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  • 1
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence; solar wind plasma) ; Space plasma physics (electrostatic structures)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The time domain sampler (TDS) experiment on WIND measures electric and magnetic wave forms with a sampling rate which reaches 120 000 points per second. We analyse here observations made in the solar wind near the Lagrange point L1. In the range of frequencies above the proton plasma frequency fpi and smaller than or of the order of the electron plasma frequency fpe, TDS observed three kinds of electrostatic (e.s.) waves: coherent wave packets of Langmuir waves with frequencies f ≃ fpe, coherent wave packets with frequencies in the ion acoustic range fpi ≥ f ≥ fpe, and more or less isolated non-sinusoidal spikes lasting less than 1 ms. We confirm that the observed frequency of the low frequency (LF) ion acoustic wave packets is dominated by the Doppler effect: the wavelengths are short, 10 to 50 electron Debye lengths λD. The electric field in the isolated electrostatic structures (IES) and in the LF wave packets is more or less aligned with the solar wind magnetic field. Across the IES, which have a spatial width of the order of ≃25D, there is a small but finite electric potential drop, implying an average electric field generally directed away from the Sun. The IES wave forms, which have not been previously reported in the solar wind, are similar, although with a smaller amplitude, to the weak double layers observed in the auroral regions, and to the electrostatic solitary waves observed in other regions in the magnetosphere. We have also studied the solar wind conditions which favour the occurrence of the three kinds of waves: all these e.s. waves are observed more or less continuously in the whole solar wind (except in the densest regions where a parasite prevents the TDS observations). The type (wave packet or IES) of the observed LF waves is mainly determined by the proton temperature and by the direction of the magnetic field, which themselves depend on the latitude of WIND with respect to the heliospheric current sheet.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0013-4686
    Keywords: Pt(100) ; X-ray absorption ; copper ; underpotential deposition
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Surface Science 239 (1990), S. 71-84 
    ISSN: 0039-6028
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Interplanetary physics (solar wind plasma)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The solar wind properties depend on λ, the heliomagnetic latitude with respect to the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), more than on the heliographic latitude. We analyse the wind properties observed by Wind at 1 AU during about 2.5 solar rotations in 1995, a period close to the last minimum of solar activity. To determine λ, we use a model of the HCS which we fit to the magnetic sector boundary crossings observed by Wind. We find that the solar wind properties mainly depend on the modulus |λ|. But they also depend on a local parameter, the total pressure (magnetic pressure plus electron and proton thermal pressure). Furthermore, whatever the total pressure, we observe that the plasma properties also depend on the time: the latitudinal gradients of the wind speed and of the proton temperature are not the same before and after the closest HCS crossing. This is a consequence of the dynamical stream interactions. In the low pressure wind, at low |λ|, we find a clear maximum of the density, a clear minimum of the wind speed and of the proton temperature, a weak minimum of the average magnetic field strength, a weak maximum of the average thermal pressure, and a weak maximum of the average β factor. This overdense sheet is embedded in a density halo. The latitudinal thickness is about 5° for the overdense sheet, and 20° for the density halo. The HCS is thus wrapped in an overdense sheet surrounded by a halo, even in the non-compressed solar wind. In the high-pressure wind, the plasma properties are less well ordered as functions of the latitude than in the low-pressure wind; the minimum of the average speed is seen before the HCS crossing. The latitudinal thickness of the high-pressure region is about 20°. Our observations are qualitatively consistent with the numerical model of Pizzo for the deformation of the heliospheric current sheet and plasma sheet.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Background It is widely accepted that CD40 plays a critical role in the regulation of immune response. However, the significance of CD40 expression on normal human keratinocytes is only partially known. Objectives To perform a morphological re-examination of the role of CD40 on the differentiation of human keratinocytes and remodelling of the epidermis. Methods Keratinocytes were grown on fibroblasts transfected with the CD40 ligand (CD40L) to investigate the formation of epidermal sheets in culture under the influence of the CD40L. Control experiments were carried out using the same cells but transfected with CD32. Further, three specific anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies were used as soluble agonists to analyse the effect of CD40 ligation on keratinocyte differentiation. Results Epidermal sheets developing from keratinocytes cocultured with fibroblasts transfected with CD40L but not with CD32 showed an up to 50% reduction in thickness compared with control sheets. This change depended mostly on cellular flattening and a decrease in the number of cell layers, and was coincident with a transient decrease in cell surface CD40 immunoreactivity. On the other hand, normal epidermis, and freshly isolated and cultured keratinocytes revealed a predominant CD40+/Ki-67– phenotype that was demonstrated by double immunocytochemistry. Consistent with these observations, keratinocytes primed with interferon-γ responded to the three soluble agonists, but not to control IgG1, producing immunoreactive (pro)filaggrin and displaying morphological changes in shape and size equivalent to those seen in differentiated cells. Conclusions As a whole, our findings provide evidence that CD40+ keratinocytes represent a poorly differentiated population, not actively engaged in the cell cycle, which under specific stimulation is committed towards terminal differentiation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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