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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The enzyme loading needed to achieve substrate saturation appeared to be the most economical enzyme concentration to use for hydrolysis, based on percentage hydrolysis. Saturation was reached at 25 filter paper units per gram substrate on Solka Floc BW300, as determined by studying (a) initial adsorption of the cellulase preparation onto the substrate, (b) an actual hydrolysis or (c) a combined hydrolysis and fermentation (CHF) process. Initial adsorption of the cellulases onto the substrate can be used to determine the minimal cellulase requirements for efficient hydrolysis since enzymes initially adsorbed to the substrate have a strong role in governing the overall reaction. Trichoderma harzianum E58 produces high levels of β-glucosidase and is able to cause high conversion of Solka Floc BW300 to glucose without the need for exogenous β-glucosidase. End-product inhibition of the cellulase and β-glucosidase can be more effectively reduced by employing a CHF process than by supplemental β-glucosidase.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Hemicellulose-rich fractions from several agricultural residues were converted to 2,3-butanediol by a combined enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process. Culture filtrates from Trichoderma harzianum E58 were used to hydrolyze the substrates while Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented the liberated sugars to 2,3-butanediol. Approximately 50–60% of a 5% (w/v) xylan preparation could be hydrolyzed and quantitatively converted to 2,3-butanediol using this procedure. Although enzymatic hydrolysis was optimal at pH 5.0 and 50° C, the combined hydrolysis and fermentation was most efficient at pH 6.5 and 30° C. Combined hydrolysis and fermentation resulted in butanediol levels that were 20–40% higher than could be obtained with a separate hydrolysis and fermentation process. The hemicellulose-rich water-soluble fractions obtained from a variety of steam-exploded agricultural residues could be readily used by the combined hydrolysis and fermentation approach resulting in butanediol yields of 0.4–0.5 g/g of reducing sugar utilized.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A novel column cellulose hydrolysis reactor with constant enzyme recycling was operated under various conditions to determine the effects of retention time, temperature, cellulase concentration and exogenously added cellobiase on the concentration of the product stream and the productivities of the reactor. Short term (7 days) hydrolysis was best at 42°C while longer term (14 days) hydrolysis was better at 37°C. A retention time of 11 h and reactor cellulase concentration of 30 filter paper units per gram of cellulose gave the best compromise for efficient operation by minimizing product inhibition, maximizing product concentration and minimizing enzyme consumption. The addition of cellobiase to the reactor increased cellulose hydrolysis and raised the proportion of monomeric sugars in the hydrolysate. Continuous cellulose hydrolyses were maintained for 7 and 14 days at 42°C and 37°C, respectively, resulting in volumetric productivities of 6.82 and 4.84 g/l/h and average sugar concentrations of 7.3% and 6.0% (w/v), respectively. Greater than 95% (w/w) of the sugars produced were in the monomeric state. Average cellulase used for the two runs were 8.4 and 5.3 filter paper units per gram of sugar produced, respectively.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The inhibitory effects of seven closely related lignin degradation products on xylose fermentation by Klebsiella pneumoniae were studied. Compounds were added in varying concentrations. Less heavily substituted phenolics (at concentrations of, 0.1–0.4 g/l) were more inhibitory to growth and solvent production than vanillyl or syringyl derivatives. All of the cultures recovered from this inhibition after a prolonged incubation period. When the mechanism of the organism's recovery was investigated, GC and LC analysis showed that 43.5% of the vanillin was metabolized to vanillyl alcohol. Several unidentifiable compounds were also detected in trace amounts. K. pneumoniae also metabolized vanilly alcohol (54% of original supplement) and syringaldehyde; however, unlike vanillin, there was no predominant metabolite derived from these compounds. None of the metabolites derived from vanillyl alcohol could be identified while only the corresponding alcohol and trimethoxybenzene were identified among the syringaldehyde derived metabolites.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A sequential co-culture approach was investigated for the conversion of lignocellulosic substrates to butanediol and ethanol. Growth of Clostridium thermocellum on solka floc and aspenwood xylan resulted in the release of extracellular endoglucanase and xylanase enzymes into the culture medium. Low levels of fermentation products were formed and unutilized sugars accumulated in the medium. Inoculation of Klebsiella pneumoniae as a sequential culture resulted in the rapid utilization of the accumulated sugars and the formation of additional fermentation products, including butanediol, ethanol, and acetoin. This approach was applicable to the use of mixed cellulose and hemicellulose substrates, including steam-exploded aspenwood. Further improvement in solvent production from steam-exploded substrates could be obtained by using a fed-batch approach to circumvent the problem of inhibitors associated with the natural substrates.