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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of virology 35 (1971), S. 256-268 
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Treatment of rubella virus preparations by heating (50°C, 10 min.) resulted in an activation of their hemagglutinating potency, whereas the infectivity (as determined by plaque forming units) of the treated viral preparations remained unaffected. The heat-induced potentiation of hemagglutinin (HA) was evidenced only with preparations obtained from a frozen-thawed homogenate of infected BHK-21 cells, and was scarcely encountered in virus suspensions prepared from media of infected BHK-21 cultures. HA activity which had been activated by heating was significantly inactivated during subsequent incubation at 4°C for a few days. Re-heating of this HA preparation resulted in a potentiation to the level which is obtained by the first heating. Similar magnitude of the enhancement of HA activity was also seen in rubella viral HA derived from a frozen-thawed homogenate of infected cells when it was treated with EDTA or mixture of tween 80 and ether, or incubated at alkaline pH, or dialysed against phosphate buffered saline lacking Ca++. The phenomenon described herein may imply the occurrence of an inhibitory substance in rubella virus preparation which is capable of combining reversibly to rubella viral HA.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    World journal of surgery 5 (1981), S. 255-256 
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Glomerular basement membrane ; Intramembranous deposit ; Membranous glomerulonephritis ; Collagen disease ; Systemic lupus erythematosus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A distinct, hitherto unknown renal histopathological appearance, consisting of diffuse thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) with fine intramembranous electron-dense deposits, was observed in the renal biopsies from three patients with collagen diseases. In each case, proteinuria was mild with normal urinary sediment. On light microscopy there were no particular abnormalities but a mild thickening of the glomerular capillary wall. Immunofluorescence studies revealed faint linear or extremely fine granular IgG deposition along the capillary wall. On electron microscopy, the GBM was diffusely thickened with fine intramembranous electron-dense deposits without spike formation. No other deposits were seen in the glomerulus. These histological features resembled those of membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN), although the possibility of the early change of MGN is excluded by specific findings in these cases. Other GBM-thickening diseases such as diabetic glomerulosclerosis were ruled out clinically and histologically. Our cases have a singular renal histopathology which differs from any of the previously established classifications of glomerular lesions. It may be a specific change associated with some type of collagen disease.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Onshore tsunami deposits ; 1993 Southwest Hokkaido earthquake ; 1983 Japan Sea earthquake ; eastern coast of the Japan Sea ; paleoseismicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Onshore tsunami deposits resulting from the 1993 Southwest Hokkaido and 1983 Japan Sea earthquakes were described to evaluate the feasibility of tsunami deposits for inferring paleoseismic events along submarine faults. Tsunami deposits were divided into three types, based on their composition and aerial distribution: (A) deposits consisting only of floating materials, (B) locally distributed siliclastic deposits, and (C) widespread siliclastic deposits. The most widely distributed tsunami deposits consist of the first two types. Type C deposits are mostly limited to areas where the higher tsunami runup was observed. The scale of tsunami represented by vertical tsunami runup is an important factor controlling the volume of tsunami deposits. The thickest deposits, about 10 cm, occur behind coastal dunes. To produce thick siliclastic tsunami deposits, a suitable source area, such as sand bar or dune, must be available in addition to sufficient vertical tsunami runup. Estimation of the amounts of erosion and deposition indicates that tsunami deposits were derived from both onshore and shoreface regions. The composition and grain size of the tsunami deposits strongly reflect the nature of the sedimentary materials of their source area. Sedimentary structures of the tsunami deposits suggest both low and high flow régimes. Consequently, it seems very difficult to identify tsunami deposits based only on grain size distribution or sedimentary structure of a single site in ancient successions.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: 1993 Southwest Hokkaido earthquake ; tsunami ; tsunami hazard ; Okushiri Island ; tsunami hazard assessment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Detailed field work at Okushiri Island and along the southwest coast of Hokkaido has revealed quantitatively (1) the advancing direction of tsunami on land, (2) the true tsunami height (i.e., height of tsunami, excluding its splashes, as measured from the ground) and (3) the flow velocity of tsunami on land, in heavily damaged areas. When a Japanese wooden house is swept away by tsunami, bolts that tie the house to its concrete foundation resist until the last moment and become bent towards the direction of the house being carried away. The orientations of more than 850 of those bent bolts and iron pipes (all that can be measured, mostly at Okushiri Island) and fell-down direction of about 400 trees clearly display how tsunami behaved on land and caused serious damage at various places. The true tsunami height was estimated by using several indicators, such as broken tree twigs and a window pane. The flow velocity of tsunami on land was determined by estimating the hydrodynamic force exerted on a bent handrail and a bent-down guardrail by the tsunami throughin situ strength tests. Contrary to the wide-spread recognition after the tsunami hazard, our results clearly indicate that only a few residential areas (i.e., Monai, eastern Hamatsumae, and a small portion at northern Aonae, all on Okushiri Island) were hit by a huge tsunami, with true heights reaching 10 m. Southern Aonae was completely swept away by tsunami that came directly from the focal region immediately to the west. The true