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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  20. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Infektiologie (DGPI); 20120419-20120421; Mannheim; DOC12dgpi50 /20120322/
    Publication Date: 2012-03-23
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  49. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Plastische und Wiederherstellungschirurgie (DGPW); 20111006-20111008; Ulm; DOC11dgpw076 /20111207/
    Publication Date: 2011-12-07
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1437-160X
    Keywords: Interleukin-6 ; Synovial fluid ; Chronic rheumatoid arthritis ; Histology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was detected at low levels in plasma [0.014±0.006 ng/ml (mean ± SEM] and in high amounts in synovial fluid [SF; 2.6±2.2 ng/ml (mean ± SEM)] of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. No correlation of IL-6 levels in plasma or SF with the ESR (n=15) or with histological parameters of acute local synovitis (n=10) was observed. In contrast, SF IL-6 was positively correlated with histological characteristics of chronic synovitis (n=10; P≤0.01) and elevated plasma IgG concentrations (n=15; P≤0.05). In vitro concentrations of IL-6 comparable to those detected in SF increased the production of both IgG and IgM by synovial membrane mononuclear cells. The present results contribute to the view that high local IL-6 concentrations in SF promote chronic synovitis in RA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1437-160X
    Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis ; Immunohistochemistry ; Enzyme histochemistry ; Histopathology ; Chronic synovitis ; Macrophages
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease of the synovial membrane, which results in the destruction of joints by inflammatory pannus. The synovial membrane shows proliferation and cellular infiltrates on microscopy with signs of chronic and acute inflammation. Macrophages are thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of RA. We examined synovial membrane specimens of 21 RA patients using morphological, immunohistological and enzyme histochemical methods for number and distribution of macrophages. We were able to identify 41.5±8.8% of lining cells as macrophages, depending on the method used. In abundant diffuse lymphocellular infiltrates, 23.4±11.1% of mononuclear cells were macrophages. In addition, most cells in the region of tumorlike proliferation and a stromal population of fibroblastlike cells were detected by macrophage markers. Although cell number in synovial membrane increases drastically, we did not find correlations between the relative amount of macrophages in these regions and basic activity. Basic activity includes proliferative reaction as well as lymphoplasmacellular and mononuclear infiltration-both signs of an immunopathological process. In contrast, using enzymes or activation markers, there was a clear correlation. We consider that a constant high percentage of macrophages in RA synovial membrane is present regardless of any actual in flammatory process.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Heart muscle ; opioids ; morphine ; ethylketocyclazocine ; cardiac function ; presynaptic modification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The opioid agonists morphine (selective for μ-receptors) and ethylketocyclazocine (selective for kappa-receptors), at concentrations evoking strong effects in neuronal structures, did not significantly affect the configuration of the intracellularly recorded action potential and the force of contraction in ventricular heart muscle isolated from guinea pigs, rabbits and man. These results suggest that any changes of heart functions in vivo in response to opioid-like drugs are probably not mediated postsynaptically at the myocardial cell membrane but rather presynaptically, influencing the release of noradrenaline and/or acetylcholine from the nerve terminals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1971
    Keywords: Key words: Cardiopulmonary bypass — Complement system — Pediatrics — Interleukin-6 — Interleukin-8 — Soluble adhesion molecules
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The effect of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on various blood parameters in children undergoing major cardiovascular surgery was investigated in a prospective clinical study. Blood samples of children with CPB (CPB group, n= 18) or without CPB (control, n= 12) were collected before, during, and after surgery. The concentration of routine laboratory parameters, components of the complement system (C3, C4, C5, C1 inhibitor, total hemolytic complement, C3d, and C5a), circulating interleukins (IL-6 and IL-8) and soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1 and sE-selectin) were determined. In both groups of patients the serum concentrations of C3, C4, C5, and C1 inhibitor were significantly affected by the treatments (p < 0.001), decreased immediately after onset of anesthesia, were minimal during surgery, and increased thereafter. No significant differences in the kinetics of these parameters were detectable between CPB and control group. In the CPB group the activation of the alternative pathway (increased C3d) was found to be a specific response (p= 0.005), but also in the control group C3d and