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The use of a column cellulose hydrolysis reactor with continuous enzyme recycling was demonstrated by incorporating a continuous ultrafiltration apparatus at the effluent end of the column reactor. Using this setup, over 90% (w/v) cellulose hydrolysis was achieved, resulting in an average sugar concentration of 6.8% (w/v) in the effluent stream. The output of the system was 1.98 g of reducing sugar/l/h with a ratio of 87% (w/v) of the reducing sugars being monomeric sugars. Batch hydrolysis reactors were less effective, resulting in 57% (w/v) of the cellulose being hydrolyzed. The output of the batch reactor was 1.33 g of reducing sugar/l/h with similar product concentrations and percentage of monomeric sugars. The ratio of reducing sugar/filter paper unit of cellulase activity for the column method was 69.1 mg/U as compared to only 21.2 mg/U for the batch reactor.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A column cellulose hydrolysis reactor was set up using a single passage of cellulase enzyme which was followed with a continuous percolation of buffer. Hydrolysis rates were found to decline precipitously upon the removal of the non-adsorbed cellulase components. By comparing specific activities of the cellulase before and after adsorption on the cellulose column, it was concluded that the adsorption efficiencies for the cellulase components decreased from exoglucanase (1,4-β-d-glucan cellobiohydrolase EC 3.2.1.91) to endoglucanase [1,4-(1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.4] to β-glucosidase (β-d-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21). Of the adsorbed cellulase components, the rate of endoglucanase leaching from the cellulose column was 20 times that for the exoglucanase despite the greater adsorption efficiency of the latter. By analysing the cellulase components which were bound and not bound by the cellulose column and comparing them with a purified exoglucanase enzyme on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels, it was confirmed that the major cellulase component adsorbed to the cellulose column was an exoglucanase component. The resultant loss of other cellulase components from the reactor was probably the cause for the much reduced rate of cellulose hydrolysis when these components were flushed out of the column.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] We have developed a novel process for the separation of uninked from inked fibers in old newspaper (ONP). The process consists of two connected batch reactors in which ONP is pulped in one with the enzyme, cellulase. After several hours, uninked pulp fibers are retained in one vessel by means of a ...
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Four potential inhibitors, hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural, syringaldehyde and vanillin, were assayed over a range of concentrations and times to simulate the amounts that might be expected to accumulate when the hydrolyzed water-soluble fraction from steam-treated aspenwood was added in a fed-batch mode to K. pneumoniae. Combinations of the individual materials resulted in a cumulative inhibitory effect. Prolonged incubation could alleviate some of the inhibition.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: cellulase ; enzyme recycling ; enzyme adsorption ; lignocellulosic hydrolysis ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Past technoeconomic modeling work has identified the relatively large contribution that enzymatic hydrolysis adds to the total cost of producing ethanol from lignocellulosic substrates. This cost was primarily due to the high concentration of enzyme and long incubation time that was required to obtain complete hydrolysis. Although enzyme and substrate concentration and end-product inhibition influenced the rate of hydrolysis, the effect was less pronounced during the initial stages of hydrolysis. During this time most of the cellulases were adsorbed onto the unhydrolyzed residue. By recycling the cellulases adsorbed to the residual substrate remaining after an initial 24 h, a high rate of hydrolysis, with low overall residence time and minimal cellulase input, could be achieved for several rounds of enzyme recycle. A comparison of the front end (pretreatment, fractionation, and hydrolysis) of a softwood/hardwood to ethanol process indicated that the lignin associated with the softwood-derived cellulose stream limited the number of times the cellulose containing residue could be recycled. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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