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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-07-19
    Description: The terrestrial carbon sink has been large in recent decades, but its size and location remain uncertain. Using forest inventory data and long-term ecosystem carbon studies, we estimate a total forest sink of 2.4 +/- 0.4 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year(-1)) globally for 1990 to 2007. We also estimate a source of 1.3 +/- 0.7 Pg C year(-1) from tropical land-use change, consisting of a gross tropical deforestation emission of 2.9 +/- 0.5 Pg C year(-1) partially compensated by a carbon sink in tropical forest regrowth of 1.6 +/- 0.5 Pg C year(-1). Together, the fluxes comprise a net global forest sink of 1.1 +/- 0.8 Pg C year(-1), with tropical estimates having the largest uncertainties. Our total forest sink estimate is equivalent in magnitude to the terrestrial sink deduced from fossil fuel emissions and land-use change sources minus ocean and atmospheric sinks.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pan, Yude -- Birdsey, Richard A -- Fang, Jingyun -- Houghton, Richard -- Kauppi, Pekka E -- Kurz, Werner A -- Phillips, Oliver L -- Shvidenko, Anatoly -- Lewis, Simon L -- Canadell, Josep G -- Ciais, Philippe -- Jackson, Robert B -- Pacala, Stephen W -- McGuire, A David -- Piao, Shilong -- Rautiainen, Aapo -- Sitch, Stephen -- Hayes, Daniel -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Aug 19;333(6045):988-93. doi: 10.1126/science.1201609. Epub 2011 Jul 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Newtown Square, PA 19073, USA. ypan@fs.fed.us〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21764754" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Atmosphere ; Biomass ; Carbon/analysis ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis ; *Carbon Sequestration ; Climate Change ; Conservation of Natural Resources ; *Ecosystem ; *Trees ; Tropical Climate
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-06-30
    Description: Ricklefs and Renner (Reports, 27 January 2012, p. 464) found significant correlations for abundances and species diversities of families and orders of trees on different continents, which they suggested falsifies the neutral theory of biodiversity (NTB). We argue that the correlations among families and orders and the lack of correlations among genera can be explained by the NTB.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, Anping -- Wang, Shaopeng -- Pacala, Stephen W -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jun 29;336(6089):1639; author reply 1639. doi: 10.1126/science.1222534.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. anpingc@princeton.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22745403" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biodiversity ; *Biological Evolution ; *Ecosystem ; *Trees
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-03-30
    Description: The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes multivariate correlations that constrain leaf traits of plant species primarily to a single axis of variation if data are normalized by leaf mass. We show that these traits are approximately distributed proportional to leaf area instead of mass, as expected for a light- and carbon dioxide-collecting organ. Much of the structure in the mass-normalized LES results from normalizing area-proportional traits by mass. Mass normalization induces strong correlations among area-proportional traits because of large variation among species in leaf mass per area (LMA). The high LMA variance likely reflects its functional relationship with leaf life span. A LES that is independent of mass- or area-normalization and LMA reveals physiological relationships that are inconsistent with those in global vegetation models designed to address climate change.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Osnas, Jeanne L D -- Lichstein, Jeremy W -- Reich, Peter B -- Pacala, Stephen W -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 May 10;340(6133):741-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1231574. Epub 2013 Mar 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08542, USA. jldosnas@gmail.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23539179" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Carbon Dioxide/metabolism ; Light ; Organ Size ; Plant Leaves/*anatomy & histology/metabolism/radiation effects ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: Tropical tree size distributions are remarkably consistent despite differences in the environments that support them. With data analysis and theory, we found a simple and biologically intuitive hypothesis to explain this property, which is the foundation of forest dynamics modeling and carbon storage estimates. After a disturbance, new individuals in the forest gap grow quickly in full sun until they begin to overtop one another. The two-dimensional space-filling of the growing crowns of the tallest individuals relegates a group of losing, slow-growing individuals to the understory. Those left in the understory follow a power-law size distribution, the scaling of which depends on only the crown area-to-diameter allometry exponent: a well-conserved value across tropical forests.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Farrior, C E -- Bohlman, S A -- Hubbell, S -- Pacala, S W -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):155-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0592.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. ; School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 0843-03092, Balboa, Ancon, Republic of Panama. ; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 0843-03092, Balboa, Ancon, Republic of Panama. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744402" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Carbon/analysis ; *Forests ; Trees/*anatomy & histology/*growth & development
