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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-01-22
    Description: In various cellular membrane systems, vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases) function as proton pumps, which are involved in many processes such as bone resorption and cancer metastasis, and these membrane proteins represent attractive drug targets for osteoporosis and cancer. The hydrophilic V(1) portion is known as a rotary motor, in which a central axis DF complex rotates inside a hexagonally arranged catalytic A(3)B(3) complex using ATP hydrolysis energy, but the molecular mechanism is not well defined owing to a lack of high-resolution structural information. We previously reported on the in vitro expression, purification and reconstitution of Enterococcus hirae V(1)-ATPase from the A(3)B(3) and DF complexes. Here we report the asymmetric structures of the nucleotide-free (2.8 A) and nucleotide-bound (3.4 A) A(3)B(3) complex that demonstrate conformational changes induced by nucleotide binding, suggesting a binding order in the right-handed rotational orientation in a cooperative manner. The crystal structures of the nucleotide-free (2.2 A) and nucleotide-bound (2.7 A) V(1)-ATPase are also reported. The more tightly packed nucleotide-binding site seems to be induced by DF binding, and ATP hydrolysis seems to be stimulated by the approach of a conserved arginine residue. To our knowledge, these asymmetric structures represent the first high-resolution view of the rotational mechanism of V(1)-ATPase.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Arai, Satoshi -- Saijo, Shinya -- Suzuki, Kano -- Mizutani, Kenji -- Kakinuma, Yoshimi -- Ishizuka-Katsura, Yoshiko -- Ohsawa, Noboru -- Terada, Takaho -- Shirouzu, Mikako -- Yokoyama, Shigeyuki -- Iwata, So -- Yamato, Ichiro -- Murata, Takeshi -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jan 31;493(7434):703-7. doi: 10.1038/nature11778. Epub 2013 Jan 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage, Chiba 263-8522, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23334411" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; Crystallization ; Enterococcus/*enzymology/genetics ; *Models, Molecular ; Mutation ; Nucleotides/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits ; Rotation ; Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/*chemistry/genetics
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-11-01
    Description: Adiponectin secreted from adipocytes binds to adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, and exerts antidiabetic effects via activation of AMPK and PPAR-alpha pathways, respectively. Levels of adiponectin in plasma are reduced in obesity, which causes insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Thus, orally active small molecules that bind to and activate AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 could ameliorate obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Here we report the identification of orally active synthetic small-molecule AdipoR agonists. One of these compounds, AdipoR agonist (AdipoRon), bound to both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in vitro. AdipoRon showed very similar effects to adiponectin in muscle and liver, such as activation of AMPK and PPAR-alpha pathways, and ameliorated insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet, which was completely obliterated in AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 double-knockout mice. Moreover, AdipoRon ameliorated diabetes of genetically obese rodent model db/db mice, and prolonged the shortened lifespan of db/db mice on a high-fat diet. Thus, orally active AdipoR agonists such as AdipoRon are a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okada-Iwabu, Miki -- Yamauchi, Toshimasa -- Iwabu, Masato -- Honma, Teruki -- Hamagami, Ken-ichi -- Matsuda, Koichi -- Yamaguchi, Mamiko -- Tanabe, Hiroaki -- Kimura-Someya, Tomomi -- Shirouzu, Mikako -- Ogata, Hitomi -- Tokuyama, Kumpei -- Ueki, Kohjiro -- Nagano, Tetsuo -- Tanaka, Akiko -- Yokoyama, Shigeyuki -- Kadowaki, Takashi -- England -- Nature. 2013 Nov 28;503(7477):493-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12656. Epub 2013 Oct 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan [2] Department of Integrated Molecular Science on Metabolic Diseases, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan [3] Department of Molecular Medicinal Sciences on Metabolic Regulation, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan [4].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24172895" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenylate Kinase/metabolism ; Adiponectin/metabolism/pharmacology ; Adipose Tissue, White/drug effects/metabolism/pathology ; Administration, Oral ; Animals ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications/*drug therapy/metabolism/prevention & ; control ; Diet, High-Fat ; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical ; Dyslipidemias/drug therapy ; Enzyme Activation/drug effects ; Glucose Intolerance/drug therapy ; Inflammation/drug therapy ; Insulin Resistance ; Liver/drug effects/metabolism/pathology ; Longevity/*drug effects ; Mice ; Mitochondria/drug effects/metabolism ; Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/cytology/drug effects ; Muscles/cytology ; Obesity/complications/drug therapy/genetics/*physiopathology ; Oxidative Stress/drug effects ; PPAR alpha/metabolism ; Piperidines/administration & dosage/metabolism/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Receptors, Adiponectin/*agonists/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry ; Transcription Factors/biosynthesis ; Triglycerides/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-04-10