tsunami height over the western sea wall of southern Aonae was estimated as 3 to 4 m. Northern Aonae also suffered severe damage due to tsunami that invaded from the corner zone of the sand dune (8 m high) and tide embankment at the northern end of the Aonae Harbor. This corner apparently acted as a tsunami amplifier, and tide embankment or breakwater can be quite dangerous when tsunami advances towards the corner it makes with the coast. The nearly complete devastation of Inaho at the northern end of Okushiri Island underscored the danger of tsunami whose propagation direction is parallel to the coast, since such tsunami waves tend to be amplified and tide embankment or breakwater is constructed low towards the coast at many harbors or fishing ports. Tsunami waves mostly of 2 to 4 m in true height swept away Hamatsumae on the southeast site of Okushiri Island where there were no coastal structures. Coastal structures were effective in reducing tsunami hazard at many sites. The maximum flow velocity at northern Aonae was estimated as 10 to 18 m/s (Tsutsumi et al., 1994), and such a high on-land velocity of tsunami near shore is probably due to the rapid shallowing of the deep sea near the epicentral region towards Okushiri Island. If the advancing direction, true height, and flow velocity of tsunami can be predicted by future analyses of tsunami generation and progagation, the analyses will be a powerful tool for future assessment of tsunami disasters, including the identification of blind spots in the tsunami hazard reduction.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Activities of six lysosomal enzymes in the cerebellum of jaundiced homozygous (jj) Gunn rats were examined from 5 to 20 days of life and compared with those in heterozygotes (j+). Significantly higher enzyme activities were first detected at 8 days. The jj/j+ activity ratios of all enzymes peaked at 15 days. The ratios of β-glycerophospha-tase, β-mannosidase, and acid lipase were only 1.3–1.7, whereas those of arylsulfatase and cathepsin were 2.0 and 3.1, respectively. The most striking increase in activity was observed with β-glucuronidase, the ratio of which was 8.4. These results indicate a selective increase in activities of certain lysosomal enzymes in the hypoplastic cerebellum of jj rats.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary: This study was designed to investigate the role of vasopressin and angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS). A non-peptide vasopressin VI antagonist (OPC-21268) and an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) were administered either alone or in combination for 15 weeks to FGS, spontaneously hypercholesterolaemic rats. Treatment with the V1 antagonist (1% OPC-21268) suppressed the rise in systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum triglyceride (TG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (S-Cr) levels, but not the elevations of urinary protein excretion (UPE) or serum total cholesterol (TC) levels. Morphologically, V1 antagonist significantly prevented an increase in the index of glomerular sclerosis (IS) and relative interstitial volume (RIV). In the low dose/high dose of V1 antagonist supplementation, the administration of 0.2% OPC-21268 failed to suppress any increase in the SBP and TG levels, but significantly preserved renal function and attenuated renal lesions. In the combination study, rats were divided into four groups: (i) V1 antagonist (1% OPC-21268); (ii) ACEI (imidapril, 5 mg/kg/per day); (iii) both treated groups; and (iv) an untreated control group. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor significantly suppressed increases in SBP, UPE, TC, BUN, and S-Cr levels compared with V1 antagonist. the combination therapy significantly enhanced these effects. Both agents significantly reduced IS and RIV, and combination therapy further reduced these levels. the results indicated that vasopressin, as well as angiotensin II, via the V1 receptor cause hypertension and renal injury in FGS rats. Vi antagonist and ACE-I have antihypertensive and renoprotective effects in this FGS model, and enhanced their beneficial effects when used as combination therapy.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY: A comparative immunohistological study was performed for the glomerular deposition of complements (C1q and C3c), fibrin/fibrinogen-related antigen (FRA), the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and the infiltration of leucocytes bearing β2 integrins (leucocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), complement receptor 3 (CR3) and complement receptor 4 (CR4)) on renal biopsy specimens from 49 cases with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura nephritis (HSPN), and 49 age-matched cases with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). the glomerular expression of ICAM-1 was signifcantly correlated with the glomerular infiltration of leucocyte function associated antigen (LFA)-1+ leucocytes in both diseases, and with that of CR3+ leucocytes in HSPN. the expression of ICAM-1 was closely localized with the infiltration of LFA-1+ leucocytes in the study with double immunostaining. the incidence and intensity of glomerular deposition of FRA were significantly higher in HSPN than in IgAN (P〈 0.001), and those of C3c were significantly lower in HSPN than in IgAN (P〈 0.001). the glomerular deposition of FRA was significantly correlated with the glomerular infiltration of CR4+ leucocytes in HSPN (P〈0.05) but not in IgAN. In contrast, the glomerular deposition of C3c was significantly correlated with the glomerular infiltration of CR4+ leucocytes in IgAN (P〈0.05), but not in HSPN. Studies with double immunostaining revealed a close association of CR4+ leucocytes with FRA deposition in HSPN and with C3c deposition in IgAN, respectively. the number of glomerular leucocytes bearing β2 integrins was significantly correlated with urinary protein at the time of renal biopsy in both diseases. These results suggested the differential roles of β2 integrins in the induction of glomerular injury in HSPN and IgAN. the ICAM-1/LFA-1 interaction may commonly be involved in the glomerular infiltration of leucocytes in both diseases. the ICAM-1/CR3 interaction may be involved only in HSPN. Complement receptor 4 may function as a fibrin/fibrinogen receptor in HSPN, while CR4 may function as a complement receptor in IgAN.
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