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  • 1
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    Keywords: Key words Chalcone synthase ; Flavonoids ; Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase ; Scots pine ; UV-B radiation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  Cultivation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings under simulated global radiation including the UV-B band (280 – 320 nm; 220 mW m–2 UV-BBE) led to increased formation of the diacylated flavonol glucosides 3″,6″-di-p-coumaroyl-astragalin and 3″,6″-di-p-coumaroyl-isoquercitrin in primary and cotyledonary needles, respectively. 3″,6″-Di-p-coumaroyl-astragalin was also the main constitutive diacylated flavonol glucoside in both needle types. This compound predominantly accumulated in primary needles upon UV-B irradiation, and reached concentrations of 2.4 μmol g–1 fresh weight (fw). Its concentration was only weakly affected in cotyledonary needles. 3″,6″-Di-p-coumaroyl-isoquercitrin was mainly induced in cotyledonary needles with maximum concentrations of 0.8 to 0.9 μmol g–1 fw, but was virtually unaffected in primary needles under the same irradiation conditions. Pulse labelling with L-(U-14C)phenylalanine revealed that these metabolites were formed de novo. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) and chalcone synthase (EC 2.3.1.74) were only slightly induced by the UV-B treatment. The results described here represent the first report on UV-B-induced flavonoid biosynthesis in a conifer species.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: European oaks have been reported to emit isoprene or monoterpenes derived from recently fixed photosynthetic carbon. The emission type is plant species specific and can be used as chemo-taxonomic marker. In the present article the isoprenoid biochemical properties of mature Quercus × turneri‘Pseudoturneri’ hybrids resulting from a crossing of a Mediterranean evergreen monoterpene-emitting species (subgenus Sclerophyllodrys; Quercus ilex L.) and an isoprene-emitting deciduous oak species (subgenus Lepidobalanus; Quercus robur L.) are described. Both species are compared with respect to the capacity for isoprenoid synthesis and the actual isoprenoid emission pattern of different tree-types. The analysis showed that the oak hybrid combines properties of both parental species. Furthermore, it could be shown that the enzyme activities of isoprene synthase and monoterpene synthases are reflected in the isoprenoid emission pattern of the hybrids as well as in the observed emission rates.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Increased levels of both ozone and ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) are typical for high-altitude sites. Here we report on interactive effects of both stresses on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Scots pine seedlings were exposed in a phytotron to a simulated outdoor climate. To assess effects of ozone and of UV-B radiation on the plants, ozone was added at ambient or at twice-ambient levels, and UV-B was eliminated or added at a low ambient level. Visible needle damage became apparent at enhanced ozone concentrations after 10 d of exposure and increased continuously. The accumulated exposure over a threshold value of 40 nL L−1 ozone (AOT40) revealed that an ozone exposure dose of 10 μL L−1 h was necessary for the development of needle injury, regardless of the UV-B conditions. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and stilbene synthase (STS) have been reported to be induced by ozone. The mRNAs of these stress-related enzymes were induced only under twice-ambient ozone concentrations. Ozone-induced transient STS transcript levels reached their maximal values between day 1 and day 5, and were more pronounced in the presence of UV-B. Similarly, pinosylvin, as well as pinosylvin methyl ether contents, showed moderate transient increases under these conditions. In contrast, CAD mRNA content and CAD enzyme activity increased continuously under enhanced ozone concentrations. Additional UV-B resulted in suppressed transcript level and enzymatic activity of CAD. The data indicate that in conifer needles, at the level of gene expression, there is an interaction between responses to UV-B and ozone.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) is known as a strong isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) emitter. Diurnal changes in isoprene emission were determined by branch enclosure measurements. In contrast to the diurnal cycle in emission rates, specific isoprene synthase activity in the leaves remained unchanged. Based on in vitro enzyme activity and its temperature dependency, an isoprene synthesis capacity at specific leaf temperatures was calculated. The comparison of these ‘leaf temperature-dependent enzyme capacities’ and the measured emission rates revealed that the enzyme activity of isoprene synthase is comparable to the observed isoprene emission rates. In addition, variation in the isoprene synthase activity of the leaves due to changes in light intensity during leaf development was investigated. A 50% reduction of light intensity by shading of single branches reduced isoprene synthase activity by ≈ 60% compared with full sunlight. The calculation of isoprene synthesis capacities based on enzymatic data obtained under optimum reaction conditions, corrected for actual leaf temperature and related to leaf surface area, provides a sound basis for predicting the isoprene emission potential of plants.