C5a concentration increased significantly (p < 0.022), indicating complement activation. None of the effects that would be expected after activation of the complement system were specific for the CPB group. In both groups the serum levels of IL-6 increased dramatically during and/or after surgery (p= 0.001), and IL-8 was detectable after surgery in 10/12 control patients. The concentration of sICAM-1 and sE-selectin decreased during surgery (p < 0.04) and later did not increase above baseline. Our data suggest that increased serum levels of inflammation mediators and increased consumption of complement and adhesion molecules occur during cardiovascular surgery. Although complement activation and ICAM-1 consumption are more pronounced in the CPB patients, none of these changes occurs exclusively in the CPB group. We conclude, therefore, that these changes are the combined effect of anesthesia, surgical trauma, and endothelial lesions. Additional, undefined CPB-induced reactions may also contribute the postoperative morbidity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), fibroblasts have been shown to be crucial for disease progression as well as joint destruction. In the model of human/murine SCID arthritis, synovial explants as well as fibroblasts from human rheumatoid synovial membrane induce destructive arthritis in immunodeficient mice. Hereby, the underlying cartilage destruction is accomplished by murine fibroblasts. Therefore, murine destructive fibroblasts represent a promising tool to investigate destruction of articular cartilage and bone. In this context, a novel destructive murine fibroblast line (LS48) was examined for morphological, ultrastructural, immunological and functional cellular parameters. These cells were injected into knees of SCID mice. Subsequently, the animals were monitored for joint swelling and serological parameters of arthritis by radiological methods. Finally, cartilage destruction was assessed morphologically. Cultured LS48 cells exhibit characteristic features that resemble those of activated synovial fibroblasts in human RA. Expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and matrix metalloproteinases were comparable to those detected in invasive human fibroblasts. The instillation of 5 × 105 LS48 cells into the knee joints of SCID mice initiated a rapid progressive process, that caused cartilage destruction within 10 days, and morphological examinations revealed that articular cartilage was infiltrated by the fibroblasts injected previously. In summary, the intra-articular application of LS48 cells represents a rapid and highly reproducible model to investigate the initiation and progression of cartilage destruction in connection with RA therapy and represents an easy-to-handle animal model.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0022-2828
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors are considered responsible for the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases. Although there is some evidence for allergy-promoting effects in children because of exposure to plasticizers, such as phthalates, findings of previous studies are inconsistent and lack mechanistic information. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of maternal phthalate exposure on asthma development in subsequent generations and their underlying mechanisms, including epigenetic alterations. METHODS: Phthalate metabolites were measured within the prospective mother-child cohort Lifestyle and Environmental Factors and Their Influence on Newborns Allergy Risk (LINA) and correlated with asthma development in the children. A murine transgenerational asthma model was used to identify involved pathways. RESULTS: In LINA maternal urinary concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate, a metabolite of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), were associated with an increased asthma risk in the children. Using a murine transgenerational asthma model, we demonstrate a direct effect of BBP on asthma severity in the offspring with a persistently increased airway inflammation up to the F2 generation. This disease-promoting effect was mediated by BBP-induced global DNA hypermethylation in CD4(+) T cells of the offspring because treatment with a DNA-demethylating agent alleviated exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation. Thirteen transcriptionally downregulated genes linked to promoter or enhancer hypermethylation were identified. Among these, the GATA-3 repressor zinc finger protein 1 (Zfpm1) emerged as a potential mediator of the enhanced susceptibility for TH2-driven allergic asthma. CONCLUSION: These data provide strong evidence that maternal BBP exposure increases the risk for allergic airway inflammation in the offspring by modulating the expression of genes involved in TH2 differentiation through epigenetic alterations.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28392331
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  • 10
    Abstract: Early-onset atopic dermatitis (AD) related repression of the immune regulatory NLRP2 is driven by promoter hypermethylation starting already at time of birth providing an early opportunity to modulate innate immunity to potentially mitigate AD development.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29233739
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