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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-02-01
    Description: Transmembrane channel-like (TMC) genes encode a broadly conserved family of multipass integral membrane proteins in animals. Human TMC1 and TMC2 genes are linked to human deafness and required for hair-cell mechanotransduction; however, the molecular functions of these and other TMC proteins have not been determined. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans tmc-1 gene encodes a sodium sensor that functions specifically in salt taste chemosensation. tmc-1 is expressed in the ASH polymodal avoidance neurons, where it is required for salt-evoked neuronal activity and behavioural avoidance of high concentrations of NaCl. However, tmc-1 has no effect on responses to other stimuli sensed by the ASH neurons including high osmolarity and chemical repellents, indicating a specific role in salt sensation. When expressed in mammalian cell culture, C. elegans TMC-1 generates a predominantly cationic conductance activated by high extracellular sodium but not by other cations or uncharged small molecules. Thus, TMC-1 is both necessary for salt sensation in vivo and sufficient to generate a sodium-sensitive channel in vitro, identifying it as a probable ionotropic sensory receptor.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4021456/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4021456/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chatzigeorgiou, Marios -- Bang, Sangsu -- Hwang, Sun Wook -- Schafer, William R -- MC_U105185857/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2013 Feb 7;494(7435):95-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11845. Epub 2013 Jan 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cell Biology Division, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23364694" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Avoidance Learning/drug effects ; CHO Cells ; Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects/*physiology ; Cricetinae ; Electric Conductivity ; Ion Channels/agonists/genetics/*metabolism ; Osmolar Concentration ; Sodium Chloride/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Taste/drug effects/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-24
    Description: Nociceptor sensory neurons are specialized to detect potentially damaging stimuli, protecting the organism by initiating the sensation of pain and eliciting defensive behaviours. Bacterial infections produce pain by unknown molecular mechanisms, although they are presumed to be secondary to immune activation. Here we demonstrate that bacteria directly activate nociceptors, and that the immune response mediated through TLR2, MyD88, T cells, B cells, and neutrophils and monocytes is not necessary for Staphylococcus aureus-induced pain in mice. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in mice is correlated with live bacterial load rather than tissue swelling or immune activation. Bacteria induce calcium flux and action potentials in nociceptor neurons, in part via bacterial N-formylated peptides and the pore-forming toxin alpha-haemolysin, through distinct mechanisms. Specific ablation of Nav1.8-lineage neurons, which include nociceptors, abrogated pain during bacterial infection, but concurrently increased local immune infiltration and lymphadenopathy of the draining lymph node. Thus, bacterial pathogens produce pain by directly activating sensory neurons that modulate inflammation, an unsuspected role for the nervous system in host-pathogen interactions.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3773968/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3773968/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chiu, Isaac M -- Heesters, Balthasar A -- Ghasemlou, Nader -- Von Hehn, Christian A -- Zhao, Fan -- Tran, Johnathan -- Wainger, Brian -- Strominger, Amanda -- Muralidharan, Sriya -- Horswill, Alexander R -- Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane -- Hwang, Sun Wook -- Carroll, Michael C -- Woolf, Clifford J -- 5F32NS076297/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- 5P01NS072040/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- 5R01AI039246/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS072040/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01AI078897/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 HD018655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P30-HD018655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI039246/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS039518/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS039518/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37NS039518/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Sep 5;501(7465):52-7. doi: 10.1038/nature12479. Epub 2013 Aug 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23965627" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Bacterial Load ; Calcium Signaling ; Female ; Hemolysin Proteins/metabolism ; Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Hot Temperature ; Hyperalgesia/microbiology ; Immunity, Innate ; Inflammation/immunology/metabolism/*microbiology/pathology ; Lymphatic Diseases/immunology/microbiology/pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Monocytes ; Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/immunology ; N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine/metabolism ; NAV1.8 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel/deficiency/immunology/metabolism ; Neutrophils ; Nociceptors/*metabolism ; Pain/immunology/metabolism/*microbiology/*physiopathology ; Protein Stability ; Staphylococcal Infections/immunology/metabolism/microbiology ; Staphylococcus aureus/immunology/metabolism/*pathogenicity ; Toll-Like Receptor 2/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-04-05