    Description: Adiponectin stimulation of its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, increases the activities of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), respectively, thereby contributing to healthy longevity as key anti-diabetic molecules. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were predicted to contain seven transmembrane helices with the opposite topology to G-protein-coupled receptors. Here we report the crystal structures of human AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 at 2.9 and 2.4 A resolution, respectively, which represent a novel class of receptor structure. The seven-transmembrane helices, conformationally distinct from those of G-protein-coupled receptors, enclose a large cavity where three conserved histidine residues coordinate a zinc ion. The zinc-binding structure may have a role in the adiponectin-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and UCP2 upregulation. Adiponectin may broadly interact with the extracellular face, rather than the carboxy-terminal tail, of the receptors. The present information will facilitate the understanding of novel structure-function relationships and the development and optimization of AdipoR agonists for the treatment of obesity-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4477036/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4477036/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tanabe, Hiroaki -- Fujii, Yoshifumi -- Okada-Iwabu, Miki -- Iwabu, Masato -- Nakamura, Yoshihiro -- Hosaka, Toshiaki -- Motoyama, Kanna -- Ikeda, Mariko -- Wakiyama, Motoaki -- Terada, Takaho -- Ohsawa, Noboru -- Hato, Masakatsu -- Ogasawara, Satoshi -- Hino, Tomoya -- Murata, Takeshi -- Iwata, So -- Hirata, Kunio -- Kawano, Yoshiaki -- Yamamoto, Masaki -- Kimura-Someya, Tomomi -- Shirouzu, Mikako -- Yamauchi, Toshimasa -- Kadowaki, Takashi -- Yokoyama, Shigeyuki -- 062164/Z/00/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089809/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- BB/G02325/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/G023425/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 16;520(7547):312-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14301. Epub 2015 Apr 8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan [2] Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry and Laboratory of Structural Biology, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan [3] Division of Structural and Synthetic Biology, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan [4] RIKEN Structural Biology Laboratory, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Structural Biology Laboratory, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan [2] Department of Integrated Molecular Science on Metabolic Diseases, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. ; 1] Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan [2] Department of Integrated Molecular Science on Metabolic Diseases, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan [3] PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. ; 1] RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan [2] Division of Structural and Synthetic Biology, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan [3] RIKEN Structural Biology Laboratory, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan [2] Division of Structural and Synthetic Biology, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan. ; 1] Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan [2] JST, Research Acceleration Program, Membrane Protein Crystallography Project, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan. ; 1] RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan [2] Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan [3] JST, Research Acceleration Program, Membrane Protein Crystallography Project, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan [4] Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho, Inage, Chiba 263-8522, Japan. ; 1] RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan [2] Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan [3] JST, Research Acceleration Program, Membrane Protein Crystallography Project, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan [4] Division of Molecular Biosciences, Membrane Protein Crystallography Group, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK [5] Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE, UK [6] RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148, Japan. ; RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148, Japan. ; 1] Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan [2] Department of Integrated Molecular Science on Metabolic Diseases, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan [3] CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. ; 1] RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan [2] Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry and Laboratory of Structural Biology, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan [3] RIKEN Structural Biology Laboratory, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25855295" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Histidine/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Conformation ; Receptors, Adiponectin/*chemistry/metabolism ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; Zinc/metabolism
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-11-15
    Description: So far, two genes associated with familial melanoma have been identified, accounting for a minority of genetic risk in families. Mutations in CDKN2A account for approximately 40% of familial cases, and predisposing mutations in CDK4 have been reported in a very small number of melanoma kindreds. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing of probands from several melanoma families, which we performed in order to identify other genes associated with familial melanoma. We identify one individual carrying a novel germline variant (coding DNA sequence c.G1075A; protein sequence p.E318K; rs149617956) in the melanoma-lineage-specific oncogene microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Although the variant co-segregated with melanoma in some but not all cases in the family, linkage analysis of 31 families subsequently identified to carry the variant generated a log of odds (lod) score of 2.7 under a dominant model, indicating E318K as a possible intermediate risk variant. Consistent with this, the E318K variant was significantly associated with melanoma in a large Australian case-control sample. Likewise, it was similarly associated in an independent case-control sample from the United Kingdom. In the Australian sample, the variant allele was significantly over-represented in cases with a family history of melanoma, multiple primary melanomas, or both. The variant allele was also associated with increased naevus count and non-blue eye colour. Functional analysis of E318K showed that MITF encoded by the variant allele had impaired sumoylation and differentially regulated several MITF targets. These data indicate that MITF is a melanoma-predisposition gene and highlight the utility of whole-genome sequencing to identify novel rare variants associated with disease susceptibility.