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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-06-24
    Description: More than half of the world's population now lives in cities, making the creation of a healthy urban environment a major policy priority. Cities have both health risks and benefits, but mental health is negatively affected: mood and anxiety disorders are more prevalent in city dwellers and the incidence of schizophrenia is strongly increased in people born and raised in cities. Although these findings have been widely attributed to the urban social environment, the neural processes that could mediate such associations are unknown. Here we show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging in three independent experiments, that urban upbringing and city living have dissociable impacts on social evaluative stress processing in humans. Current city living was associated with increased amygdala activity, whereas urban upbringing affected the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex, a key region for regulation of amygdala activity, negative affect and stress. These findings were regionally and behaviourally specific, as no other brain structures were affected and no urbanicity effect was seen during control experiments invoking cognitive processing without stress. Our results identify distinct neural mechanisms for an established environmental risk factor, link the urban environment for the first time to social stress processing, suggest that brain regions differ in vulnerability to this risk factor across the lifespan, and indicate that experimental interrogation of epidemiological associations is a promising strategy in social neuroscience.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lederbogen, Florian -- Kirsch, Peter -- Haddad, Leila -- Streit, Fabian -- Tost, Heike -- Schuch, Philipp -- Wust, Stefan -- Pruessner, Jens C -- Rietschel, Marcella -- Deuschle, Michael -- Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jun 22;474(7352):498-501. doi: 10.1038/nature10190.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Central Institute of Mental Health, University of Heidelberg/Medical Faculty Mannheim, 68159 Mannheim, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21697947" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amygdala/*physiology ; Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology ; *Cities/epidemiology ; Gyrus Cinguli/*physiology ; Humans ; Hydrocortisone/blood ; *Life Style ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Mental Health/statistics & numerical data ; Models, Neurological ; Mood Disorders/epidemiology ; Rural Health/statistics & numerical data ; Sample Size ; Schizophrenia/epidemiology ; Stress, Psychological/blood/epidemiology/*physiopathology ; Time Factors ; Urban Health/statistics & numerical data ; Urbanization
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Keywords: Germany ; RISK ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; GENES ; PATIENT ; MARKER ; ASSOCIATION ; DISORDER ; NO ; etiology ; MARKERS ; REGION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE ; LEVEL ; analysis ; HAPLOTYPE ; PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDERS ; USA ; depression ; population-based ; comparison ; quantitative ; ANXIETY ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; VA ; HAPLOTYPE SHARING ANALYSIS ; MAJOR DEPRESSION ; AMINO-ACID OXIDASE ; BIPOLAR-AFFECTIVE-DISORDER ; DAOA/G30 LOCUS ; DIAGNOSTIC BOUNDARIES ; G72/G30 GENE LOCUS ; PERSECUTORY DELUSIONS
    Abstract: Objective: G72 is among the most frequently replicated vulnerability genes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The authors previously found identical haplotypes of markers M23 and M24 to be associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and panic disorder. Given both the well-recognized familial clustering across these disorders and recent linkage findings implicating the region harboring G72 in the etiology of major depression and panic disorder, we can hypothesize that G72 should also be involved in the etiology of major depression. Neuroticism, measuring trait anxiety, may be the endophenotypic link underlying genetic associationswith G72 across diagnostic boundaries. The authors tested whether the previously observed risk haplotypes are also associated with major depression and neuroticism. Method: The authors performed a standard haplotype analysis in a group of 500 major depression patients and 1,030 population-based comparison subjects. The authors also performed an exploratory analysis on 10 additional G72 markers using a novel haplotype-sharing approach. They performed a quantitative trait haplotype analysis in an independent group of 907 individuals phenotyped for neuroticism. Results: The previously identified M23-M24 risk haplotype was significantly associated with major depression and high levels of neuroticism. The haplotype-sharing analysis also implicated the same region, whereas more proximal markers showed no association with major depression. Conclusions: This is the first study to the authors' knowledge to implicate the G72 locus in the etiology of major depression and neuroticism. The results strengthen the notion of a genetic overlap between diagnoses, commonly conceptualized as distinct entities. Neuroticism may constitute the common underlying endophenotypic link
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18346999
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7330
    Keywords: aneuploidy ; chromosome paint probes ; fluorescence in situ hybridization ; human spermatozoa
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using whole-chromosome paint probes was performed to evaluate disomy and diploidy frequency for chromosomes 1, 18, 19, and 22 in human sperm nuclei. Methods: Ten subjects of proven fertility and normal spermatic parameters were included in the study. A dual-color FISH method was carried out. Results: A total of 157,896 spermatozoa was scored. The mean frequencies of disomic sperm for chromosomes 1, 18, 19, and 22 were 0.22% (range, 0.19 to 0.28%), 0.24% (range, 0.14 to 0.37%), 0.22% (range, 0.17 to 0.30%), and 0.25% (range, 0.21 to 0.29%), respectively. The mean frequency of diploidy was 0.14% (range, 0.09 to 0.18%). No interindividual and interchromosomal variations in the aneuploidy frequency were observed between the different subjects. Conclusions: FISH with whole-chromosome paint probes provides a novel and efficient approach for disomy assessment in human sperm nuclei.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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