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  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; CELL ; Germany ; GENE ; GENES ; transcription ; MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION ; TISSUE ; MECHANISM ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; REDUCTION ; TISSUES ; mechanisms ; TARGET ; MUTANT ; STAGE ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS ; IDENTIFICATION ; IN-SITU ; MICROARRAY DATA ; NUMBER ; RT-PCR ; sensitivity ; max ; expression profiling ; TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION ; COMPLEXITY ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISM ; ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA ; BETA-GLUCOSIDASE ; CELL-WALL PROTEIN ; FLORAL ORGAN IDENTITY ; GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS ; GERBERA-HYBRIDA ; HOMEOTIC GENE ; LIPID-TRANSFER PROTEIN
    Abstract: The class B MADS box transcription factors DEFICIENS (DEF) and GLOBOSA (GLO) of Antirrhinum majus together control the organogenesis of petals and stamens. Toward an understanding of how the downstream molecular mechanisms controlled by DEF contribute to petal organogenesis, we conducted expression profiling experiments using macroarrays comprising 〉11,600 annotated Antirrhinum unigenes. First, four late petal developmental stages were compared with sepals. More than 500 ESTs were identified that comprise a large number of stage-specifically regulated genes and reveal a highly dynamic transcriptional regulation. For identification of DEF target genes that might be directly controlled by DEF, we took advantage of the temperature-sensitive def-101 mutant. To enhance the sensitivity of the profiling experiments, one petal developmental stage was selected, characterized by increased transcriptome changes that reflect the onset of cell elongation processes replacing cell division processes. Upon reduction of the DEF function, 49 upregulated and 52 downregulated petal target genes were recovered. Eight target genes were further characterized in detail by RT-PCR and in situ studies. Expression of genes responding rapidly toward an altered DEF activity is confined to different petal tissues, demonstrating the complexity of the DEF function regulating diverse basic processes throughout petal morphogenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15539471
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The DNA sequence IS1, which is 800 pairs long, has been shown to integrate into various bacterial and phage operons. The presence of this DNA sequence in the gal operon of E. coli K12 leads to an 30–2000 fold increase in deletion formation in the gal region as compared to wildtype. This high frequency of deletion formation is specific for IS1 and is independent of the cellular recA function. While the frequency of reversion of gal::IS1 mutations, which also is independent of recA, is not affected by the growth temperature of the cells, the formation of deletions in the gal::IS1 system is strongly dependent on the temperature of growth. Mapping experiments showed that one endpoint of the deletions in most cases is at the site of the IS1 mutation and the second endpoint seems to be at various but preferred sites. The formation of the different classes of deletions observed is affected differently by the growth temperature of the cells. A model to account for these results is presented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Genetic analysis of the constitutive revertants of the IS2 mutation 308 located in the control region of the gal operon on the bacterial chromosome suggests that the constitutive expression of the gal genes might be due to inversion of IS2. Analysis of suitable DNA-DNA heteroduplex molecules in the electron microscope clearly shows one constitutive revertant of galOP::IS2-308 isolated on the F′ 8gal episome is due to fusion of the gal genes to IS2 located in the F-sequences. This IS2 is in opposite orientation with respect to the original IS2-308. We call the orientation of IS2, in which expression of genes is allowed at a very high level, orientation II. In orientation I, IS2 prevents the expression of gene activity. Since, as will be discussed, IS2 is translocated as a unit, IS2 can be considered as a controlling element for turn-off or turn-on of gene activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Molecular genetics and genomics 176 (1979), S. 233-238 
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A more stable derivative of IS2-6 has been isolated, which had lost 54 bp of the 108 bp long insert characteristic of IS2-6. This new allele of IS2, IS2-61, segregates the remaining 54 bp to yield allele IS2-611. DNA sequence analysis shows that the segregation products of IS2-6 arise by recA-independent, illegitimate recombination at 9 bp long direct sequence repetitions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Several genomic clones from Petroselinum hortense, Zea mays and Antirrhinum majus all homologous to cloned Petroselinum chalcone synthase cDNA were isolated using the λgt WES cloning system. Clones containing the chalcone synthase structural gene were identified by hybridization to cDNA from Petroselinum hortense, genomic wildtype, mutant and revertant DNA. Among the 5 different clones from Petroselinum hortense, PH3 is the most likely candidate to contain at least a portion of the chalcone synthase gene. None of the 4 Zea mays clones appeared to contain part of the chalcone synthase gene. Among the 2 different clones from Antirrhinum majus, AM3 contains the portion of the chalcone synthase structural gene which is altered in the mutant nivea recurrens (niv rec). This mutant is considered to be due to the integration of a transposable element. In revertants of niv rec to niv + the wildtype locus is restored molecularly.