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  • 1
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Complement C1s ; Sandwich ELISA ; Chondrocytes ; Cell culture ; Differentiation ; Ascorbic acid ; Syrian hamster ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. In vitro synthesis of the first component of complement C1s was examined by using hamster epiphyseal chondrocytes (HAC) and human chondrosarcoma cell line HCS-2/8. Hamster and human C1s produced by the cells were quantified by immunoblotting and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. It was possible to measure active and inactive C1s by sandwich ELISA, when we used anti-human C1s monoclonal antibodies, M241 recognizing only active C1s, and M365 and M81 recognizing both active and inactive C1s. Approximately 40% of C1s secreted from HCS-2/8 was found to be activated in the culture medium, whereas C1s from HAC was not. C1s production increased in accordance with chondrocyte differentiation induced by ascorbic acid. In contrast, transforming growth factor-beta1 and basic fibroblast growth factor, which inhibited differentiation, suppressed C1s production. These results confirmed our previous observation showing that C1s synthesis increased with differentiation into hypertrophic chondrocytes in vivo.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Bone ; Ossification ; Cartilage ; Chondrocytes ; Complement C1s ; Development ; Immunohistochemistry ; In situ hybridization ; Hamster
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Expression of the first complement component (C1s) has been examined in chondrocytes of hamster epiphyseal cartilage during development and fracture healing. C1s is immunostained with anti-hamster C1s monoclonal antibody, PG11. The C1s staining increases in accordance with chondrocyte differentiation and reaches a maximal level in hypertrophic chondrocytes. This change is observed at both the tibia ossification center and at the callus in which the replacement of cartilage by bone marrow takes place. The concomitant increase of C1s and chondrocyte hypertrophy has been confirmed by RNA blot and by in situ hybridization. These results, in addition to previous findings on C1s collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activities, suggest C1s participation in cartilage remodeling.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Bone ; Ossification ; Cartilage ; Matrix ; Chondrocytes ; Complement ; Matrix metalloproteinase ; Immunocytochemistry ; Man
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The first component of complement $$C\bar 1s$$ has been shown to degrade type I and type II collagens (Yamaguchi et al. 1990), the latter of which is a major constituent of the cartilage matrix. In order to understand the physiological roles of $$C\bar 1s$$ in cartilage resorption, the expression of C1s was examined by immunohistochemistry in the primary ossification center where the matrix is removed and replaced by bone marrow. Hypertrophic chondrocytes, endothelium and hematogenous elements in the capillary buds were intensely stained by a monoclonal antibody against C1s. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9, 92kDa gelatinase/type IV collagenase) was also immunolocalized in hypertrophic chondrocytes, mesenchymal cells in the primitive bone marrow and the cartilage matrix adjacent to the marrow. In addition, $$C\bar 1s$$ was found to activate the zymogen of MMP-9. These observations suggest that $$C\bar 1s$$ and MMP-9 coordinately participate in matrix degradation in cartilage.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0263-6484
    Keywords: bFGF ; complement C1s ; HUVEC ; covalent binding ; growth inhibition ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The first complement component C1s formed large aggregates with bFGF when bFGF and C1s were incubated at 37°C overnight. Under non-reducing conditions, a part of the aggregates did not penetrate into 5% polyacrylamide gel in the presence of SDS, and the rest penetrated into 5% gel but not into 12% gel. The aggregates were dissociated into monomers by reducing with 2-mercaptoethanol. Both active and inactive C1s formed aggregates with bFGF. In addition, a portion of bFGF was degraded by active C1s but not by inactive C1s. Aggregates were not formed when 2-mercaptoethanol (2 mM&base;) was added to the incubation mixture. After the incubation with C1s the growth-stimulating activity of bFGF was measured by using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as indicator cells. The aggregate formation between C1s and bFGF significantly reduced the activity of bFGF. