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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: BACKGROUND: It was recently discovered that abundant and stable extracellular RNA (exRNA) species exist in bodily fluids. Saliva is an emerging biofluid for biomarker development for noninvasive detection and screening of local and systemic diseases. Use of RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to profile exRNA is rapidly growing; however, no single preparation and analysis protocol can be used for all biofluids. Specifically, RNA-Seq of saliva is particularly challenging owing to high abundance of bacterial contents and low abundance of salivary exRNA. Given the laborious procedures needed for RNA-Seq library construction, sequencing, data storage, and data analysis, saliva-specific and optimized protocols are essential. METHODS: We compared different RNA isolation methods and library construction kits for long and small RNA sequencing. The role of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) depletion also was evaluated. RESULTS: The miRNeasy Micro Kit (Qiagen) showed the highest total RNA yield (70.8 ng/mL cell-free saliva) and best small RNA recovery, and the NEBNext library preparation kits resulted in the highest number of detected human genes [5649–6813 at 1 reads per kilobase RNA per million mapped (RPKM)] and small RNAs [482–696 microRNAs (miRNAs) and 190–214 other small RNAs]. The proportion of human RNA-Seq reads was much higher in rRNA-depleted saliva samples (41%) than in samples without rRNA depletion (14%). In addition, the transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived RNA fragments (tRFs), a novel class of small RNAs, were highly abundant in human saliva, specifically tRF-4 (4%) and tRF-5 (15.25%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results may help in selection of the best adapted methods of RNA isolation and small and long RNA library constructions for salivary exRNA studies.
    Keywords: Other Areas of Clinical Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0009-9147
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-8561
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-03-11
    Description: Anxiety--a sustained state of heightened apprehension in the absence of immediate threat--becomes severely debilitating in disease states. Anxiety disorders represent the most common of psychiatric diseases (28% lifetime prevalence) and contribute to the aetiology of major depression and substance abuse. Although it has been proposed that the amygdala, a brain region important for emotional processing, has a role in anxiety, the neural mechanisms that control anxiety remain unclear. Here we explore the neural circuits underlying anxiety-related behaviours by using optogenetics with two-photon microscopy, anxiety assays in freely moving mice, and electrophysiology. With the capability of optogenetics to control not only cell types but also specific connections between cells, we observed that temporally precise optogenetic stimulation of basolateral amygdala (BLA) terminals in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA)--achieved by viral transduction of the BLA with a codon-optimized channelrhodopsin followed by restricted illumination in the downstream CeA--exerted an acute, reversible anxiolytic effect. Conversely, selective optogenetic inhibition of the same projection with a third-generation halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0) increased anxiety-related behaviours. Importantly, these effects were not observed with direct optogenetic control of BLA somata, possibly owing to recruitment of antagonistic downstream structures. Together, these results implicate specific BLA-CeA projections as critical circuit elements for acute anxiety control in the mammalian brain, and demonstrate the importance of optogenetically targeting defined projections, beyond simply targeting cell types, in the study of circuit function relevant to neuropsychiatric disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3154022/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3154022/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tye, Kay M -- Prakash, Rohit -- Kim, Sung-Yon -- Fenno, Lief E -- Grosenick, Logan -- Zarabi, Hosniya -- Thompson, Kimberly R -- Gradinaru, Viviana -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Deisseroth, Karl -- 1F32MH088010-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- DP1 OD000616/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP1 OD000616-01/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA020794/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA020794-01/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH075957/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH075957-01A2/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 17;471(7338):358-62. doi: 10.1038/nature09820. Epub 2011 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21389985" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amygdala/cytology/*physiology/radiation effects ; Animals ; Anxiety/*physiopathology ; Anxiety Disorders/physiopathology ; Halorhodopsins/metabolism ; Light ; Mice ; Models, Neurological ; Neural Pathways/physiology/radiation effects ; Neurons/physiology/radiation effects ; Stress, Physiological/physiology ; Synapses/physiology/radiation effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-04-12
