and five male. Five of the 11 patients had a solitary tumour and the other six had multiple tumours at initial presentation. According to Burg's classification, six cases were at stage I, two stage II, two stage III and one was at stage IV at initial presentation. Abnormalities in laboratory data were rare, except for serum lactic dehydrogenase values. Epidermotropism was not detected, and the area mainly affected by neoplastic cells was the reticular dermis (seven cases) and suhcutis (four cases). Biopsy-specimens from the patients analysed by immunohisiochemical techniques on paraffin or cryostat sections showed CD20 and/or CD22 positivity. Biopsy specimens from two patients which showed CD 10 positivity were diffuse large cell types by the working formulation and presented as pre-B-cell lymphoma. At least two groups of CBCL were demonstrable on the basis of prognosis. One was a benign low-grade lymphoma presenting with solitary tumours, mature B-cell markers and intermediate-grade pathology, and the other was a high-grade lymphoma with multiple tumours, pre-B-cell or mature B-cell markers and a poor prognosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We report a case of cutaneous protothecosis treated successfully with oral fluconazole. Fluconazole appears to be an effective alternative to conventional drugs for the treatment of cutaneous protothecosis. Cutaneous protothecosis is an uncommon infection due to achlorophyllic, saprophytic, algae-like unicellular organisms of the genus Prototheca that occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. To date there is no standard treatment regimen. Surgical excision, oral ketoconazole, intravenous amphotericin B alone or in combination with oral teracycline have been reported to be effective in the management of protothecosis.1–3 We report a 55-year-old immunocompetent woman with cutaneous protothecosis which developed at the site of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection, who was successfully treated with oral fluconazole.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 132 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The peripheral T-cell lymphomas, presumably derived from various immunocompetent peripheral T-cell system components, form a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. We describe two patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma primarily involving subcutaneous tissue. They presented with multiple subcutaneous nodules. Skin biopsy specimens in both patients demonstrated a lobular subcutaneous infiltrate. The infiltrate consisted of small and medium-sized atypical lymphoid cells. Both patients had a protracted clinical course before they were diagnosed as having malignant lymphoma. We detected latent Epstein-Barr virus infection in the skin lesions of case 2. Latent Epstein-Barr virus infection might be related to the development of this variant of peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background β-Catenin, a participant in the Wnt pathway, has been shown to play an important role in the morphogenesis of hair follicles and the formation of hair follicle-related tumours, including pilomatricomas. It has been observed that at least 75% of human pilomatricomas possess activating mutations in β-catenin. These findings suggested that β-catenin plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of pilomatricomas. However, the pattern of β-catenin expression in pilomatricoma tissues is still unclear. Objectives To examine the expression of β-catenin in human pilomatricomas by immunohistochemical staining. Methods Twenty-six formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples of pilomatricoma tissue were studied. Results Most transitional cells of pilomatricoma expressed β-catenin strongly, but the basophilic cells and shadow cells did not. β-Catenin showed a prominent membranous immunoreactivity and a small amount of condensed cytoplasmic staining, but there was definitely no evidence of nuclear positivity. Conclusions These findings imply that β-catenin is primarily involved in cell–cell adhesion rather than cellular proliferation during pilomatricoma pathogenesis, and suggest that if β-catenin is involved in pilomatricoma tumorigenesis and tumour growth, it plays an indirect role.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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