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3266855/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3266855/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yokoyama, Satoru -- Woods, Susan L -- Boyle, Glen M -- Aoude, Lauren G -- MacGregor, Stuart -- Zismann, Victoria -- Gartside, Michael -- Cust, Anne E -- Haq, Rizwan -- Harland, Mark -- Taylor, John C -- Duffy, David L -- Holohan, Kelly -- Dutton-Regester, Ken -- Palmer, Jane M -- Bonazzi, Vanessa -- Stark, Mitchell S -- Symmons, Judith -- Law, Matthew H -- Schmidt, Christopher -- Lanagan, Cathy -- O'Connor, Linda -- Holland, Elizabeth A -- Schmid, Helen -- Maskiell, Judith A -- Jetann, Jodie -- Ferguson, Megan -- Jenkins, Mark A -- Kefford, Richard F -- Giles, Graham G -- Armstrong, Bruce K -- Aitken, Joanne F -- Hopper, John L -- Whiteman, David C -- Pharoah, Paul D -- Easton, Douglas F -- Dunning, Alison M -- Newton-Bishop, Julia A -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Mann, Graham J -- Bishop, D Timothy -- Tsao, Hensin -- Trent, Jeffrey M -- Fisher, David E -- Hayward, Nicholas K -- Brown, Kevin M -- 10118/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 10589/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- AR043369-14/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- C490/A11021/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C588/A10589/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C588/A4994/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C8197/A10123/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C8216/A6129/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- CA88363/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- K24CA149202/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50CA9368/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR043369/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA-83115-01A2/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA088363/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA088363-09/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA83115/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 13;480(7375):99-103. doi: 10.1038/nature10630.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Dermatology, Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts 02114, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22080950" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Humans ; Male ; Melanoma/*genetics ; Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor/*genetics ; Middle Aged ; *Mutation ; Sumoylation/genetics ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-06-12
    Description: Ligation of tRNAs with their cognate amino acids, by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, establishes the genetic code. Throughout evolution, tRNA(Ala) selection by alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) has depended predominantly on a single wobble base pair in the acceptor stem, G3*U70, mainly on the kcat level. Here we report the crystal structures of an archaeal AlaRS in complex with tRNA(Ala) with G3*U70 and its A3*U70 variant. AlaRS interacts with both the minor- and the major-groove sides of G3*U70, widening the major groove. The geometry difference between G3*U70 and A3*U70 is transmitted along the acceptor stem to the 3'-CCA region. Thus, the 3'-CCA region of tRNA(Ala) with G3*U70 is oriented to the reactive route that reaches the active site, whereas that of the A3*U70 variant is folded back into the non-reactive route. This novel mechanism enables the single wobble pair to dominantly determine the specificity of tRNA selection, by an approximate 100-fold difference in kcat.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4323281/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4323281/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Naganuma, Masahiro -- Sekine, Shun-ichi -- Chong, Yeeting Esther -- Guo, Min -- Yang, Xiang-Lei -- Gamper, Howard -- Hou, Ya-Ming -- Schimmel, Paul -- Yokoyama, Shigeyuki -- GM015539/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM023562/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- NS085092/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM015539/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM023562/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM100136/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS085092/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jun 26;510(7506):507-11. doi: 10.1038/nature13440. Epub 2014 Jun 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan [2] Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry and Laboratory of Structural Biology, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan [3] RIKEN Structural Biology Laboratory, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan [2] Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry and Laboratory of Structural Biology, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan [3] Division of Structural and Synthetic Biology, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology and the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, BCC-379, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] aTyr Pharma, 3545 John Hopkins Court, San Diego, California 92121, USA (Y.E.C.); Department of Cancer Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 130 Scripps Way, Jupiter, Florida 33458, USA (M.G.). ; The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology and the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, BCC-379, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA. ; 1] The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology and the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, BCC-379, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] The Scripps Florida Research Institute, 130 Scripps Way, 3B3 Jupiter, Florida 33458-5284, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24919148" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives/chemistry ; Alanine-tRNA Ligase/*chemistry ; Archaeoglobus fulgidus/*enzymology/*genetics ; *Base Pairing ; Base Sequence ; Catalytic Domain ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Kinetics ; Models, Molecular ; RNA, Transfer, Ala/*chemistry/*genetics ; Substrate Specificity ; *Transfer RNA Aminoacylation