    Description: Obtaining high-resolution information from a complex system, while maintaining the global perspective needed to understand system function, represents a key challenge in biology. Here we address this challenge with a method (termed CLARITY) for the transformation of intact tissue into a nanoporous hydrogel-hybridized form (crosslinked to a three-dimensional network of hydrophilic polymers) that is fully assembled but optically transparent and macromolecule-permeable. Using mouse brains, we show intact-tissue imaging of long-range projections, local circuit wiring, cellular relationships, subcellular structures, protein complexes, nucleic acids and neurotransmitters. CLARITY also enables intact-tissue in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry with multiple rounds of staining and de-staining in non-sectioned tissue, and antibody labelling throughout the intact adult mouse brain. Finally, we show that CLARITY enables fine structural analysis of clinical samples, including non-sectioned human tissue from a neuropsychiatric-disease setting, establishing a path for the transmutation of human tissue into a stable, intact and accessible form suitable for probing structural and molecular underpinnings of physiological function and disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4092167/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4092167/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chung, Kwanghun -- Wallace, Jenelle -- Kim, Sung-Yon -- Kalyanasundaram, Sandhiya -- Andalman, Aaron S -- Davidson, Thomas J -- Mirzabekov, Julie J -- Zalocusky, Kelly A -- Mattis, Joanna -- Denisin, Aleksandra K -- Pak, Sally -- Bernstein, Hannah -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Grosenick, Logan -- Gradinaru, Viviana -- Deisseroth, Karl -- DP1 OD000616/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA020794/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH099647/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 May 16;497(7449):332-7. doi: 10.1038/nature12107. Epub 2013 Apr 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23575631" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*anatomy & histology ; Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry ; Formaldehyde/chemistry ; Humans ; Hydrogel/chemistry ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional/*methods ; In Situ Hybridization/methods ; Lipids/isolation & purification ; Mice ; Molecular Imaging/*methods ; Permeability ; Phenotype ; Scattering, Radiation
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-12-14
    Description: Major depression is characterized by diverse debilitating symptoms that include hopelessness and anhedonia. Dopamine neurons involved in reward and motivation are among many neural populations that have been hypothesized to be relevant, and certain antidepressant treatments, including medications and brain stimulation therapies, can influence the complex dopamine system. Until now it has not been possible to test this hypothesis directly, even in animal models, as existing therapeutic interventions are unable to specifically target dopamine neurons. Here we investigated directly the causal contributions of defined dopamine neurons to multidimensional depression-like phenotypes induced by chronic mild stress, by integrating behavioural, pharmacological, optogenetic and electrophysiological methods in freely moving rodents. We found that bidirectional control (inhibition or excitation) of specified midbrain dopamine neurons immediately and bidirectionally modulates (induces or relieves) multiple independent depression symptoms caused by chronic stress. By probing the circuit implementation of these effects, we observed that optogenetic recruitment of these dopamine neurons potently alters the neural encoding of depression-related behaviours in the downstream nucleus accumbens of freely moving rodents, suggesting that processes affecting depression symptoms may involve alterations in the neural encoding of action in limbic circuitry.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4160519/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4160519/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tye, Kay M -- Mirzabekov, Julie J -- Warden, Melissa R -- Ferenczi, Emily A -- Tsai, Hsing-Chen -- Finkelstein, Joel -- Kim, Sung-Yon -- Adhikari, Avishek -- Thompson, Kimberly R -- Andalman, Aaron S -- Gunaydin, Lisa A -- Witten, Ilana B -- Deisseroth, Karl -- DP2 DA035149/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- F32 MH880102/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jan 24;493(7433):537-41. doi: 10.1038/nature11740. Epub 2012 Dec 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. kaytye@mit.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23235822" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Depression/chemically induced/*physiopathology ; Dopamine/metabolism ; Dopaminergic Neurons/drug effects/*metabolism/radiation effects ; Female ; Male ; Mice ; Models, Neurological ; Nucleus Accumbens/metabolism ; Optogenetics ; Phenotype ; Rats ; Rats, Long-Evans ; Stress, Psychological/physiopathology ; Time Factors ; Ventral Tegmental Area/cytology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-11-05
