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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: diagnosis ; gene transcript ; micrometastasis ; molecular marker ; reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A novel reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) assay using mammaglobin B gene was developed for detection of breast cancer micrometastases in axillary lymph nodes. Fourteen primary breast cancers and 56 axillary lymph nodes from six patients with primary breast cancer and 15 control lymph nodes from non‐cancer bearing patients were subjected to this assay. The transcript of mammaglobin B gene was detected in none of the control lymph nodes, but in all of the 14 primary breast cancers. Eleven out of the 56 lymph nodes from the patients, which were shown to be positive by histological examination, were also proven positive by this assay. On the other hand, fourteen of the 45 (31%) histologically negative lymph nodes were also shown to express mammaglobin B mRNA, which suggested the presence of micrometastases in these lymph nodes. RT‐PCR using mammaglobin B gene could therefore be a useful tool for detection of micrometastases of breast cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: nipple discharge ; breast cancer ; diagnosis ; loss of heterozygosity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Nipple discharge in breast cancer cases was examined loss of heterozygosity (LOH). DNA samples were extracted from both supernatant and cell pellet components of the discharge, and examined for LOH at microsatellite markers, D11S1818, D11S2000, D16S402, D16S504, D16S518, D17S520, and D17S786. At least one LOH was found in either the supernatant or cell pellet in seven out of 10 patients (70%). Five of seven samples, which were cytologically negative, were LOH positive, and only one case, which was cytologically positive, showed no LOH on the markers examined. All three samples, which were judged ‘negative’ by CEA measurement (〈400 ng/ml), were LOH positive. This method could be a useful novel diagnostic modality for nonpalpable breast cancer with nipple discharge.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-8280
    Keywords: Cytotoxic CD4+ T cell ; ICAM-1 ; Immunotherapy ; LFA-1 ; OK-432 ; TNFβ
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have previously reported that the antitumor effect of OK-432, aStreptococcal preparation, is markedly augmented when injected intratumorally together with fibrinogen (Cancer, 69: 636–642, 1992). In order to elucidate the mechanism of the antitumor effects, we established T cell clones from regional lymph nodes of colorectal cancer patients who received this local immunotherapy. By culture of lymph node lymphocytes, in the presence of IL-2 and OK-432, 4 clones of T cells were established from 4 patients treated by local immunotherapy. These clones had a helper T cell phenotype (CD3+, CD4+, CD8−, CD56−, WT31+) and were successfully maintained for several months. The cells strongly expressed CD25 when stimulated with OK-432 and exhibited a high level of cytotoxic activity in part explained by the increased expression of ICAM-1 and LFA-1, and the release of TNFβ. These results suggest that the CD4+ T cells play a role in the antitumor mechanism of local immunotherapy.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-8280
    Keywords: OK-432 ; fibrinogen ; colorectal carcinoma ; local immunotherapy ; regional lymph node
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have previously reported that the antitumor effect of OK-432, a streptococcal preparation, is markedly augmented when injected intratumorally together with fibrinogen (OK-432/fbg) [1]. In order to elucidate the effects of this immunotherapy on regional lymph nodes (RLN), we carried out both morphological and functional analyses of the RLN from colonic cancer patients treated with OK-432/ fbg. Computer-aided morphometry revealed that the maximal cross-sectional areas and the broadest diameters of the RLN were significantly greater (p〈0.01) in patients who had undergone local immunotherapy than in patients who had not. The component structures of RLN, such as sinus, follicle and paracortex, were all enlarged in the OK-432/fbg-treated patients, and necrosis of metastatic tumors was observed. RLN lymphocytes recovered from OK-432/fbg treated patients showed elevated reactivity to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and the stimulation index was clearly higher than that of control patients. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a predominance of T-cells, especially CD4 subsets, and higher positivity for both CD25 and HLA-DR. Furthermore, RLN lymphocytes killed more effectively K562 and Daudi cells in the patients who had had immunotherapy. These results suggest that the effect of local immunotherapy with OK-432/fbg is not restricted to the site of injection but extends to the lymph nodes, and contributes to tumor regression through the augmentation of cellular immunity.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1435-232X
    Keywords: MEN 2A ; gene carriers ; linked DNA markers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have performed preclinical risk estimation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) by using the polymorphic DNA markers tightly linked to the MEN2A locus. The gene for MEN 2A has been assigned to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 10 by linkage analysis. The preclinical detection of gene carriers in MEN 2A families using tightly linked DNA markers is useful for surgical treatment at an early stage. The DNA markers, RBP3 (retinol-binding protein 3, interstitial) and FNRB (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide), are both tightly linked to the MEN2A locus, and are localized to opposite sides of the MEN2A locus. We have used RBP3 and FNRB as markers for preclinical diagnosis. Of 18 Japanese families with MEN 2A, 6 families are informative for both loci, and other 10 families are informative for either RBP3 or FNRB. In one informative family, a 20-year-old female is predicted to be the gene carrier (probability; about 99%). She should be carefully followed up till full penetrance age. We conclude that DNA-based prediction of MEN 2A is an effective procedure for clinical use.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1530-0358
    Keywords: Colorectal carcinoma ; Chemoimmunotherapy ; OK-432 ; 5′-DFUR ; PyNPase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract PURPOSE: Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase is an enzyme that converts 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine into its active metabolite, 5-fluorouracil. In colorectal cancer tissue pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase has been proven to be produced by macrophages in the cancer stroma despite presence of the cancer cells. We reported that local immunotherapy with OK-432 and fibrinogen induced aggregation of macrophages in the cancer stroma and enforced their pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase expression. Thus it was hypothesized that if colon cancer were treated with 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine, the 5-fluorouracil concentration in cancer tissues would be enhanced by local immunotherapy. The present study was conducted to investigate whether local immunotherapy for colon cancer could increase the intratumoral 5-fluorouracil concentration in patients given chemotherapy with 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine. METHODS: Twenty patients with resectable colorectal cancer were examined in this study. They were given 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (600 mg/day) orally for seven days preoperatively. Nine randomly selected patients underwent intratumoral injection of OK-432 mixed with fibrinogen, which was performed on the third preoperative day (OK-432 and fibrinogen plus 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine group); eleven patients were given oral 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine only (5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine group). The 5-fluorouracil concentration in tumor tissue and normal colon mucosa tissue was measured, and the influence of the local immunotherapy was assessed. RESULTS: The 5-fluorouracil concentration in the cancer tissue was increased by the local immunotherapy, whereas that in the normal colon mucosa was not influenced. Thus, the influence of local immunotherapy was selective to the cancer tissue where the mixture of OK-432 and fibrinogen was injected. CONCLUSION: In patients with colorectal cancer, selective high 5-fluorouracil concentration in the cancer tissue could be achieved by a combination of 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine and local immunotherapy with a mixture of OK-432 and fibrinogen.
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