    Description: The uniform growth of single-crystal graphene over wafer-scale areas remains a challenge in the commercial-level manufacturability of various electronic, photonic, mechanical, and other devices based on graphene. Here, we describe wafer-scale growth of wrinkle-free single-crystal monolayer graphene on silicon wafer using a hydrogen-terminated germanium buffer layer. The anisotropic twofold symmetry of the germanium (110) surface allowed unidirectional alignment of multiple seeds, which were merged to uniform single-crystal graphene with predefined orientation. Furthermore, the weak interaction between graphene and underlying hydrogen-terminated germanium surface enabled the facile etch-free dry transfer of graphene and the recycling of the germanium substrate for continual graphene growth.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Jae-Hyun -- Lee, Eun Kyung -- Joo, Won-Jae -- Jang, Yamujin -- Kim, Byung-Sung -- Lim, Jae Young -- Choi, Soon-Hyung -- Ahn, Sung Joon -- Ahn, Joung Real -- Park, Min-Ho -- Yang, Cheol-Woong -- Choi, Byoung Lyong -- Hwang, Sung-Woo -- Whang, Dongmok -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 18;344(6181):286-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1252268. Epub 2014 Apr 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746, Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24700471" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-04-04
    Description: The widespread use of thermoelectric technology is constrained by a relatively low conversion efficiency of the bulk alloys, which is evaluated in terms of a dimensionless figure of merit (zT). The zT of bulk alloys can be improved by reducing lattice thermal conductivity through grain boundary and point-defect scattering, which target low- and high-frequency phonons. Dense dislocation arrays formed at low-energy grain boundaries by liquid-phase compaction in Bi(0.5)Sb(1.5)Te3 (bismuth antimony telluride) effectively scatter midfrequency phonons, leading to a substantially lower lattice thermal conductivity. Full-spectrum phonon scattering with minimal charge-carrier scattering dramatically improved the zT to 1.86 +/- 0.15 at 320 kelvin (K). Further, a thermoelectric cooler confirmed the performance with a maximum temperature difference of 81 K, which is much higher than current commercial Peltier cooling devices.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Sang Il -- Lee, Kyu Hyoung -- Mun, Hyeon A -- Kim, Hyun Sik -- Hwang, Sung Woo -- Roh, Jong Wook -- Yang, Dae Jin -- Shin, Weon Ho -- Li, Xiang Shu -- Lee, Young Hee -- Snyder, G Jeffrey -- Kim, Sung Wng -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Apr 3;348(6230):109-14. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa4166.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Materials Research Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, Suwon 443-803, South Korea. sang.il.kim@samsung.com kimsungwng@skku.edu. ; Department of Nano Applied Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, South Korea. ; Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746, South Korea. IBS Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics, Institute for Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, South Korea. ; Materials Research Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, Suwon 443-803, South Korea. Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. ; Materials Research Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, Suwon 443-803, South Korea. ; Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746, South Korea. Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. ; Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746, South Korea. IBS Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics, Institute for Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, South Korea. sang.il.kim@samsung.com kimsungwng@skku.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25838382" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-01-19
    Description: Many procedures in modern clinical medicine rely on the use of electronic implants in treating conditions that range from acute coronary events to traumatic injury. However, standard permanent electronic hardware acts as a nidus for infection: bacteria form biofilms along percutaneous wires, or seed haematogenously, with the potential to migrate within the body and to provoke immune-mediated pathological tissue reactions. The associated surgical retrieval procedures, meanwhile, subject patients to the distress associated with re-operation and expose them to additional complications. Here, we report materials, device architectures, integration strategies, and in vivo demonstrations in rats of implantable, multifunctional silicon sensors for the brain, for which all of the constituent materials naturally resorb via hydrolysis and/or metabolic action, eliminating the need for extraction. Continuous monitoring of intracranial pressure and temperature illustrates functionality essential to the treatment of traumatic brain injury; the measurement performance of our resorbable devices compares favourably with that of non-resorbable clinical standards. In our experiments, insulated percutaneous wires connect to an externally mounted, miniaturized wireless potentiostat for data transmission. In a separate set-up, we connect a sensor to an implanted (but only partially resorbable) data-communication system, proving the principle that there is no need for any percutaneous wiring. The devices can be adapted to sense fluid flow, motion, pH or thermal characteristics, in formats that are compatible with the body's abdomen and extremities, as well as the deep brain, suggesting that the sensors might meet many needs in clinical medicine.