    Description: Anxiety-related conditions are among the most difficult neuropsychiatric diseases to treat pharmacologically, but respond to cognitive therapies. There has therefore been interest in identifying relevant top-down pathways from cognitive control regions in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Identification of such pathways could contribute to our understanding of the cognitive regulation of affect, and provide pathways for intervention. Previous studies have suggested that dorsal and ventral mPFC subregions exert opposing effects on fear, as do subregions of other structures. However, precise causal targets for top-down connections among these diverse possibilities have not been established. Here we show that the basomedial amygdala (BMA) represents the major target of ventral mPFC in amygdala in mice. Moreover, BMA neurons differentiate safe and aversive environments, and BMA activation decreases fear-related freezing and high-anxiety states. Lastly, we show that the ventral mPFC-BMA projection implements top-down control of anxiety state and learned freezing, both at baseline and in stress-induced anxiety, defining a broadly relevant new top-down behavioural regulation pathway.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Adhikari, Avishek -- Lerner, Talia N -- Finkelstein, Joel -- Pak, Sally -- Jennings, Joshua H -- Davidson, Thomas J -- Ferenczi, Emily -- Gunaydin, Lisa A -- Mirzabekov, Julie J -- Ye, Li -- Kim, Sung-Yon -- Lei, Anna -- Deisseroth, Karl -- 1F32MH105053-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- K99 MH106649/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- K99MH106649/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 12;527(7577):179-85. doi: 10.1038/nature15698. Epub 2015 Nov 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; CNC Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94304, USA. ; Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26536109" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amygdala/cytology/*physiology ; Animals ; Anxiety/*physiopathology/psychology ; Extinction, Psychological/physiology ; Fear/*physiology/psychology ; Female ; Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic/physiology ; Learning/physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Neural Pathways/*physiology ; Prefrontal Cortex/cytology/physiology ; Stress, Psychological/physiopathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-11-20
    Description: The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to participate in high-level control of the generation of behaviours (including the decision to execute actions); indeed, imaging and lesion studies in human beings have revealed that PFC dysfunction can lead to either impulsive states with increased tendency to initiate action, or to amotivational states characterized by symptoms such as reduced activity, hopelessness and depressed mood. Considering the opposite valence of these two phenotypes as well as the broad complexity of other tasks attributed to PFC, we sought to elucidate the PFC circuitry that favours effortful behavioural responses to challenging situations. Here we develop and use a quantitative method for the continuous assessment and control of active response to a behavioural challenge, synchronized with single-unit electrophysiology and optogenetics in freely moving rats. In recording from the medial PFC (mPFC), we observed that many neurons were not simply movement-related in their spike-firing patterns but instead were selectively modulated from moment to moment, according to the animal's decision to act in a challenging situation. Surprisingly, we next found that direct activation of principal neurons in the mPFC had no detectable causal effect on this behaviour. We tested whether this behaviour could be causally mediated by only a subclass of mPFC cells defined by specific downstream wiring. Indeed, by leveraging optogenetic projection-targeting to control cells with specific efferent wiring patterns, we found that selective activation of those mPFC cells projecting to the brainstem dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a serotonergic nucleus implicated in major depressive disorder, induced a profound, rapid and reversible effect on selection of the active behavioural state. These results may be of importance in understanding the neural circuitry underlying normal and pathological patterns of action selection and motivation in behaviour.