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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cat ; Rat ; Spinal tract neurons ; Retrograde HRP transport ; Procedure and evaluation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Modifications have been made in Mesulam's method for labelling neurons by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase, with tetramethylbenzidine as chromogen, with the object of increasing the extent of labelling of dendrites and axons. A procedure was devised specifically for studying spinomedullary and medullospinal tract systems, involving implanting easily-made HRP-agar pellets into areas of controlled damage in particular spinal fascicles, and sealing the site of implant with cyanoacrylate glue. Lesions of other fascicles were often made to limit transport to the implanted fascicle. Fourth-order dendrites were regularly labelled over long (30 cm or more) transport distances: axons were also labelled over this whole distance, often allowing exact study of the initial course of particular axons. Controls in both cat and rat showed that the uptake of HRP under these circumstances occurred almost wholly from the region of axonal damage at the site of implant which can be characterized histologically.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Lucifer yellow ; Biocytin ; Invertebrate electrophysiology ; Axons ; Plasticity ; Cell culture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Identified neurones F76 and D1 of the suboesophageal ganglia of Helix aspersa were studied in the isolated ganglia in vitro and in culture. The neurones were examined electrophysiologically with current clamp and morphologically either with intracellular injections of Lucifer Yellow or biocytin. These nerve cells had very similar resting membrane potentials and responses to injected current. The projections of D1 and F76 have been characterised, with both neurones having two main axons. The F76 neurones project to the left pallial, right pallial, anal, and visceral nerves as well as to the left and right pleural ganglia. The D1 neurones have similar projections except that they do not project to the anal and visceral nerves. The bilateral symmetry to the pallial nerves and pleural ganglia is discussed. These cells were also studied electrophysiologically after mechanical isolation and culture. F76 and D1 neurones were separated by dissection (no enzymes) and cultured in three ways. In normal snail Ringer they remained viable for up to two weeks with no development. In Ringer preincubated with a ganglia or containing endothelial growth factor, neurite outgrowths were seen. Membrane potentials were significantly lower in cultured neurones than in vitro and the after hyperpolarization never went below resting in cultured cells but it did in vitro.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Noninvasive methods of determining cardiac output (by thoracic electrical bioimpedance) and arterial pressure (by intermittent oscillometry) were used to record minute-by-minute changes in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance following induction of general anaesthesia and laryngoscopy and intubation in 60 healthy female patients who were either unpremedicated, or premedicated with temazepam or papaveretum-hyoscine. Anaesthesia was induced with a sleep dose (3–5 mg.kg−1) of thiopentone and maintained with 70% nitrous oxide in oxygen with 0.5–1% enflurane. Tracheal intubation was facilitated by administration of vecuronium 0.1 mg.kg−1. Mean arterial pressure and cardiac output decreased maximally 5 min after induction in all premedication groups by mean estimates of 21–25% and 14–22% respectively. Heart rate increased initially one minute after induction, but decreased to less than the baseline value 5 min after induction. Systemic vascular resistance was unchanged. The stimulus of laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation was accompanied by a significant pressor response and tachycardia one minute after intubation (with mean increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate of 29–34% and 22–33% respectively). The increase in mean arterial pressure was secondary to an increase in systemic vascular resistance (36–57%), and was accompanied by a decrease in stroke volume (– 25 to –31%). These changes were significant in all three groups. Cardiac output decreased only in unpremedicated patients. There were wide variations in the different haemodynamic indices. The 5th and 95th centiles for the decreases in mean arterial pressure and cardiac output during induction were –17 to –26, –21 to –33, and –21 to –35mmHg, and –0.7 to –2.0, –0.7 to –2.3, and –0.2 to –1.31.min−1 respectively in unpremedicated patients and those premedicated with papaveretum-hyoscine, or temazepam. Corresponding values for increases in mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance, and decreases in stroke volume following laryngoscopy and intubation, were 16 to 33, 16 to 31.5, and 15 to 31 mmHg; 5.0 to 8.6, 3.5 to 10.2, and 4.3 to 7.8 mmffg.min.−1; and –19 to –31, –11 to –32.5, and –9 to –21 ml respectively.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract It has been shown previously that there is a greater gastric mucosal blood flow response to histamine than to gastrin stimulation for similar acid secretory values. We have confirmed these observations under steady state conditions and also shown that the oxygen consumption depends on acid secretion in a similar way for both histamine and gastrin stimulation. Furthermore the degree of oxygen extraction from the gastric circulation is significantly less (p〈0.001) during histamine stimulation than during gastrin stimulation. This supports the hypothesis that histamine causes a vasodilatation in the gastric mucosa in two ways, one may be linked to secretory activity and the other a pure dilator action.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Growth hormone-release inhibiting hormone (somatostatin) inhibits the gastric acid response to food in concious cats. We have confirmed that this tetradecapeptide blocks the food stimulated gastrin release. However, the inhibition of gastrin release is delayed relative to that of acid secretion, showing that the inhibition of food stimulated acid secretion is by a primary effect on the acid secretory mechanism. No evidence was found of potentiation of either the gastric acid output or serum concentration of gastric in response to food.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7357
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Measurements have been made of the temperature dependence of the plastic deformation of bcc solid 4He. The results strongly indicate that the deformation process is athermal. Comparison is made with NMR measurements of the spin diffusion coefficient for the bcc phase of dilute solutions of 3He in 4He. The results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms for the plastic deformation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1468-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The nitromusk perfume ingredient, musk abrette, has been reported to cause photoallergic reactions in man. The potential of alternative, chemically related, nitromusks to cause photoallergy has been studied using the Colworth guinea-pig photoallergy test.The results showed that, compared with musk ambrette, musk moskene had a weak potential for inducing photoallergy, and that the musks xylene, ketone and tibetene had only very weak potentials. A study of photo-crossreaction to musk ambrette showed that musk moskene was active, musk xylene was weakly active, while the musks ketone and tibetene were inactive.We conclude that musk moskene is likely to be less hazardous for man than musk ambrette, but caution should be used in selection of concentrations for use on sun-exposed skin. The musks xylene, ketone and tibetene are likely, photobiologically, to be acceptable alternatives to musk ambrette. The photoallergic potential of the nitromusks can, probably, be related to chemical structure.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Anaesthesia 60 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Anaesthesia 57 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A long version of the Bain breathing system is commonly used when remote anaesthesia is required, such as during magnetic resonance imaging or radiotherapy. We compared the static compliance and distal pressures over a range of flows in a 1.6 and 9.6 m Bain system. We examined the effect on ventilation of increasing the length of the Bain system in lung models for 10, 20 and 70 kg patients. We found that static compliance was increased in the long Bain system. We found that with matched peak inspiratory ventilator pressures there was a reduction in peak inspiratory pressures at the patient end with the longer system (p 〈 0.001). A reduction in tidal volume was found with the 9.6 m Bain (p 〈 0.001), and positive end-expiratory pressure was increased (p = 0.01). Although the effect on tidal volume was proportionally small in the 70 kg simulation (660 and 617 ml in 1.6 and 9.6 m systems, respectively) it increases in significance in children, with a 23% reduction in tidal volume in the 10 kg mock lung (95 and 73 ml in 1.6 and 9.6 m systems, respectively). Anaesthetists should be aware of the reduction in tidal volume and increased positive end-expiratory pressure. During remote anaesthesia with a long Bain system, the ventilator should be adjusted to compensate.
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