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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; EXPOSURE ; POPULATION ; RISK ; MECHANISM ; REDUCTION ; RISK-FACTORS ; CARCINOGENESIS ; mechanisms ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; HEALTH ; NUMBER ; AGE ; WOMEN ; risk factors ; REQUIRES ; RISK FACTOR ; ORAL-CONTRACEPTIVES ; EPIC ; nutrition ; ENDOMETRIAL CANCER ; menopause ; ONCOLOGY ; LIFE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; ESTROGEN ; PREGNANCY ; BIRTH ; parity ; prospective ; menarche ; VARIABLES ; CANCER-RISK ; OVARIAN ; CORPUS ; oral contraceptive
    Abstract: Endometrial cancer risk has been associated with reproductive factors (age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, age at first and last birth, time since last birth and use of oral contraceptives (OCs)]. However, these factors are closely interrelated and whether they act independently still requires clarification. We conducted a study to examine the association of menstrual and reproductive variables with the risk of endometrial cancer among the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Among the 302,618 women eligible for the study, 1,017 incident endometrial cancer cases were identified. A reduction in endometrial cancer risk was observed in women with late menarche, early menopause, past OC use, high parity and a shorter time since last full-term pregnancy (FTP). No association was observed for duration of breast feeding after adjustment for number of FTP or for abortion (spontaneous or induced). After mutual adjustment, late age at menarche, early age at menopause and duration of OC use showed similar risk reductions of 7-8% per year of menstrual life, whereas the decreased risk associated with cumulative duration of FTPs was stronger (22% per year). In conclusion, our findings confirmed a reduction in risk of endometrial cancer with factors associated with a lower cumulative exposure to estrogen and/or higher exposure to progesterone, such as increasing number of FTPs and shorter menstrual lifespan and, therefore, support an important role of hormonal mechanisms in endometrial carcinogenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19924816
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  • 2
    Keywords: STOMACH ; ADENOCARCINOMAS ; HELICOBACTER-PYLORI ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; METAANALYSIS ; EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVIDENCE ; VITAMIN-C ; cereal fiber ; EPIC-EURGAST ; DIET DIVERSITY
    Abstract: Diets high in vegetables and fruits have been suggested to be inversely associated with risk of gastric cancer. However, the evidence of the effect of variety of consumption is limited. We therefore investigated whether consumption of a variety of vegetables and fruit is associated with gastric and esophageal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Data on food consumption and follow-up on cancer incidence were available for 452,269 participants from 10 European countries. After a mean follow-up of 8.4 years, 475 cases of gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas (180 noncardia, 185 cardia, gastric esophageal junction and esophagus, 110 not specified) and 98 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were observed. Diet Diversity Scores were used to quantify the variety in vegetable and fruit consumption. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to calculate risk ratios. Independent from quantity of consumption, variety in the consumption of vegetables and fruit combined and of fruit consumption alone were statistically significantly inversely associated with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (continuous hazard ratio per 2 products increment 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.97 and 0.76; 95% CI 0.62-0.94, respectively) with the latter particularly seen in ever smokers. Variety in vegetable and/or fruit consumption was not associated with risk of gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas. Independent from quantity of consumption, more variety in vegetable and fruit consumption combined and in fruit consumption alone may decrease the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, residual confounding by lifestyle factors cannot be excluded.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22392502
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  • 3
    Keywords: carcinoma ; INFECTION ; ASSOCIATION ; EPSTEIN-BARR-VIRUS ; PROMOTER POLYMORPHISM ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; FUNCTIONAL POLYMORPHISM ; CHINESE POPULATION ; GASTRODUODENAL DISEASES ; CD14
    Abstract: Helicobacter pylori is a recognized causal factor of noncardia gastric cancer (GC). Lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan of this bacterium are recognized by CD14, TLR4 and NOD2 human proteins, while NFKB1 activates the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines to elicit an immune response. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes have been associated with GC in different populations. We genotyped 30 SNPs of these genes, in 365 gastric adenocarcinomas and 1,284 matched controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort. The association with GC and its histological and anatomical subtypes was analyzed by logistic regression and corrected for multiple comparisons. Using a log-additive model, we found a significant association between SNPs in CD14, NOD2 and TLR4 with GC risk. However, after applying the multiple comparisons tests only the NOD2 region remained significant (p = 0.009). Analysis according to anatomical subtypes revealed NOD2 and NFKB1 SNPs associated with noncardia GC and CD14 SNPs associated with cardia GC, while analysis according to histological subtypes showed that CD14 was associated with intestinal but not diffuse GC. The multiple comparisons tests confirmed the association of NOD2 with noncardia GC (p = 0.0003) and CD14 with cardia GC (p = 0.01). Haplotype analysis was in agreement with single SNP results for NOD2 and CD14 genes. From these results, we conclude that genetic variation in NOD2 associates with noncardia GC while variation in CD14 is associated with cardia GC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23824692
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  • 4
    Keywords: COHORT ; PLASMA ; DIET ; STOMACH ; VALIDITY ; CONSUMPTION ; FOODS ; ESOPHAGEAL