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-04-06
    Description: The 21st amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), is synthesized on its cognate transfer RNA (tRNA(Sec)). In bacteria, SelA synthesizes Sec from Ser-tRNA(Sec), whereas in archaea and eukaryotes SepSecS forms Sec from phosphoserine (Sep) acylated to tRNA(Sec). We determined the crystal structures of Aquifex aeolicus SelA complexes, which revealed a ring-shaped homodecamer that binds 10 tRNA(Sec) molecules, each interacting with four SelA subunits. The SelA N-terminal domain binds the tRNA(Sec)-specific D-arm structure, thereby discriminating Ser-tRNA(Sec) from Ser-tRNA(Ser). A large cleft is created between two subunits and accommodates the 3'-terminal region of Ser-tRNA(Sec). The SelA structures together with in vivo and in vitro enzyme assays show decamerization to be essential for SelA function. SelA catalyzes pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent Sec formation involving Arg residues nonhomologous to those in SepSecS. Different protein architecture and substrate coordination of the bacterial enzyme provide structural evidence for independent evolution of the two Sec synthesis systems present in nature.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3976565/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3976565/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Itoh, Yuzuru -- Brocker, Markus J -- Sekine, Shun-ichi -- Hammond, Gifty -- Suetsugu, Shiro -- Soll, Dieter -- Yokoyama, Shigeyuki -- GM22854/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM022854/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Apr 5;340(6128):75-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1229521.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23559248" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arginine/chemistry ; Bacteria/*enzymology ; Bacterial Proteins/*chemistry ; Catalysis ; Catalytic Domain ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Pyridoxal Phosphate/chemistry ; RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl/*chemistry ; Selenocysteine/*biosynthesis ; Transferases/*chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: CXCR4 involvement in neurodegenerative diseases 〈i〉CXCR4〈/i〉 involvement in neurodegenerative diseases, Published online: 11 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41398-017-0049-7 CXCR4 involvement in neurodegenerative diseases
    Electronic ISSN: 2158-3188
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-02-24
    Description: Eukaryotic cells restrict protein synthesis under various stress conditions, by inhibiting the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). eIF2B is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2, a heterotrimeric G protein consisting of alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunits. eIF2B exchanges GDP for GTP on the gamma-subunit of eIF2 (eIF2gamma), and is inhibited by stress-induced phosphorylation of eIF2alpha. eIF2B is a heterodecameric complex of two copies each of the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and epsilon-subunits; its alpha-, beta- and delta-subunits constitute the regulatory subcomplex, while the gamma- and epsilon-subunits form the catalytic subcomplex. The three-dimensional structure of the entire eIF2B complex has not been determined. Here we present the crystal structure of Schizosaccharomyces pombe eIF2B with an unprecedented subunit arrangement, in which the alpha2beta2delta2 hexameric regulatory subcomplex binds two gammaepsilon dimeric catalytic subcomplexes on its opposite sides. A structure-based in vitro analysis by a surface-scanning site-directed photo-cross-linking method identified the eIF2alpha-binding and eIF2gamma-binding interfaces, located far apart on the regulatory and catalytic subcomplexes, respectively. The eIF2gamma-binding interface is located close to the conserved 'NF motif', which is important for nucleotide exchange. A structural model was constructed for the complex of eIF2B with phosphorylated eIF2alpha, which binds to eIF2B more strongly than the unphosphorylated form. These results indicate that the eIF2alpha phosphorylation generates the 'nonproductive' eIF2-eIF2B complex, which prevents nucleotide exchange on eIF2gamma, and thus provide a structural framework for the eIF2B-mediated mechanism of stress-induced translational control.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kashiwagi, Kazuhiro -- Takahashi, Mari -- Nishimoto, Madoka -- Hiyama, Takuya B -- Higo, Toshiaki -- Umehara, Takashi -- Sakamoto, Kensaku -- Ito, Takuhiro -- Yokoyama, Shigeyuki -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):122-5. doi: 10.1038/nature16991. Epub 2016 Feb 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. ; RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; RIKEN Structural Biology Laboratory, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26901872" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Motifs ; Binding Sites ; Biocatalysis ; Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B/*chemistry/metabolism ; Guanosine Diphosphate/metabolism ; Guanosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Binding ; Protein Biosynthesis ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/metabolism ; Schizosaccharomyces/*chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0300-9084
    Keywords: NMR ; aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase ; isotope labeling ; tRNA
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0168-9002
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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