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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; duct endoscopy ; galactography ; intraductal biopsy of the breast ; nipple discharge
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Microdochectomy is usually performed on patients with nipple discharge caused by intraductal proliferative lesions, such as intraductal papilloma and carcinoma. But this operation often sacrifices large amounts of normal mammary gland even when the lesion is a benign intraductal papilloma a few millimeters in diameter. We have developed duct endoscopy for the mammary duct system, and have reliably performed biopsies for intraductal proliferative lesions intraductally. From June 1989 to April 1990, we examined 22 cases by duct endoscopy, and performed endoscopic biopsy in 16 cases. The method of endoscopic biopsy is as follows. First, a bougie is inserted, without anesthesia other than Xylocaine jelly, into the orifice of the duct to enlarge it. Second, the outer cylinder and the inner needle are inserted; then the inner needle is removed, and the endoscope is inserted. After examination, the outer cylinder is moved up to the lesion to be biopsied and the endoscope is taken out. Then a sample is taken into the outer cylinder by aspiration. We diagnosed 10 cases of benign lesion and 5 cases of malignant lesion by cytological and/or histological examination. In conclusion, endoscopic biopsy, aided by duct endoscopy, is a useful and harmless diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of nipple discharge.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Breast conservation ; Quadrantectomy ; Lumpectomy ; Radiotherapy ; Serial section
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Breast conserving treatment usually consists of lumpectomy and axillary dissection followed by a limited dose of irradiation so that no significant side-effects occur. However, the precision of lumpectomy depends on the surgical maneuver and pathological evaluation performed at each institution. For this reason, post-operative irradiation to the preserved breast and for the occult carcinoma in the same breast is absolutely mandatory, and effectively becomes a routine step. In 1986, we started to adopt the new breast-conservation method of quadrantectomy with axillary dissection for restricted stage I breast cancer without using radiotherapy, at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. As an alternative to irradiation to ensure safety, we chose to administer an elaborate pathological examination on serial sections. The pathological proof has saved troublesome post-operative irradiation, and the results have shown this method to be safe and clear-cut compared to the traditional breast-conserving treatment cited in the literature. From July 1986 to December 1994, we performed 321 cases of quadrantectomy and axillary dissection (Q+Ax). If the detailed pathological examination of 5-mm serial sections revealed the stump to be negative, we did not treat the preserved breast with radiotherapy. Out of 321 cases, 247 were analyzed as being stump-negative and of these 235 did not receive radiotherapy at all. During a 5 year 4 month observation period, we have not yet encountered any local recurrence. However, we have experienced 4 cases (1.70%) in which a second cancer developed in the conserved breast. The annual incidence rate was 0.32%. These results are the best so far compared to other published world reports.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Breast cancer ; Latent cancer ; Mammography ; Microcalcification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Detection of small or early neoplastic lesions is essential for the secondary prevention of cancer, and for this purpose information concerning their incidence and characteristics is required. Although data for latent or early cancers are available for various organs, details are limited in the case of the breast. The present investigation was carried out to cast light on the incidence of latent cancers, considered as lesions, in women with no symptoms and no palpable mass of the breast. Out of 2126 women visiting our hospital for initial breast examination during July to December in 1987, 542 (25.5%) had no complaint and neither a detectable mass on careful palpation nor a tumor shadow on mammography. However, 21 (3.9%) demonstrated microcalcification, 7 giving the impression of a possible malignancy. Subsequent biopsy of the 7 cases revealed 3 carcinomas. The detection rate of breast cancer in this population was thus 0.6% (3/542). Adopting the frequency (36%) of microcalcification detectable on mammography in 185 breast cancers diagnosed in this period as a base, the incidence of latent breast cancer among women visiting our hospital was calculated to be 1.5%.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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