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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-9486
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We discuss πN polarizations and cross sections at low energies. Presently two conflicting solutions for the low energy amplitudes exist. The first one is based on low energy scattering data and disagrees with the chiral sigma term while the second one, based on mesic atoms level shifts, is consistent with chiral expectations. We show that the π±p polarization atT R = 51 MeV is able to distinguish these solutions. We also illustrate the sensitivity to the small P waves.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Keywords: Haemangioblastoma; von Hippel-Lindau disease; surgery; survival.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary ¶ The aim was to assess the frequency of von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) and the long-term prognosis of VHL and non-VHL patients among 110 consecutive patients with haemangioblastoma (HB) of the CNS treated between 1953 and 1993 at one neurosurgical unit.  To reveal VHL manifestations we performed a detailed clinical and radiological examination (neuraxis and abdomen) (61/110), VHL-gene mutation analysis (40/110), and collection of all available clinical, imaging, operative and autopsy data from the hospitals involved. All patients were followed-up with a median of 14 years (excluding 14 operative deaths), and no patient was lost to follow-up. Altogether 49 patients died during the follow-up.  In the 14 VHL patients (13%), HB(s) of the CNS were detected at a median age of 33 years, retinal HB(s) at 39 years, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at 43 years. The frequency of VHL in patients operated on for HB(s) was 29% before the age of 25 years, 19% between 25 and 45 years, and only 2% after 45 years. HB patients not meeting the VHL criteria had internal organ cysts in 14%. One non-VHL patient (4%) had two adjacent HBs in the same cyst wall. The growth rates of non-VHL and VHL-related HBs were similar as indicated by the median time to recurrence and the proliferation indices (MIB-1). Recurrence of the HB in patients whose primary operation was considered radical developed in four of the 10 VHL patients at a median of 19 years, and in nine of the 74 non-VHL patients at a median of 11 years. The median length of life of all VHL and non-VHL patients was 46 and 63 years, respectively. In VHL, RCC and HBs were equal causes of death.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Keywords: Schwannoma; neurofibromatosis 2; comparative genomic hybridization.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary ¶ Background. Schwannomas occur sporadically or in association with neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), an autosomal dominant disorder, which predisposes to multiple schwannomas, meningiomas and spinal ependymomas, with bilateral vestibular schwannomas as the classic hallmark. As NF2 and sporadic schwannomas differ in some respect in their clinical and biological behavior we evaluated whether there are any differences in the distribution of genetic aberrations between NF2 and sporadic schwannomas. Our interest was also to verify whether secondary genetic alterations besides the loss of 22q could be detected in schwannomas.  Methods. We investigated DNA copy number changes in 25 schwannomas (12 NF2 and 13 sporadic schwannomas) using the comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) technique. Some chromosomal regions were further studied by LOH or FISH analysis.  Findings. CGH detected genomic abnormalities in 15 of 25 schwannomas (60%). The most common alteration was loss on 22q, found in 32% (8/25) of schwannomas. No consistent changes were detected in other chromosomal regions. The overall number of genetic aberrations was similar in NF2 and in sporadic schwannomas.  Interpretation. Our results support the present view that loss of chromosome 22q harboring the NF2 gene plays a universal role in the pathogenesis of schwannomas without consistent involvement of other chromosomal regions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-6052
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Energies of four-quark systems have been extracted in a static quenched SU(2) lattice Monte Carlo calculation for six different geometries, both planar and nonplanar, with β=2.4 and lattice size 163×32. In all cases, it is found that the binding energy is greatly enhanced when the four quarks can be partitioned in two ways with comparable energies. Also it is shown that the energies of the four-quark states cannot be understood simply in terms of two-quark potentials.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Salivary calcium was shown to be higher in treated periodontitis-affected subjects (P+) than in periodontitis-free patients (P−). Here the aim was to study whether differences in calcium or other salivary factors exist prior to treatment. The test group consisted of 20 (15 men, 5 women) periodontitis-affected subjects and the control group 15 subjects (10 men, 5 women) free from periodontitis. Paraffin-stimulated whole saliva was collected to determine the flow-rate, calcium and phosphate concentrations, pH, buffering capacity, numbers of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and yeasts. The results showed a higher calcium concentration (p 〈 0.05) in the P+ group (x̄: 1.68 mmol/l; SE: 0.06 in men and x̄: 1.49 mmol/l; SE: 0.10 in women) than in the P-group (x̄: 1.48 mmol/l; SE: 0.09 in men and x̄: 1.18 mmol/l; SE: 0.10 in women). The P+ group had more intact teeth (x̄±SE: 9.9±0.8 in men and 11.2±2.0 in women) than the P-group (x̄± SE: 8.3±0.7 in men and 8.2±2.4 in women). The present findings may indicate that an elevated level of salivary Ca is characteristic of P+ patients both before and after periodontal treatment.
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