    Abstract: In a previous European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) analysis, we found an inverse association between total intake of vegetables, onion and garlic, and risk of intestinal gastric cancer (GC) and between citrus fruit and risk of cardia GC. The aim of this study is to reanalyze the effect of fruit and vegetables (F&V), based on a longer follow-up and twice the number of GC cases. Subjects are 477,312 men and women mostly aged 35 to 70 years participating in the EPIC cohort, including 683 gastric adenocarcinomas with 11 years of follow-up. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at baseline. A calibration study in a subsample was used to correct for dietary measurement errors. When comparing the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake, we found an inverse association between total intake of V&F and GC risk [hazard ratio (HR) 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-1.04; p for trend 0.02], between fresh fruit and risk of the diffuse type (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.36-0.97; p for trend 0.03) and an inverse association between citrus fruit and risk of cardia cancer (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.38-1.00, p for trend 0.01). Although calibration revealed somewhat stronger inverse associations, none of the risks reached statistical significance. There was no association between total or specific vegetables intake and GC risk. The inverse association between fresh fruit and citrus fruits and risk of GC seems to be restricted to smokers and the Northern European countries. Fresh fruit and citrus fruit consumption may protect against diffuse and cardia GC, respectively.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22473701
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  • 5
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; EXPRESSION ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; DISEASE ; GENOME ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; TARGET ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; leukemia ; nutrition ; POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION ; PROFILES ; MicroRNAs ; miRNA ; gastric adenocarcinoma ; cancer genetic susceptibility ; miRNA cluster ; tagSNP
    Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators involved in a wide range of biological processes including tumorigenesis. Deregulation of miRNA pathways has been associated with cancer but the contribution of their genetic variability to this disorder is poorly known. We analyzed the genetic association of gastric cancer (GC) and its anatomical and histological subtypes, with 133 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging 15 isolated miRNAs and 24 miRNA clusters potentially involved in cancer, in 365 GC cases and 1,284 matched controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Various SNPs were associated with GC under the log-additive model. Furthermore, several of these miRNAs passed the gene-based permutation test when analyzed according to GC subtypes: three tagSNPs of the miR-29a/miR-29b-1 cluster were associated with diffuse subtype (minimum p-value = 1.7 x 10(-4) ; odds ratio, OR = 1.72; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.30-2.28), two tagSNPs of the miR-25/miR-93/miR-106b cluster were associated with cardia GC (minimum p-value = 5.38 x 10(-3) ; OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.37-0.86) and one tagSNP of the miR-363/miR-92a-2/miR-19b-2/miR-20b/miR-18b/miR-106a cluster was associated with noncardia GC (minimum p-value = 5.40 x 10(-3) ; OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.12-1.78). Some functionally validated target genes of these miRNAs are implicated in cancer-related processes such as methylation (DNMT3A, DNMT3B), cell cycle (E2F1, CDKN1A, CDKN1C), apoptosis (BCL2L11, MCL1), angiogenesis (VEGFA) and progression (PIK3R1, MYCN). Furthermore, we identified genetic interactions between variants tagging these miRNAs and variants in their validated target genes. Deregulation of the expression of these miRNAs in GC also supports our findings, altogether suggesting for the fist time that genetic variation in MIR29, MIR25, MIR93 and MIR106b may have a critical role in genetic susceptibility to GC and could contribute to the molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24643999
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  • 6
    Keywords: smoking ; UNITED-STATES ; adenocarcinoma ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; ESOPHAGUS ; HELICOBACTER-PYLORI ; STOMACH-CANCER ; METAANALYSIS ; BLACK TEA
    Abstract: Prospective studies examining the association between coffee and tea consumption and gastric cancer risk have shown inconsistent results. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) and tea consumption and the risk of gastric cancer by anatomical site and histological type in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Coffee and tea consumption were assessed by dietary questionnaires at baseline. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regression models. During 11.6 years of follow up, 683 gastric adenocarcinoma cases were identified among 477,312 participants. We found no significant association between overall gastric cancer risk and consumption of total coffee (HR 1.09, 95%-confidence intervals [CI]: 0.84-1.43; quartile 4 vs. non/quartile 1), caffeinated coffee (HR 1.14, 95%-CI: 0.82-1.59; quartile 4 vs. non/quartile 1), decaffeinated coffee (HR 1.07, 95%-CI: 0.75-1.53; tertile 3 vs. non/tertile 1) and tea (HR 0.81, 95%-CI: 0.59-1.09; quartile 4 vs. non/quartile 1). When stratified by anatomical site, we observed a significant positive association between gastric cardia cancer risk and total coffee consumption per increment of 100 mL/day (HR 1.06, 95%-CI: 1.03-1.11). Similarly, a significant positive association was observed between gastric cardia cancer risk and caffeinated coffee consumption (HR 1.98, 95%-CI: 1.16-3.36, p-trend=0.06; quartile 3 vs. non/quartile 1) and per increment of 100 mL/day (HR 1.09, 95%-CI: 1.04-1.14). In conclusion, consumption of total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea is not associated with overall gastric cancer risk. However, total and caffeinated coffee consumption may be associated with an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. Further prospective studies are needed to rule out chance or confounding. What's New? Can drinking coffee or tea lead to cancer? Can they protect against cancer? These popular drinks certainly contain antioxidants, but despite many investigations into the question, we still have no clear answer. A new study has plied the data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) in search of a link. Participants self-reported their coffee and tea consumption by questionnaire. The authors found no link between drinking tea or coffee - with or without caffeine - and overall risk of gastric cancer; they did discern a slight increase in gastric cardia cancer with consumption of caffeinated coffee.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25236393