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 344 (1990), S. 150-153 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Knowledge of carbon exchange between the atmosphere, land and the oceans is important, given that the terrestrial and marine environments are currently absorbing about half of the carbon dioxide that is emitted by fossil-fuel combustion. This carbon uptake is therefore limiting the extent of ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Oecologia 91 (1992), S. 118-125 
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Anolis ; Lizards ; Parasites ; Islands
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The communities of parasitic helminths from ten species of lizards on seven islands in the Caribbean were examined to ascertain the relative importance of predictable deterministic factors and unpredicatable colonization or extinction events in determining the structure of the parasite community. A simple graphical model of community structure is used as a “null model” to describe the features of a community that are dependent only upon the size of the host population and features of the life histories of the constituent parasite species. This model predicts that parasite species will exhibit a nested pattern of local and global relative abundance. The observed data correspond fairly well to this pattern. The absences of individual parasite species from communities where they might be expected to be present emphasizes the role of stochastic colonization and extinction events in delineating the constituent members of the community on any island. Statistical analysis of the distribution of parasite species per host illustrates that this pattern is random in habitats where parasite species diversity is low, but decreasingly variable in habitats where more diverse parasite communities occur. Increased parasite diversity also leads to an increase in the proportion of hosts that contain mixed species infections. Comparisons of worm burdens from single and mixed species infections within individual hosts suggest that interactions between parasite species only rarely leads to reduced worm burdens.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Clonal growth models ; Clonal plants ; Stochastic simulation models ; Rhizomes ; Solidago altissima
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary As clonal plants grow they move through space. The movement patterns that result can be complex and difficult to interpret without the aid of models. We developed a stochastic simulation model of clonal growth in the tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima. Our model was calibrated with field data on the clonal expansion of both seedlings and established clones, and model assumptions were verified by statistical analyses. When simulations were based on empirical distributions with long rhizome lengths, there was greater dispersal, less leaf overlap, and less spatial aggregation than when simulations were based on distributions with comparatively short rhizome lengths. For the field data that we utilized, variation in rhizome lengths had a greater effect than variation for either branching angles or “rhizome initiation points” (see text). We also found that observed patterns of clonal growth in S. altissima did not cause the formation of “fairy rings”. However, simulations with an artificial distribution of branching angles demonstrate that “fairy rings” can result solely from a plant's clonal morphology. Stochastic simulation models that incorporated variation in rhizome lengths, branching angles, and rhizome initiation points produced greater dispersal and less leaf overlap than deterministic models. Thus, variation for clonal growth parameters may increase the efficiency of substrate exploration by increasing the area covered and by decreasing the potential for intraclonal competition. We also demonstrated that ramet displacements were slightly, but consistently lower in stochastic simulation models than in random-walk models. This difference was due to the incorporation of details on rhizome bud initiation into stochastic simulation models, but not random-walk models. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of deterministic, stochastic simulation, and random-walk models of clonal growth.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-07-13
    Description: Methane emissions from the U.S. oil and natural gas supply chain were estimated by using ground-based, facility-scale measurements and validated with aircraft observations in areas accounting for ~30% of U.S. gas production. When scaled up nationally, our facility-based estimate of 2015 supply chain emissions is 13 ± 2 teragrams per year, equivalent to 2.3% of gross U.S. gas production. This value is ~60% higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency inventory estimate, likely because existing inventory methods miss emissions released during abnormal operating conditions. Methane emissions of this magnitude, per unit of natural gas consumed, produce radiative forcing over a 20-year time horizon comparable to the CO 2 from natural gas combustion. Substantial emission reductions are feasible through rapid detection of the root causes of high emissions and deployment of less failure-prone systems.
    Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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