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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; cohort studies ; RISK-FACTORS ; PREVALENCE ; nutrition ; GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; SPAIN ; type 2 diabetes ; LOCI ; Diabetes Mellitus ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; Epidemiologic research design ; Gene-lifestyle interaction ; POPULATION-BASED INCIDENCE
    Abstract: Studying gene-lifestyle interaction may help to identify lifestyle factors that modify genetic susceptibility and uncover genetic loci exerting important subgroup effects. Adequately powered studies with prospective, unbiased, standardised assessment of key behavioural factors for gene-lifestyle studies are lacking. This case-cohort study aims to investigate how genetic and potentially modifiable lifestyle and behavioural factors, particularly diet and physical activity, interact in their influence on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurring in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohorts between 1991 and 2007 from eight of the ten EPIC countries were ascertained and verified. Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random-effects meta-analyses were used to investigate differences in diabetes incidence by age and sex. A total of 12,403 verified incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 3.99 million person-years of follow-up of 340,234 EPIC participants eligible for InterAct. We defined a centre-stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals for comparative analyses. Individuals with incident diabetes who were randomly selected into the subcohort (n = 778) were included as cases in the analyses. All prevalent diabetes cases were excluded from the study. InterAct cases were followed-up for an average of 6.9 years; 49.7% were men. Mean baseline age and age at diagnosis were 55.6 and 62.5 years, mean BMI and waist circumference values were 29.4 kg/m(2) and 102.7 cm in men, and 30.1 kg/m(2) and 92.8 cm in women, respectively. Risk of type 2 diabetes increased linearly with age, with an overall HR of 1.56 (95% CI 1.48-1.64) for a 10 year age difference, adjusted for sex. A male excess in the risk of incident diabetes was consistently observed across all countries, with a pooled HR of 1.51 (95% CI 1.39-1.64), adjusted for age. InterAct is a large, well-powered, prospective study that will inform our understanding of the interplay between genes and lifestyle factors on the risk of type 2 diabetes development
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21717116
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  • 2
    Keywords: FOLLOW-UP ; NATURAL-HISTORY ; GLYCEMIC CONTROL ; ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY ; RETROSPECTIVE COHORT ; COMPETING RISKS ; CARDIOVASCULAR OUTCOMES ; GLUCOSE CONTROL ; CLINICAL-RESEARCH ; HEMOGLOBIN A(1C)
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Observational studies have shown that glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) is related to mortality, but the shape of the association is less clear. Furthermore, disease duration and medication may modify this association. This observational study explored the association between HbA(1c) measured in stored erythrocytes and mortality. Secondly, it was assessed whether disease duration and medication use influenced the estimates or were independently associated with mortality. METHODS: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition a cohort was analysed of 4,345 individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of diabetes at enrolment. HbA(1c) was measured in blood samples stored up to 19 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models for all-cause mortality investigated HbA(1c) in quartiles as well as per 1% increment, diabetes medication in seven categories of insulin and oral hypoglycaemic agents, and disease duration in quartiles. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 9.3 years, 460 participants died. Higher HbA(1c) was associated with higher mortality: Hazard Ratio for 1%-increase was 1.11 (95% CI 1.06, 1.17). This association was linear (P-nonlinearity =0.15) and persistent across categories of medication use, disease duration, and co-morbidities. Compared with metformin, other medication types were not associated with mortality. Longer disease duration was associated with mortality, but not after adjustment for HbA(1c) and medication. CONCLUSION: This prospective study showed that persons with lower HbA(1c) had better survival than those with higher HbA(1c). The association was linear and independent of disease duration, type of medication use, and presence of co-morbidities. Any improvement of HbA(1c) appears to be associated with reduced mortality risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22719972
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Advances in Space Research 11 (1991), S. 197-211 
    ISSN: 0273-1177
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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