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Complement Cls ; Neoantigen ; Cartilage ; Hypertrophic chondrocyte ; Immunohistochemistry ; Rheumatoid arthritis ; Decorin ; Syrian hamster ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The secondary ossification center of 14- to 16-day-old hamster tibiae was examined immunohistochemically with active and inactive Cls-specific antibodies, RK5 and RK4, respectively. At the ossification center, chondrocytes differentiate from proliferating and hypertrophic to degenerating stages, and their site is occupied by the bone marrow. Cls was strongly immunostained in hypertrophic chondrocytes. In order to discover whether Cls is activated at a particular site, the cartilage was immunostained with RK5 and RK4. RK5 mainly reacted with degrading matrix around invading vessels. In contrast, RK4 strongly stained hypertrophic chondrocytes. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed Cls on degrading fragments of chondrocytes and fibers of cartilage matrix. Decorin, one of the major matrix proteoglycans, was dose and time dependently degraded by Cls. Type II collagen and type I gelatin were also degraded. Articular cartilage from patients with rheumatoid arthritis was positively immunostained (11/12 cases) with an anti-Cls monoclonal antibody (mAb) PG11, whereas normal articular cartilage (5/5 cases) was negative, suggesting Cls participation in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Cartilage Hypertrophic chondrocytes Differentiation Hyaluronan Hyaluronan synthases In situ hybridization Golden hamster Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Ultrastructural aspects of hypertrophic chondrocytes in hamster and mouse epiphysial cartilage were examined in relation to their metabolic activities. With the hypertrophic change, cytoplasmic vacuolization proceeded leaving the partially intact endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the hypertrophic cells, cytoplasmic hyaluronan was stained with the biotinylated hyaluronan-binding region (b-HABR) of aggrecan, and mRNAs of hyaluronan synthase (Has 1, Has 2 and Has 3) were detected by in situ hybridization. When the epiphysial cartilage was cultured in the presence of 35S, 3H-GlcNAc, 3H-proline or 14C-palmitic acid, vacuolated late hypertrophic chondrocytes were labeled with these radioactive precursors. The evidence indicates that late hypertrophic chondrocytes are metabolically active, which appears to be essential for the enlargement of chondrocytes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Bone – Ossification – Cartilage – Matrix – Chondrocytes – Complement – Matrix metalloproteinase – Immunocytochemistry – Man
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The first component of complement C1¯s has been shown to degrade type I and type II collagens (Yamaguchi et al. 1990), the latter of which is a major constituent of the cartilage matrix. In order to understand the physiological roles of C1¯s in cartilage resorption, the expression of C1s was examined by immunohistochemistry in the primary ossification center where the matrix is removed and replaced by bone marrow. Hypertrophic chondrocytes, endothelium and hematogenous elements in the capillary buds were intensely stained by a monoclonal antibody against C1s. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9, 92kDa gelatinase/type IV collagenase) was also immunolocalized in hypertrophic chondrocytes, mesenchymal cells in the primitive bone marrow and the cartilage matrix adjacent to the marrow. In addition, C1¯s was found to activate the zymogen of MMP-9. These observations suggest that C1¯s and MMP-9 coordinately participate in matrix degradation in cartilage.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0263-6484
    Keywords: protein myristoylation ; 10T1/2 fibroblast ; X-ray transformation ; contact inhibition ; lipopolysaccharide ; MARCKS ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have examined the pattern of protein myristoylation in C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts during cell growth. During the growing phase of 10T1/2 cells, several proteins were radiolabelled with [3H]myristate, and among them proteins with molecular masses of 22, 35, a doublet of 42-45 and 67 kDa were labelled predominantly. The extent of myristoylation in each of these proteins changed with cell density. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into the 22 kDa protein in 10T1/2 cells decreased with increasing cell density and remained at a low level during the stationary phase. In contrast, the incorporation into the 67 kDa protein increased parallel to cell density. The density-dependent change of myristoylation was not observed in any of the transformants of 10T1/2 cells thus far examined. The 67 kDa protein was identified as MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) by immunoprecipitation with an anti-MARCKS antibody. By Western blot analysis, we found that the amount of MARCKS in 10T1/2 cells increased significantly analogous with cell density. Therefore, it is possible that MARCKS and the 22 kDa protein play a role in contact-mediated cell signalling in 10T1/2 cells, but the mechanism is lost in transformed cells. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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