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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: tsunami ; ray tracing ; bathymetry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Ray tracing of seismic surface waves is applied to tsunami propagation to examine bathymetric effect along its propagation path. Computations are made for trans-Pacific tsunamis and for near-field tsunamis in the Japan Sea. For tsunamis across the Pacific Ocean, the comparison to a uniform ocean shows that focusing and defocusing, due to bathymetry, are significant for some combinations of source and receiver. For example, the refraction of rays is predominant at the East Pacific Rise for the tsunami from Chile. The tsunamis in the Japan Sea are strongly affected by the shallow Yamato Rise. The predicted arrival time and amplitude distribution generally agree with the observations from an actual tsunami. Since the computation can be made very quickly, the method is useful for preliminary analysis of tsunami propagation, such as in an operational warning system or in the determination of computational area for finite-difference computation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 144 (1995), S. 373-379 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 144 (1995), S. 455-470 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Tsunami ; numerical computation ; finite-difference method ; Nicaragua earthquake
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Numerical computations of tsunamis are made for the 1992 Nicaragua earthquake using different governing equations, bottom frictional values and bathymetry data. The results are compared with each other as well as with the observations, both tide gauge records and runup heights. Comparison of the observed and computed tsunami waveforms indicates that the use of detailed bathymetry data with a small grid size is more effective than to include nonlinear terms in tsunami computation. Linear computation overestimates the amplitude for the later phase than the first arrival, particularly when the amplitude becomes large. The computed amplitudes along the coast from nonlinear computation are much smaller than the observed tsunami runup heights; the average ratio, or the amplification factor, is estimated to be 3 in the present case when the grid size of 1 minute is used. The factor however may depend on the grid size for the computation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Subduction zones ; Aleutian Arc ; tsunamis ; earthquake parameters
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The 9 March 1957 Aleutian earthquake has been estimated as the third largest earthquake this century and has the longest aftershock zone of any earthquake ever recorded—1200 km. However, due to a lack of high-quality seismic data, the actual source parameters for this earthquake have been poorly determined. We have examined all the available waveform data to determine the seismic moment, rupture area, and slip distribution. These data include body, surface and tsunami waves. Using body waves, we have estimated the duration of significant moment release as 4 min. From surface wave analysis, we have determined that significant moment release occurred only in the western half of the aftershock zone and that the best estimate for the seismic moment is 50–100×1020 Nm. Using the tsunami waveforms, we estimated the source area of the 1957 tsunami by backward propagation. The tsunami source area is smaller than the aftershock zone and is about 850 km long. This does not include the Unalaska Island area in the eastern end of the aftershock zone, making this area a possible seismic gap and a possible site of a future large or great earthquake. We also inverted the tsunami waveforms for the slip distribution. Slip on the 1957 rupture zone was highest in the western half near the epicenter. Little slip occurred in the eastern half. The moment is estimated as 88×1020 Nm, orM w =8.6, making it the seventh largest earthquake during the period 1900 to 1993. We also compare the 1957 earthquake to the 1986 Andreanof Islands earthquake, which occurred within a segment of the 1957 rupture area. The 1986 earthquake represents a rerupturing of the major 1957 asperity.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Earthquake source ; body waves ; moment tensor ; tsunami modeling ; submarine slumps ; Indonesia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract On December 12, 1992 a large earthquake (M s 7.5) occurred just north of Flores Island, Indonesia which, along with the tsunami it generated, killed more than 2,000 people. In this study, teleseismicP andSH waves, as well asPP waves from distances up to 123°, are inverted for the orientations and time histories of multiple point sources. By repeating the inversion for reasonable values of depth, time separation and spatial separation, a 2-fault model is developed. Next, the vertical deformation of the seafloor is estimated from this fault model. Using a detailed bathymetric model, linear and nonlinear tsunami propagation models are tested. The data consist of a single tide gauge record at Palopo (650 km to the north), as well as tsunami runup height measurements from Flores Island and nearby islands. Assuming a tsunami runup amplification factor of two, the two-fault model explains the tide gauge record and the tsunami runup heights on most of Flores Island. It cannot, however, explain the large tsunami runup heights observed near Leworahang (on Hading Bay) and Riangkroko (on the northeast peninsula). Massive coastal slumping was observed at both of these locations. A final model, which in addition to the two faults, includes point sources of large vertical displacement at these two locations explains the observations quite well.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Earthquake parameters ; tsunamis ; earthquake cycle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Two earthquakes occurred in 1993 off southern Kamchatka. They have similar surface wave magnitudes, focal mechanisms, and depths, but have distinctly different characteristics. The November earthquake is a standard or “impulsive”M7 underthrusting event. The June earthquake is a tsunamigenic or “low-stress-drop” event with several unusual characteristics, including a large, diffuse aftershock zone, directivity, and a long source time function. The 1993 earthquakes ruptured a segment of the Kamchatka Arc which has not ruptured since 1904. The 1993 earthquakes seem to signal the midpoint in the southern Kamchatka seismic cycle.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Tsunamis ; 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake ; Okushiri Island
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Heterogeneous fault motion of the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake is studied by using seismic, geodetic and tsunami data, and the tsunami generation from the fault model is examined. Seismological analyses indicate that the focal mechanism of the first 10 s, when about a third of the total moment was released, is different from the overall focal mechanism. A joint inversion of geodetic data on Okushiri Island and the tide gauge records in Japan and Korea indicates that the largest slip, about 6 m, occurred in a small area just south of the epicenter. This corresponds to the initial rupture on a fault plane dipping shallowly to the west. The slip on the northernmost subfault, which is dipping to the east, is about 2 m, while the slips on the southern subfaults, which are steeply dipping to the west, are more than 3 m. Tsunami heights around Okushiri Island are calculated from the heterogeneous fault model using different grid sizes. Computation on the smaller grids produces large tsunami height that are closer to the observed tsunami runup heights. Tsunami propagation in the nearly closed Japan Sea is examined as the free oscillation of the Japan Sea. The excitation of the free oscillation by this earthquake is smaller than that by the 1964 Niigata or 1983 Japan Sea earthquake.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Tsunamis ; the 1993 Guam earthquake ; fault plane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The fault parameters of the Guam earthquake of August 8, 1993 are estimated from seismological analyses, and the possibility of identifying the actual fault plane from tsunami waveforms is tested. The Centroid Moment Tensor solution of long-period surface waves shows one nodal plane shallowly dipping to the north and the other nodal plane steeply dipping to the south. The seismic moment is 3.5×1020 Nm and the corresponding moment magnitude is 7.7. The Moment Tensor Rate Function inversion ofP waves also yields a similar focal mechanism and seismic moment. The point source depth is estimated as 40–50 km. This earthquake generated tsunamis that propagated toward the Japanese coast along the Izu-Bonin-Mariana ridge system. The tsunamis are recorded on ocean bottom pressure gauges and tide gauges. Numerical computation of tsunamis shows that the computed waveforms from the two possible fault planes match well with the observed tsunami waveforms. The numerical computation also shows that the tsunami waveforms at Guam Island, just above the fault, should contain useful information regarding the identification of the actual fault plane. However, the current sampling rate of the tide gauges is so small that the records cannot help the identification.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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