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kang, Seung-Kyun -- Murphy, Rory K J -- Hwang, Suk-Won -- Lee, Seung Min -- Harburg, Daniel V -- Krueger, Neil A -- Shin, Jiho -- Gamble, Paul -- Cheng, Huanyu -- Yu, Sooyoun -- Liu, Zhuangjian -- McCall, Jordan G -- Stephen, Manu -- Ying, Hanze -- Kim, Jeonghyun -- Park, Gayoung -- Webb, R Chad -- Lee, Chi Hwan -- Chung, Sangjin -- Wie, Dae Seung -- Gujar, Amit D -- Vemulapalli, Bharat -- Kim, Albert H -- Lee, Kyung-Mi -- Cheng, Jianjun -- Huang, Younggang -- Lee, Sang Hoon -- Braun, Paul V -- Ray, Wilson Z -- Rogers, John A -- F31MH101956/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):71-6. doi: 10.1038/nature16492. Epub 2016 Jan 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Republic of Korea. ; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632, Singapore. ; Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Department of Biomicrosystem Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, South Korea. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-713, South Korea. ; Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, The Center for Implantable Devices, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA. ; School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA. ; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, and Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-703, South Korea. ; Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26779949" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Absorbable Implants/adverse effects ; Administration, Cutaneous ; Animals ; Body Temperature ; Brain/*metabolism/surgery ; Electronics/*instrumentation ; Equipment Design ; Hydrolysis ; Male ; Monitoring, Physiologic/adverse effects/*instrumentation ; Organ Specificity ; Pressure ; *Prostheses and Implants/adverse effects ; Rats ; Rats, Inbred Lew ; *Silicon ; Telemetry/instrumentation ; Wireless Technology/instrumentation
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-09-29
    Description: A remarkable feature of modern silicon electronics is its ability to remain physically invariant, almost indefinitely for practical purposes. Although this characteristic is a hallmark of applications of integrated circuits that exist today, there might be opportunities for systems that offer the opposite behavior, such as implantable devices that function for medically useful time frames but then completely disappear via resorption by the body. We report a set of materials, manufacturing schemes, device components, and theoretical design tools for a silicon-based complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology that has this type of transient behavior, together with integrated sensors, actuators, power supply systems, and wireless control strategies. An implantable transient device that acts as a programmable nonantibiotic bacteriocide provides a system-level example.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3786576/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3786576/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hwang, Suk-Won -- Tao, Hu -- Kim, Dae-Hyeong -- Cheng, Huanyu -- Song, Jun-Kyul -- Rill, Elliott -- Brenckle, Mark A -- Panilaitis, Bruce -- Won, Sang Min -- Kim, Yun-Soung -- Song, Young Min -- Yu, Ki Jun -- Ameen, Abid -- Li, Rui -- Su, Yewang -- Yang, Miaomiao -- Kaplan, David L -- Zakin, Mitchell R -- Slepian, Marvin J -- Huang, Yonggang -- Omenetto, Fiorenzo G -- Rogers, John A -- EB002520/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- P41 EB002520/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Sep 28;337(6102):1640-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23019646" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Absorbable Implants ; Animals ; Anti-Bacterial Agents ; Electric Power Supplies ; *Electronics ; Metals ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Oxides ; *Semiconductors ; *Silicon ; Transistors, Electronic ; Wireless Technology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Envelope modulation of Coulomb blockade oscillations has been observed in the conductance of a semiconductor quantum dot weakly connected to two reservoirs through tunneling barriers and subjected to magnetic fields. Although the number of conductance peaks per modulation period has been reported to be constant, we find that in moderate magnetic fields the number of peaks per period decreases one by one as gate voltage is changed. This results from the electronic depopulation of a single Landau level per modulation period. Comparing this result with calculated energy levels, the strength of electronic confinement is estimated to be 2.2 meV.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Cryobiology 1 (1965), S. 305-311 
    ISSN: 0011-2240
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Cryobiology 12 (1975), S. 568-569 
    ISSN: 0011-2240
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 74 (1999), S. 714-716 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Electronic transport properties through an ensemble of InAs self-assembled quantum dots are reported. A metal–semiconductor–metal diode with self-assembled quantum dots has been fabricated. Clear staircases are observed in the current–voltage characteristics measured from the diode, and several peak structures are identified in the differential conductance. These conductance peaks are interpreted as due to resonant tunneling through the energy states of the self-assembled quantum dots. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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