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  • 7
    Keywords: BREAST-CANCER ; PATTERNS ; AGE ; nutrition ; METAANALYSIS ; pooled analysis ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; TUBAL-LIGATION ; HYSTERECTOMY ; ASSOCIATION CONSORTIUM
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has a high case-fatality ratio, largely due to late diagnosis. Epidemiologic risk prediction models could help identify women at increased risk who may benefit from targeted prevention measures, such as screening or chemopreventive agents. METHODS: We built an ovarian cancer risk prediction model with epidemiologic risk factors from 202 206 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. RESULTS: Older age at menopause, longer duration of hormone replacement therapy, and higher body mass index were included as increasing ovarian cancer risk, whereas unilateral ovariectomy, longer duration of oral contraceptive use, and higher number of full-term pregnancies were decreasing risk. The discriminatory power (overall concordance index) of this model, as examined with five-fold cross-validation, was 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57, 0.70). The ratio of the expected to observed number of ovarian cancer cases occurring in the first 5 years of follow-up was 0.90 (293 out of 324, 95% CI: 0.81-1.01), in general there was no evidence for miscalibration. CONCLUSION: Our ovarian cancer risk model containing only epidemiological data showed modest discriminatory power for a Western European population. Future studies should consider adding informative biomarkers to possibly improve the predictive ability of the model.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25742479
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  • 8
    Abstract: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the fourth most frequent cancer in women in Europe, and as its incidence is increasing, prevention strategies gain further pertinence. Risk prediction models can be a useful tool for identifying women likely to benefit from targeted prevention measures. On the basis of data from 201,811 women (mostly aged 30-65 years) including 855 incident EC cases from eight countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, a model to predict EC was developed. A step-wise model selection process was used to select confirmed predictive epidemiologic risk factors. Piece-wise constant hazard rates in 5-year age-intervals were estimated in a cause-specific competing risks model, five-fold-cross-validation was applied for internal validation. Risk factors included in the risk prediction model were body-mass index (BMI), menopausal status, age at menarche and at menopause, oral contraceptive use, overall and by different BMI categories and overall duration of use, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy, duration of menopausal hormone therapy and smoking status (specific for pre, peri- and post-menopausal women). These variables improved the discriminating capacity to predict risk over 5 years from 71 % for a model based on age alone to 77 % (overall C statistic), and the model was well-calibrated (ratio of expected to observed cases = 0.99). Our model could be used for the identification of women at increased risk of EC in Western Europe. To achieve an EC-risk model with general validity, a large-scale cohort-consortium approach would be needed to assess and adjust for population variation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25968175
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  • 9
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Acrylamide was classified as 'probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case-control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent. METHODS: A nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk. RESULTS: No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but non-statistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1:1.91, 95%CI:0.96-3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1:1.90, 95%CI:0.94-3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose-response trends were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This EPIC nested case-control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC. IMPACT: It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26598536
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  • 10
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Observational studies show an association between ferritin and type 2 diabetes (T2D), suggesting a role of high iron stores in T2D development. However, ferritin is influenced by factors other than iron stores, which is less the case for other biomarkers of iron metabolism. We investigated associations of ferritin, transferrin saturation (TSAT), serum iron, and transferrin with T2D incidence to clarify the role of iron in the pathogenesis of T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-InterAct study includes 12,403 incident T2D cases and a representative subcohort of 16,154 individuals from a European cohort with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. We studied the prospective association of ferritin, TSAT, serum iron, and transferrin with incident T2D in 11,052 cases and a random subcohort of 15,182 individuals and assessed whether these associations differed by subgroups of the population. RESULTS: Higher levels of ferritin and transferrin were associated with a higher risk of T2D (hazard ratio [HR] [95% CI] in men and women, respectively: 1.07 [1.01-1.12] and 1.12 [1.05-1.19] per 100 mug/L higher ferritin level; 1.11 [1.00-1.24] and 1.22 [1.12-1.33] per 0.5 g/L higher transferrin level) after adjustment for age, center, BMI, physical activity, smoking status, education, hs-CRP, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Elevated TSAT (〉/=45% vs. 〈45%) was associated with a lower risk of T2D in women (0.68 [0.54-0.86]) but was not statistically significantly associated in men (0.90 [0.75-1.08]). Serum iron was not associated with T2D. The association of ferritin with T2D was stronger among leaner individuals (Pinteraction 〈 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of association of TSAT and transferrin with T2D suggests that the underlying relationship between iron stores and T2D is more complex than the simple link suggested by the association of ferritin with T2D.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26861925
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