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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 221 (1969), S. 632-635 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Human oocytes have been matured and fertilized by spermatozoa in vitro. There may be certain clinical and scientific uses for human eggs fertilized by this ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 229 (1971), S. 132-133 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Six embryos were cultured. The pH of the medium was 7.3, the osmotic pressure 300 mOsmol/kg, and the gas phase consisted of 5 % oxygen, 5 % carbon dioxide and 90 % nitrogen. Two of the embryos developed to early morulae, one having more than twenty-three nuclei, and the other twenty-nine nuclei and ...
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 221 (1969), S. 981-982 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIR,-We consider the earlier stages of fertilization include attachment of spermatozoa to the zona pellucida, their movement through it and the presence of spermatozoa in the perivitelline space. Our data1 gave convincing evidence in many eggs of the accomplishment of these earlier stages, and this ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 227 (1970), S. 1307-1309 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Human oocytes have been taken from the mother before ovulation, fertilized in vitro and grown in vitro to the eight- or sixteen-celled stage in various ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7330
    Keywords: human in vitro fertilization ; implantation ; abortion ; follicular stimulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The incidence of pregnancy and abortion was analyzed in 1679 patients having embryos replaced after oocyte recovery and in vitro fertilization in order to alleviate their infertility. In these patients, 364 pregnancies were achieved and 108 abortions occurred. Patients were treated either on their natural cycle, having a spontaneous luteinizing hormone (LH) surge to induce ovalation, or after ovarian stimulation using clomiphene citrate alone or in combination with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG). The data were assessed in relation to the numbers of embryos replaced, the follicular stimulation and ovulation induction regime used; the dose of gonadotropins and the dose of antiestrogens, and the age of the patient. The most successful treatment for the number of live births per laparoscopy was the use of clomiphene citrate in combination with human menopausal gonadotropin followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce follicular maturation and ovulation. This treatment produced a significantly higher (P〈0.001) number of patients with multiple embryos (86.5%). There was no significant effect on pregnancy or abortion with alow (〈400-mg) or high (≥400-mg) dose of clomiphene. The total dose of gonadotropins used did not influence the incidence of pregnancy or abortion. The use of hCG with hMG induced a significant (P〈0.01) positive effect on the incidence of pregnancy. The incidence of pregnancy showed a progressive decline with increasing age but there was a highly significant (P〈0.01) increase in the incidence of abortion with increasing age. With increasing numbers of embryos replaced, up to three, the incidence of deliveries increased. The most successful follicular stimulation regime and the replacement of three embryos produced about 25% of the patients delivering normal healthy babies after embryo replacement.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7330
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The program for in vitro fertilization at Bourn Hall began in October 1980. Various types of infertility have been treated during this time using the natural menstrual cycle or stimulation of follicular growth with antiestrogens and gonadotrophins. Follicular growth and maturation are assayed by urinary estrogens and LH, monitored regularly during the later follicular stage. Many patients had an endogenous LH surge; others needed an injection of HCG to induce ovulation. All oocytes were recovered by laparoscopy. Wide variations occurred in the time interval between the start of the LH surge and oocyte recovery and between oocyte recovery and insemination. Embryos taken between ooc one- and the eight-cell stage were replaced into their mother, no standard procedure being adopted for all patients. The results of all treatments including patient's responses during the follicular and luteal phases, oocyte recovery, fertilization, cleavage, replacement, implantation, abortion, and birth and the effect of factors such as replacing two or more embryos, maternal age, and previous obstetric history are described in detail. The incidence of implantation after embryo replacement improved from 16.5% initially to 30% currently. More than 118 babies have been born, and many pregnancies are continuing.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    BJOG 72 (1965), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    BJOG 72 (1965), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    BJOG 87 (1980), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Details are given of four pregnancies established by fertilization in vitro and planting cleaving embryos into the mother. The pregnancies were monitored by hormone assays in early pregnancy and by ultrasound scans. Amniocentesis was used to assess the levels of alpha-fetoprotein and the karyotype of the fetuses at 15 weeks. Placental function tests and X-rays were used to monitor late pregnancy in one patient. Three of the pregnancies began uneventfully and the fetuses were normal in all respects. Two were delivered at or near term, the third being aborted spontaneously at 21 weeks while the parents were on holiday. The fourth pregnancy did not develop normally and a triploid fetus was aborted 12 weeks after the last menstrual period. The clinical difficulties inherent in selecting patients and preparing them for treatment are described. Some possible improvements in techniques are also described.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    BJOG 87 (1980), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The establishment of human pregnancies by the use of fertilization in vitro and placing cleaving embryos into the uterus is described. Preovulatory oocytes were aspirated at laparoscopy from the ovaries of patients soon after the beginning of the mid-cycle surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) during the natural cycle. The LH surge was identified by assaying 3-hourly samples of urine, and measurements of oestrogens in 24-hour samples were used to assess follicular growth. The surge of LH was identified in 68 patients and it showed a diurnal rhythm. Preovulatory oocytes were aspirated from most of the patients. Fertilization and cleavage occurred in 34 instances, and 32 embryos were put into the mother via the cervical canal. Four patients became pregnant. There were indications that a diurnal rhythm played a role in establishing cleaving embryos, each of the four pregnancies occurring when the embryos were placed in late evening. Each of the pregnancies resulted from oocytes which were aspirated from their follicles 24 hours or longer after the LH surge began. Details are given of three abortive pregnancies in patients given gonadotrophins to stimulate the maturation of oocytes used for fertilization in vitro.
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