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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The time of the clinical response of 5 week old mice to inoculation of LCM virus by the foot-pad route differed by about 36 hours between two albino strains and appeared to be genetically controlled. Following cerebral inoculation, the difference was about 18 hours. As reactions to this virus in mice are believed to be due to the host's immune response, these mice may be of value in further studies on this concept without resort to immunosuppression.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A naturally acquired mouse strain of LCM virus maintained by congenital transmission was used to study the factors determining the birth of tolerantly infected litters by experimentally infected SPF mice. Tissues of individual SPF mice were tested for infectivity at intervals after the intramuscular inoculation of 1000 ID50 at various stages of gestation. Infectivity in the inoculated muscle was at its peak 4 to 7 days p.i. and then declined rapidly. The uterus and placentae became secondary sites of virus multiplication from the 5th day p.i. and were highly infective from about the 8th day. It was not until then that virus was regularly detected in the embryos at a titre of ⪖6.5 ID50/0.06 g which persisted after birth. These results suggested an explanation for the pattern of incidence of tolerantly infected litters born to SPF mice exposed to virus during the 2 weeks before and after mating. Litters from mice infected earlier than 9 days before mating were not infective, but from this time up to 11 days after mating 56 of 149 litters from inoculated mice were infective. The incidence of infection over this period correlated with the duration of co-existence of the embryos with the peak infectivities detected at sites of virus multiplication, and in mice inoculated 0 to 8 days after mating 44 out of 58 litters contained infective mice. In 50 mice inoculated 12 to 14 days after mating, however, infection failed to reach the embryos before birth and post-natal transmission was not detected. These findings indicate the best procedure for the experimental production of tolerantly infected mice by pre-natal infection.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary By passage in unweaned mice, in weaned mice (mo strain), or in chick embryos, a cattle strain of foot-and-mouth disease — Strain119, Type A —was attenuated to the stage when there was virtual extinction of the ability of the virus to produce vesicular lesions in steers. These three strains of common origin also show a marked reduction in epitheliotropism for the guinea-pig but their myotropism for the guinea-pig and adult mouse varies widely and tests using these small animals can readily differentiate between them. Such tests may assist in detecting strains which are immunogenic for cattle. Themo strain was the most myotropic for these small animals and this strain has proved to be a good immunising agent for cattle when inoculated intramuscularly. In guinea-pigs 3 weeks old themo strain causes such severe muscle lesions that a clinical infection is observed following intramuscular inoculation of moderately large virus doses. With increase in age clinical infections diminish rapidly. In guinea-pigs 10 weeks old virus doses ranging from 101 to 105 mouse ID50 produce an immunity without any clinical signs when inoculated intramuscularly. Multiplication of the virus to a high titre at the site of inoculation has been demonstrated. If inoculated subcutaneously much larger doses are required at all ages to produce an immunity. Marked changes in the myotropicity of thismo strain occurred during passage in cultures of epithelial tissue.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: X-ray diffraction ; Hydroxyapatite ; Whitlockite ; Fish (Pisces) ; Bone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary Pyrolyzed scales, fin spines, and bone from the ray-finned bony fishPolypterus (Actinopterygii) showed two mineral phases on X-ray diffraction: hydroxyapatite (HA), Ca5(PO4)3OH, and whitlockite, Ca3(PO4)2. The ratio of HA/whitlockite varied with the structure (scale, spine, bone) within each individual fish. The relative proportions of HA to whitlockite in pyrolyzed samples reflected the Ca/P ratio of the sample. Whitlockite appears after pyrolysis when the Ca/P is lower than 1.67. Among the five fish investigated, for each structure a general trend was noted. The proportion of HA relative to whitlockite increased with size (age) of the fish. Thus the smallest fish, a juvenile, exhibited a low Ca/P mineral in its calcified tissues, whereas the larger fish had progressively more HA and less whitlockite.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Remodeling ; Bone ; Stress
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary It has long been known that the stress history of bone tissue influences its structure; however, the nature of this relationship remains largely uncharacterized. The objective of this work was to induce a quantifiable change in the stress history ofin vivo bone tissue and examine subsequent changes in structural and material properties that might occur. Continuous compressive loads were applied to the diaphysis of adult mongrel dogs for 2 months. The loads, ranging from 12–130 N, were superposed on the normal activity of the animals by implanting spring loading devices on the diaphysis of the femur. After the animals were sacrificed, mid-diaphysial specimens were subjected to compression testing to determine a structural bulk stiffness. The cross-sectional areas of original bone tissue and new bone deposition were then determined. The ash weights of selected specimens were also determined. The results indicate that a positive correlation between the increase in cross-sectional area and the superposed stress does exist. The new bone apposition was found almost entirely on the periosteal surface. Very little evidence of internal remodeling or endosteal movement was observed. The new tissue was found to have a lower ash weight and appeared to have a disorganized microstructure. Mechanical testing also suggests that the newly deposited tissue is far less stiff than the mature original bone.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Calcified tissue international 14 (1974), S. 3-14 
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Hydroxyapatite ; Mineral ; Phase ; Chemistry ; Synthesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Des diagrammes de phase d'équilibre ont été déterminés pour le système CaO-P2O5-H2O en utilisant des techniques de synthèse hydrothermique au cours de variatio nsde température allant de 300–600° et 2 Kb H2O de pression. De l'hydroxyapatite bien cristallisé a été synthétisé et caractérisé. De faibles variations de paramètres de la maille cristalline, liées à la température de synthèse et composition globale du matériel initial, ont été déterminées. Des conditions chimiques précises sont nécessaires pour obtenir de l'apatite, en tant que seule phase solide en équilibre dans la solution. Les résultats de diagramme de phase d'équilibre sont comparés avec ceux obtenus dans des milieux synthétiques.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Es wurden Gleichgewichts-Phasendiagramme für das System CaO-P2O5-H2O bestimmt, indem hydrothermale Synthese-Techniken im Temperaturbereich von 300–600° und bei einem Druck von 2 Kb H2O verwendet wurden. Es wurde gut-kristallisiertes Hydroxyapatit erzeugt und charakterisiert. Es wurden geringe Unterschiede in den Parametern der Zelleinheiten festgestellt, welche von der angewandten Temperatur und der Zusammensetzung des Startmaterials abhingen. Es waren genaue chemische Bedingungen nötig, um Apatit als die einzige feste Phase im Gleichgewicht mit der Lösung zu erhalten. Die Resultate der Gleichgewichts-Phasendiagramme werden mit früheren Untersuchungen mit der Synthesetechnik verglichen.
    Notes: Abstract Equilibrium phase diagrams have been determined for the system CaO-P2O5-H2 using hydrothermal synthesis techniques in the temperature range 300–600° and 2 Kb H2O pressure. Well-crystallized hydroxyapatite has been produced and characterized. Small variations in unit cell parameters dependent on temperature of synthesis and bulk composition of the starting materials have been determined. Precise chemical conditions were required to obtain apatite as the only solid phase in equilibrium with solution. Equilibrium phase diagram results are compared with previous synthetic investigations.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Journal of chemical & engineering data 13 (1968), S. 271-272 
    ISSN: 1520-5134
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial & engineering chemistry 3 (1911), S. 860-863 
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial & engineering chemistry 4 (1912), S. 225-226 
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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