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Transgenic plants ; Gene expression ; Copy number ; Promoter methylation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary ThePetunia hybrida mutant RL01 is white flowering due to a genetic block in the anthocyanin pathway. The introduction of the maize Al cDNA under the control of the CaMV 35S RNA promoter leads to the production of pelargonidin derivatives, resulting in a brick red flower phenotype. Among the transgenic petunia plants the pigmentation of the petals exhibited different expression patterns which could be categorized into the ‘red’, the ‘variegated’, and the ‘white’ phenotype. This system proved to be especially suitable for the investigation of gene expression by simply looking at the pigmentation pattern of the petals. The uniformity of floral pelargonidin pigmentation is inversely correlated with the number of integrated Al copies. Furthermore, a correlation was found between the methylation status of the 35S RNA promoter and the instability of the floral pelargonidin coloration. The status of promoter methylation controlling the expression of the Al gene seems to be influenced by the copy number and the chromosomal position of the transferred gene.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Maize ; Transposable element ; AclDs ; Uqlruq ; Methylation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The Uq transposable element of maize is the most widely dispersed among different maize populations and genetic testerstrains. Despite intensive genetic characterization, little is known about its molecular structure. In order to obtain information relevant to this topic, we have cloned and sequenced three ruq receptors. Surprisingly, they are all Ds1-like receptor types of the Ac-Ds transposon family. Based on our molecular data, we present a model to explain the functional differences associated with the differential expression of the Uq and Ac transposon systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary An increase in the specific activity of kinase and transferase is observed when late growth phase is compared with early exponential phase. The increase is more pronounced in the presence of saturating inducer concentrations than in uninduced cultures. Epimerase does not increase in late growth phase in the presence of D-fucose, provided the other enzymes of the galactose pathway are present. It is believed that increases observed are due to an increased rate of synthesis of the galactose enzymes in late growth phase, and that the lack of coordination found for epimerase is due to an inactivation of the latter enzyme, which occurs in the presence of D-fucose and needs an intact galactose pathway.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Zea mays C1 gene ; Plant transcriptional activator ; Gene regulation ; Anthocyanin pathway ; myb homologous genes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The structure and function of several C1 alleles have been investigated molecularly and the importance of C1 promoter sequences for gene expression was studied using transient transformation assays. The C1 mutants analyzed were the overexpressing allele C1-S, the light-inducible allele c1-p, the null recessive allele c1-n, and the Ds element-induced allele c1-m1. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the alleles revealed a number of differences, predominantly located at the 3′ end of the gene. The promoter sequences of the C1 alleles investigated so far (including wild-type and the dominant inhibitor C1-I allele) are almost identical except for two short footprint-like sequences (Box I and Box 11) close to the putative CAAT box. Northern blot experiments and transient expression in particle gun experiments indicate that these sequences may be correlated with the different expression patterns of the alleles in the aleurone of maturing and germinating kernels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Galactose negative mutations are described which reduce the maximum expression of all three gal genes about 100-fold. The residual enzyme synthesis is not or only slightly inducible. These pleiotropic mutations map in the control region of the gal operon. No recombination is observed between these mutations. All mutants revert spontaneously to a Gal+ phenotype. In some mutations wildtype-like as well as constitutive revertants are obtained. The frequency of reversion can be increased by nitrosoguanidine (NG) in all mutants. The revertants, induced by this mutagen, are of a constitutive type.
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