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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Subclonal expansion ; DNA ploidy ; Colorectal carcinoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  DNA heterogeneity of colorectal carcinomas has been investigated by flow cytometry; most studies have focused on the clinical usefulness of DNA ploidy analysis. Since cancers consist of predominant subclones with proliferative advantage due to clonal expansion, we attempted to analyse the clonal expansion of colorectal carcinomas within a tumour by measuring DNA ploidy. The DNA ploidy and heterogeneity of multiple fresh samples obtained from 164 colorectal adenocarcinomas were analysed by flow cytometry. Each tumour was divided into an average of six specimens, which were analysed separately. For 146 of the tumours (89%) at least one DNA aneuploid population was found within the cancer tissue examined. DNA multiploidy was detected in 26 cases (17.8%) among the cancers with aneuploidy. Based on the DNA index (DI), hypertriploid aneuploidy (1.7〈DI〈1.8) was found most frequently in the aneuploid colorectal cancers examined. DNA ploidy heterogeneity was seen in 75 (51.4%) of the DNA aneuploid tumours. There were only 3 cases with more than three subclones including a diploid line. The present results indicate that colorectal carcinomas consist of a few dominant subclones and have a DNA content (hypertriploid aneuploid) that confers a proliferative advantage.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1360-0443
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Aims. In Japan, smoking prevalence in males has been among the highest among industrialized countries, while the prevalence in females has remained relatively low. There have been long-term declining trends since the early 1970s. In the mid-1980s, the public tobacco monopoly was privatized and the tobacco market was liberalized in Japan. This study examines whether the trends in smoking prevalence changed at the time of these market changes . Design and measurements. Smoking prevalence data, tabulated by age group and sex, were plotted over the period 1975-95. Trends of smoking prevalence were then analyzed by using linear regressions, and their changes at the time of monopoly privatization and market liberalization were examined by Chow tests. Findings. The trends in smoking prevalence changed at the time of the monopoly privatization and trade liberalization in both males and females, except for the males in their twenties and thirties. Rates of decline in smoking prevalence diminished in many age groups and prevalence for younger females started to increase. Conclusions. Market changes, that result from the privatization of a public tobacco monopoly and trade liberalization, may adversely affect smoking prevalence in many age groups and in both sexes, unless effective countermeasures are taken.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1615-2573
    Keywords: Key words Coronary artery bypass grafting ; Extubation ; Mechanical ventilation ; Pulmonary dysfunction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Prolonged mechanical ventilation increases hospitalization costs, airway and lung trauma, and stress. The objective of this study was to elucidate patient characteristics and operative variables that predict delayed extubation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The records of 167 patients who underwent CABG between 1994 and 1998 were examined retrospectively. The patients were divided into early and delayed extubation groups. Putative factors affecting the duration of intubation were included in a univariate analysis using the t-test and chi-squared test. A logistic regression model was then developed to determine the factors associated with delayed extubation. Forty-four percent of the patients needed prolonged mechanical ventilation (more than 24 h). Univariate predictors of delayed extubation (P 〈 0.05) were emergency surgery, preoperative use of an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), the duration of anesthesia, surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamping, the total volume of fentanyl, lowest rectal temperature, glucose level, perioperative transfusion, bleeding, perioperative heart failure, perioperative insertion of IABP, postoperative transfusion, cardiac index, inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2), arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and the volume of catecholamine. In the delayed extubation group, the intensive care unit stay was significantly longer (P 〈 0.001) and re-exploration was required more frequently (P = 0.004). Excellent prediction was provided by a model consisting of six variables: age, duration of surgery, perioperative heart failure, glucose level, postoperative transfusion, and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio. These results suggest that decreasing the cardiopulmonary bypass time, maintaining a low glucose level during cardiopulmonary bypass, and ensuring adequate perioperative hemostasis may help to avoid pulmonary dysfunction and delayed extubation. Moreover, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio may be a useful predictor of delayed extubation in patients undergoing CABG.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Using molecular and chemotaxonomic techniques, we studied the intraspecific diversity of Oenococcus oeni, a lactic acid bacterium isolated during red wine-making in Japan. The results confirmed high values of DNA–DNA relatedness and strong similarity among 16S rDNA sequences of the isolates with the O. oeni-type strain. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) by NotI identified four patterns among the strains. Three different patterns of lactate dehydrogenase mobility were seen and there was a strong correlation between PFGE pattern and mobility. The present results suggest that the different strains of O. oeni comprise one species, and that variations in the genomic profiles of the different strains of O. oeni, including Japanese isolates are well correlated.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1524-475X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Phenotypic alterations of keloid-derived fibroblasts were characterized by comparison with the phenotypes of normal fibroblasts from the same patient. Explant cultures of keloids showed unique features. Keloid explants contracted considerably and reduced their size during culture, whereas the size of normal skin explants remained unchanged. Enlarged cells were found among fibroblasts which had grown out of all the explants and were morphologically distinct from fibroblasts; however, keloid explants produced many more of them than did the normal tissues. The growth rate of fibroblast colonies formed from normal explants was five times higher than keloid explants. Keloid fibroblasts which had been serially cultivated contracted lattices of collagen gels at a rate similar to normal fibroblasts. Proteins extracted from serially cultivated fibroblasts were mapped on polyacrylamide two-dimensional electrophoretic gels. No significant qualitative alterations in protein expression in keloid cells were found as compared with normal fibroblasts. However, some quantitative changes were found between the two. A computer-assisted image analyzer detected 151 polypeptide spots—50 spots (33%) of which increased their amounts in keloid cells, whereas 34 spots (22.5%) decreased in comparison with normal fibroblasts. Sixteen major polypeptides were identified as known proteins with the aid of time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The level of expression of these identified proteins was similar between normal and keloid cells, except stathmin whose expression was suppressed in keloid fibroblasts.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. A new mouse mutation, recombination-induced mutation 3 (Rim3), arose spontaneously in our mouse facility. This mutation exhibits corneal opacity as well as abnormal skin and hair development resembling rex denuded (Re den ) and bareskin (Bsk). Large-scale linkage analysis with two kinds of intersubspecific backcrosses revealed that Rim3 is mapped to the distal portion of Chromosome (Chr) 11, in which Re den and Bsk have been located, and is very close to the retinoic acid receptor, alpha (Rara). The genes, keratin gene complex-1, acidic, gene 10, 12 (Krt1-10, 12), granulin (Grn), junctional plakoglobin (Jup) and Rara, all of which regulate growth and differentiation of epithelial cells, are genetically excluded as candidate genes for Rim3, but are clustered in the short segment on mouse Chr 11.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mathematische Annalen 297 (1993), S. 33-57 
    ISSN: 1432-1807
    Keywords: 53C15 ; 53A30 ; 32C16 ; 53C05
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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