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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: Tumour metastasis is the primary cause of mortality in cancer patients and remains the key challenge for cancer therapy. New therapeutic approaches to block inhibitory pathways of the immune system have renewed hopes for the utility of such therapies. Here we show that genetic deletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b (casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b) or targeted inactivation of its E3 ligase activity licenses natural killer (NK) cells to spontaneously reject metastatic tumours. The TAM tyrosine kinase receptors Tyro3, Axl and Mer (also known as Mertk) were identified as ubiquitylation substrates for Cbl-b. Treatment of wild-type NK cells with a newly developed small molecule TAM kinase inhibitor conferred therapeutic potential, efficiently enhancing anti-metastatic NK cell activity in vivo. Oral or intraperitoneal administration using this TAM inhibitor markedly reduced murine mammary cancer and melanoma metastases dependent on NK cells. We further report that the anticoagulant warfarin exerts anti-metastatic activity in mice via Cbl-b/TAM receptors in NK cells, providing a molecular explanation for a 50-year-old puzzle in cancer biology. This novel TAM/Cbl-b inhibitory pathway shows that it might be possible to develop a 'pill' that awakens the innate immune system to kill cancer metastases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Paolino, Magdalena -- Choidas, Axel -- Wallner, Stephanie -- Pranjic, Blanka -- Uribesalgo, Iris -- Loeser, Stefanie -- Jamieson, Amanda M -- Langdon, Wallace Y -- Ikeda, Fumiyo -- Fededa, Juan Pablo -- Cronin, Shane J -- Nitsch, Roberto -- Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten -- Eickhoff, Jan -- Menninger, Sascha -- Unger, Anke -- Torka, Robert -- Gruber, Thomas -- Hinterleitner, Reinhard -- Baier, Gottfried -- Wolf, Dominik -- Ullrich, Axel -- Klebl, Bert M -- Penninger, Josef M -- W 1101/Austrian Science Fund FWF/Austria -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 27;507(7493):508-12. doi: 10.1038/nature12998. Epub 2014 Feb 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉IMBA, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1030 Vienna, Austria. ; Lead Discovery Center GmbH, D-44227 Dortmund, Germany. ; Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA. ; School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Perth, Australia. ; Max-Planck, Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Molecular Biology, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany. ; 1] Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria [2] Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Animals ; Anticoagulants/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Female ; Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects/*immunology/metabolism ; Male ; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy/genetics/immunology/*pathology ; Melanoma, Experimental/drug therapy/genetics/immunology/*pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy/*immunology/prevention & control ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Ubiquitination ; Warfarin/pharmacology/therapeutic use
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; CELL ; PATHWAY ; SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE ; COMPLEX ; BIOLOGY ; SEQUENCE ; DELETION ; SUBUNIT ; resistance ; CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE ; NETHERLANDS ; INSIGHTS ; molecular biology ; SOFTWARE ; SYNTHASE ; BACILLUS-SUBTILIS ; glutamine ; Determination ; FEDERATION ; Oligomerisation ; GENE FAMILIES ; Glutamine amidotransferase ; Pdx ; PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE ; PYRIDOXAL 5'-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE ; Snz ; Twinning ; Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5-phosphate) ; VITAMIN-B-6 BIOSYNTHESIS ; X-ray structure
    Abstract: The universal enzymatic cofactor vitamin B6 can be synthesized as pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP) by the glutamine amidotransferase Pdx1. We show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pdx1 is hexameric by analytical ultracentrifugation and by crystallographic 3D structure determination. Bacterial homologues were previously reported to exist in hexamer: dodecamer equilibrium. A small sequence insertion found in yeast Pdx1 elevates the dodecamer dissociation constant when introduced into Bacillus subtilis Pdx1. Further, we demonstrate that the yeast Pdx1 C-terminus contacts an adjacent subunit, and deletion of this segment decreases enzymatic activity 3.5-fold, suggesting a role in catalysis. Structured summary: MINT-7147859: PDX1 (uniprotkb: P16451) and PDX1 (uniprotkb: P16451) bind (MI: 0407) by cosedimentation in solution (MI: 0028) MINT-7147899: PDX1 (uniprotkb: P37528) and PDX1 (uniprotkb: P37528) bind (MI: 0407) by cosedimentation in solution (MI: 0028) (C) 2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19523954
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  • 3
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation involves major biochemical and structural changes. In order to elucidate the role of gene regulatory changes during this process, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze the complete transcriptome and epigenome of human monocytes that were differentiated in vitro by addition of colony-stimulating factor 1 in serum-free medium. RESULTS: Numerous mRNAs and miRNAs were significantly up- or down-regulated. More than 100 discrete DNA regions, most often far away from transcription start sites, were rapidly demethylated by the ten eleven translocation enzymes, became nucleosome-free and gained histone marks indicative of active enhancers. These regions were unique for macrophages and associated with genes involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, phagocytosis and innate immune response. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we have discovered a phagocytic gene network that is repressed by DNA methylation in monocytes and rapidly de-repressed after the onset of macrophage differentiation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27478504
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  • 4
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