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Warden, Melissa R -- Selimbeyoglu, Aslihan -- Mirzabekov, Julie J -- Lo, Maisie -- Thompson, Kimberly R -- Kim, Sung-Yon -- Adhikari, Avishek -- Tye, Kay M -- Frank, Loren M -- Deisseroth, Karl -- 1F32MH088010-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- F32 MH088010/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Dec 20;492(7429):428-32. doi: 10.1038/nature11617.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. mwarden@stanford.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23160494" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Axons/physiology ; Behavior, Animal/*physiology ; Depression/psychology ; Electrophysiology ; Locomotion/physiology ; Male ; Motivation/*physiology ; Neurons/*physiology ; Optogenetics ; Prefrontal Cortex/*physiology ; Raphe Nuclei/*physiology ; Rats ; Rats, Long-Evans ; Swimming/*physiology ; Synapses/physiology ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-03-22
    Description: Behavioural states in mammals, such as the anxious state, are characterized by several features that are coordinately regulated by diverse nervous system outputs, ranging from behavioural choice patterns to changes in physiology (in anxiety, exemplified respectively by risk-avoidance and respiratory rate alterations). Here we investigate if and how defined neural projections arising from a single coordinating brain region in mice could mediate diverse features of anxiety. Integrating behavioural assays, in vivo and in vitro electrophysiology, respiratory physiology and optogenetics, we identify a surprising new role for the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in the coordinated modulation of diverse anxiety features. First, two BNST subregions were unexpectedly found to exert opposite effects on the anxious state: oval BNST activity promoted several independent anxious state features, whereas anterodorsal BNST-associated activity exerted anxiolytic influence for the same features. Notably, we found that three distinct anterodorsal BNST efferent projections-to the lateral hypothalamus, parabrachial nucleus and ventral tegmental area-each implemented an independent feature of anxiolysis: reduced risk-avoidance, reduced respiratory rate, and increased positive valence, respectively. Furthermore, selective inhibition of corresponding circuit elements in freely moving mice showed opposing behavioural effects compared with excitation, and in vivo recordings during free behaviour showed native spiking patterns in anterodorsal BNST neurons that differentiated safe and anxiogenic environments. These results demonstrate that distinct BNST subregions exert opposite effects in modulating anxiety, establish separable anxiolytic roles for different anterodorsal BNST projections, and illustrate circuit mechanisms underlying selection of features for the assembly of the anxious state.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Sung-Yon -- Adhikari, Avishek -- Lee, Soo Yeun -- Marshel, James H -- Kim, Christina K -- Mallory, Caitlin S -- Lo, Maisie -- Pak, Sally -- Mattis, Joanna -- Lim, Byung Kook -- Malenka, Robert C -- Warden, Melissa R -- Neve, Rachael -- Tye, Kay M -- Deisseroth, Karl -- F32 MH088010/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- T32 MH020002/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 11;496(7444):219-23. doi: 10.1038/nature12018. Epub 2013 Mar 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23515158" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Anxiety/pathology/*physiopathology ; Electrophysiology ; Mice ; Neural Pathways/*physiology ; Optogenetics ; Septal Nuclei/anatomy & histology/cytology/*physiopathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-04-10
    Description: Cancer metastasis requires that primary tumour cells evolve the capacity to intravasate into the lymphatic system or vasculature, and extravasate into and colonize secondary sites. Others have demonstrated that individual cells within complex populations show heterogeneity in their capacity to form secondary lesions. Here we develop a polyclonal mouse model of breast tumour heterogeneity, and show that distinct clones within a mixed population display specialization, for example, dominating the primary tumour, contributing to metastatic populations, or showing tropism for entering the lymphatic or vasculature systems. We correlate these stable properties to distinct gene expression profiles. Those clones that efficiently enter the vasculature express two secreted proteins, Serpine2 and Slpi, which were necessary and sufficient to program these cells for vascular mimicry. Our data indicate that these proteins not only drive the formation of extravascular networks but also ensure their perfusion by acting as anticoagulants. We propose that vascular mimicry drives the ability of some breast tumour cells to contribute to distant metastases while simultaneously satisfying a critical need of the primary tumour to be fed by the vasculature. Enforced expression of SERPINE2 and SLPI in human breast cancer cell lines also programmed them for vascular mimicry, and SERPINE2 and SLPI were overexpressed preferentially in human patients that had lung-metastatic relapse. Thus, these two secreted proteins, and