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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Blood-brain barrier ; Hippocampus ; Horseradish peroxidase ; Senescence-accelerated mice
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Age-related changes in the brain transfer of blood-borne horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were examined by light microscopy in senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8) and senescence-accelerated resistant mice (SAMR1). The intracerebral HRP transferred from the blood stream was reacted with tetramethyl benzidine (TMB) and the area showing the presence of HRP-TMB reaction products was morphometrically evaluated. Areas containing HRP reaction products in the medial CA1 region and medial dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were observed in 3- and 13-month-old SAMP8 and SAMR1. The mean percentage of the positive area for the HRP to the area of interest was significantly higher in the rostral portion of the hippocampus in 13-month-old than in 3-month-old SAMP8. On the other hand, age-related changes in the area positive for HRP-TMB reaction products in the cortices and the caudal portion of the hippocampus in SAMP8 were not observed. In addition, positive staining reaction for HRP was also observed in the dorsal portion of the thalamus of 13-month-old SAMP8. There were no significant age-related changes in the area positive for HRP-TMB reaction products in rostral and caudal portions of the cortices and the hippocampus of SAMR1. These findings suggest that blood-borne macromolecules have access to the medial and rostral portion of the hippocampus, that this phenomenon becomes more pronounced during the process of senescence in the SAMP8 brain and, moreover, that intravascular macromolecules have access to the dorsal portion (periventricular area) of the thalamus of 13-month-old SAMP8.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Aging ; Blood-brain barrier ; Horseradish peroxidase ; Senescence-accelerated mouse ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The ultrastructural features of microvessels showing increased permeability to intravenously injected horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were examined in the olfactory bulbs of senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8), which showed age-related deficits in learning and memory, and senescence-accelerated resistant mice (SAMR1), which did not show the age-related deficits. HRP was visualized with tetramethyl benzidine (TMB) and diaminobenzidine (DAB) for light and electron microscopic examination, respectively. In the olfactory bulbs of 13-month-old SAMP8 mice, the staining reaction with TMB for HRP appeared in the neuropil of central area (granule cell layer and subependymal layer), in the pia mater and in the vascular wall. Some vessels located in the central area showed several changes observed at the ultrastructural level. The cytoplasm of the endothelial cells, especially in the arterioles, was segmentally thickened and contained numerous vesicles and vacuoles, some of which were HRP positive. The endothelial cell surface was occasionally undulated with microvillous protrusions. Membranous inclusions within the basal lamina, suggesting the cellular (presumably pericytal) degeneration, were frequently observed, especially in venules. The collagen deposits were occasionally observed in the subendothelial space of some vessels. Perivascular cells with vacuolated inclusions or lipid-like droplets were present around some vessels in the central area of the olfactory bulbs of aged SAMP8 mice. On the other hand, in the microvessels located in the areas negative for HRP-TMB reaction, except the vessel walls, the cytoplasm of the endothelial cells with smooth luminal surface was flattened and some vesicles located there contained HRP-DAB reaction product. Weak staining reaction with TMB for HRP appeared also in the central area of the olfactory bulbs of 3-month-old SAMP8 mice and 3- and 13-month-old SAMR1 mice. The cytoplasm of the endothelial cells in the olfactory bulbs of these mice was focally thickened and contained some cytoplasmic vesicles. Occasionally, the endothelial cell surface was moderately undulated with few microvillous protrusions. Membranous inclusions within the basal lamina were not observed in these animals. These findings indicate that the endothelial cells and pericytes in some vessels located in the central area of the olfactory bulb of aged SAMP8 mice, which show staining reaction with TMB for HRP, are ultrastructurally changed, suggesting their altered functions.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The endocannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine) and other bioactive long-chain N-acylethanolamines are thought to be formed from their corresponding N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines by a specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) in the brain as well as other tissues. However, regional distribution of NAPE-PLD in the brain has not been examined. In the present study, we investigated the expression levels of NAPE-PLD in nine different regions of rat brain by enzyme assay, western blotting and real-time PCR. The NAPE-PLD activity was detected in all the tested brain regions with the highest activity in thalamus. Similar distribution patterns of NAPE-PLD were observed at protein and mRNA levels. We also found a remarkable increase in the expression levels of protein and mRNA of the brain NAPE-PLD with development, which was in good agreement with the increase in the activity. The age-dependent increase was also seen with several brain regions and other NAPE-PLD-enriched organs (heart and testis). p-Chloromercuribenzoic acid and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride, which inhibited recombinant NAPE-PLD dose-dependently, strongly inhibited the enzyme of all the brain regions. These results demonstrated wide distribution of NAPE-PLD in various brain regions and its age-dependent expression, suggesting the central role of this enzyme in the formation of anandamide and other N-acylethanolamines in the brain.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1860-1499
    Keywords: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma ; Larynx ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the vocal cord occurring in a 46-year-old male was studied immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. The tumor consisted of the two main areas, pleomorphic and storiform. Immunohistochemical staining was strongly positive for α1-antitrypsin and α1-antichymotrypsin, and negative for desmin, keratin, myoglobin, actin, carcinoembryonic antigen, and S100 protein. Ultrastructurally, this MFH consisted of four different types of cells which were either fibroblast-like, histiocyte-like, myofibroblast-like, or with features of both the fibroblast and histiocyte types. Transition forms between the four types of cells were also found. This suggests that cells of MFH are derived from the same undifferentiated stem cells.
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