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Conifer needles are highly effective in screening ultraviolet-B radiation (280–320 nm). This ability is mainly attributed to the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in the epidermal tissue. In two field cabinet experiments with two different clones of Norway spruce we assessed the seasonal accumulation of UV-B screening pigments under near-ambient, and close-to-zero UV-B irradiation. At the beginning of needle development, i.e. in June, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside was the dominant UV-B screening pigment. It was replaced during needle differentiation by the more effective diacylated flavonol glucosides, particulary kaempferol 3-O-(3",6"-O-di-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside, which reached highest concentrations in July. In addition to the soluble pool of diacylated flavonol glucoside derivatives, a cell wall-bound UV-B screen in the epidermal cell walls was formed during needle differentiation, consisting mainly of p-coumaric acid and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside. An effect of UV-B radiation on the accumulation of diacylated flavonol glucosides was only observed in 1996 with clone 2, when the concentrations of kaempferol 3-O-(3",6"-O-di-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside were significantly higher in July and August under field, and near-ambient than under close-to-zero UV-B irradiance. For wall-bound p-coumaric acid and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside UV-B radiation enhanced the concentrations of these compounds by approximately 20% in relation to the concentrations in close-to-zero UV-B-treated plants in both field cabinet experiments.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Concentrations of chlorophyll a/freshweight (Chl a FW) and photosynthetic pigments/chlorophyll a were studied during one growing season in the current year's (CYN) and last year's needles (LYN) from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) grown under natural or close-to-natural climate. Climate regimes differed in photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), temperature (T) and UV-B radiation. Pigments were not affected by UV-B but most of the differences between climate regimes, and also seasonal variations within climate regimes, could be related to PAR and T. Generally, two types of response to climate were observed: firstly, pigments reacted primarily to PAR without marked sensitivity to T and exhibited slow response times (〉 30 d), and, secondly, pigments were affected by the combined action of PAR and T and responded faster than 20 d. The Chl a FW and chlorophyll b/chloprophyll a ratio exhibited slow-type response in CYN and fast-type response in LYN. Higher amplitudes in CYN than in LYN were observed for the latter two parameters, which are known to be associated with levels of pigment–protein complexes. It is suggested that slow response in CYN ensures that the high investments in proteins in these needles occur only in response to longer-lasting climate episodes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The emission rate of the volatile reactive compound isoprene, emitted predominantly by trees, must be known before the level of photo-oxidants produced during summer smog can be predicted reliably. The emission is dependent on plant species and local conditions, and these dependencies must be quantified to be included in any empirical algorithm for the calculation of isoprene production. Experimental measurements of isoprene emission rates are expensive, however, and existing data are scarce and fragmentary. To overcome these difficulties, it is promising to develop a numerical model capable of precisely calculating the isoprene emission by trees for diverse ecosystems, even under changing environmental conditions. A basic process-based biochemical isoprene emission model (BIM) has therefore been developed, which describes the enzymatic reactions in leaf chloroplasts leading to the formation of isoprene under varying environmental conditions (e.g. light intensity, temperature). Concentrations of the precursors of isoprene formation, 3-phosphoglyceric acid and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, are provided by a published light fleck photosynthesis model. Specific leaf and enzyme parameters were determined for the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), so that the BIM is capable of calculating oak-specific isoprene emission rates as influenced by the leaf temperature and light intensity. High correlation was observed between isoprene emission rates calculated by the BIM and the diurnal isoprene emission rates of leaves measured under controlled environmental conditions. The BIM was even capable of describing changes in isoprene emission caused by midday depression of net photosynthesis.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Isoprene basal emission (the emission of isoprene from leaves exposed to a light intensity of 1000 µmol m−2 s−1 and maintained at a temperature of 30 °C) was measured in Phragmites australis plants growing under elevated CO2 in the Bossoleto CO2 spring at Rapolano Terme, Italy, and under ambient CO2 at a nearby control site. Gas exchange and biochemical measurements were concurrently taken. Isoprene emission was lower in the plants growing at elevated CO2 than in those growing at ambient CO2. Isoprene emission and isoprene synthase activity (IsoS) were very low in plants growing at the bottom of the spring under very rich CO2 and increased at increasing distance from the spring (and decreasing CO2 concentration). Distance from the spring did not significantly affect photosynthesis making it therefore unlikely that there is carbon limitation to isoprene formation. The isoprene emission rate was very quickly reduced after rapid switches from elevated to ambient CO2 in the gas-exchange cuvette, whereas it increased when switching from ambient to elevated CO2. The rapidity of the response may be consistent with post-translational modifications of enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of isoprene formation. Reduction of IsoS activity is interpreted as a long-term response. Basal emission of isoprene was not constant over the day but showed a diurnal course opposite to photosynthesis, with a peak during the hottest hours of the day, independent of stomatal conductance and probably dependent on external air temperature or temporary reduction of CO2 concentration. The present experiments show that basal emission rate of isoprene is likely to be reduced under future elevated CO2 levels and allow improvement in the modelling of future isoprene emission rates.
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