the phenotype they promote, may be broadly relevant as drivers of metastatic progression in human cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4634366/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4634366/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wagenblast, Elvin -- Soto, Mar -- Gutierrez-Angel, Sara -- Hartl, Christina A -- Gable, Annika L -- Maceli, Ashley R -- Erard, Nicolas -- Williams, Alissa M -- Kim, Sun Y -- Dickopf, Steffen -- Harrell, J Chuck -- Smith, Andrew D -- Perou, Charles M -- Wilkinson, John E -- Hannon, Gregory J -- Knott, Simon R V -- 5P30CA045508/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA013106/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50-CA58223-09A1/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM062534/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM062534/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 16;520(7547):358-62. doi: 10.1038/nature14403. Epub 2015 Apr 8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Watson School of Biological Sciences, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA. ; 1] Watson School of Biological Sciences, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA [2] CRUK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robininson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK. ; Department of Genetics and Pathology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Molecular and Computational Biology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; Department of Pathology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25855289" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anticoagulants/metabolism ; Breast Neoplasms/*blood supply/genetics/metabolism/*pathology ; Clone Cells/metabolism/pathology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Disease Progression ; Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism/*pathology ; Extracellular Matrix/metabolism ; Female ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Lung Neoplasms/genetics/pathology ; Mice ; Neoplasm Metastasis/genetics/*pathology ; Recurrence ; Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor/metabolism ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Serpin E2/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-03-15
    Description: Rgs2, a regulator of G proteins, lowers blood pressure by decreasing signaling through Galphaq. Human patients expressing Met-Leu-Rgs2 (ML-Rgs2) or Met-Arg-Rgs2 (MR-Rgs2) are hypertensive relative to people expressing wild-type Met-Gln-Rgs2 (MQ-Rgs2). We found that wild-type MQ-Rgs2 and its mutant, MR-Rgs2, were destroyed by the Ac/N-end rule pathway, which recognizes N(alpha)-terminally acetylated (Nt-acetylated) proteins. The shortest-lived mutant, ML-Rgs2, was targeted by both the Ac/N-end rule and Arg/N-end rule pathways. The latter pathway recognizes unacetylated N-terminal residues. Thus, the Nt-acetylated Ac-MX-Rgs2 (X = Arg, Gln, Leu) proteins are specific substrates of the mammalian Ac/N-end rule pathway. Furthermore, the Ac/N-degron of Ac-MQ-Rgs2 was conditional, and Teb4, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-embedded ubiquitin ligase, was able to regulate G protein signaling by targeting Ac-MX-Rgs2 proteins for degradation through their N(alpha)-terminal acetyl group.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4748709/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4748709/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Park, Sang-Eun -- Kim, Jeong-Mok -- Seok, Ok-Hee -- Cho, Hanna -- Wadas, Brandon -- Kim, Seon-Young -- Varshavsky, Alexander -- Hwang, Cheol-Sang -- DK039520/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- GM031530/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK039520/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM031530/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 13;347(6227):1249-52. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa3844.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784, South Korea. ; Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Medical Genomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon, South Korea. Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea. ; Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. cshwang@postech.ac.kr avarsh@caltech.edu. ; Department of Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784, South Korea. cshwang@postech.ac.kr avarsh@caltech.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25766235" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Amino Acid Sequence ; GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11/metabolism ; HEK293 Cells ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Membrane Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; Protein Stability ; Proteolysis ; RGS Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics/metabolism ; Ubiquitination
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters A 103 (1984), S. 225-228 
    ISSN: 0375-9601
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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