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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The absence of adenosine A2A receptors, or its pharmacological inhibition, has neuroprotective effects. Experimental data suggest that glial A2A receptors participate in neurodegeneration induced by A2A receptor stimulation. In this study we have investigated the effects of A2A receptor stimulation on control and activated glial cells. Mouse cortical mixed glial cultures (75% astrocytes, 25% microglia) were treated with the A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). CGS21680 potentiated lipopolysaccharide-induced NO release and NO synthase-II expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. CGS21680 potentiation of lipopolysaccharide-induced NO release was suppressed by the A2A receptor antagonist ZM-241385 and did not occur on mixed glial cultures from A2A receptor-deficient mice. In mixed glial cultures treated with LPS + CGS21680, the NO synthase-II inhibitor 1400W abolished NO production, and NO synthase-II immunoreactivity was observed only in microglia. Binding experiments demonstrated the presence of A2A receptors on microglial but not on astroglial cultures. However, the presence of astrocytes was necessary for CGS21680 potentiating effect. In light of the reported neurotoxicity of microglial NO synthase-II and the neuroprotection of A2A receptor inhibition, these data suggest that attenuation of microglial NO production could contribute to the neuroprotection afforded by A2A receptor antagonists.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Activation of glial cells is a prevalent response to neuronal damage in brain disease and ageing, with potential neuroprotective and neurotoxic consequences. We were interested in studying the role of glial activation on dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. Thus, we evaluated the effect of a pre-existing glial activation on the dopaminergic neuronal death induced by striatal infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine. We established a model of local glial activation by stereotaxic infusion of interleukin-1β in the substantia nigra of adult rats. Interleukin-1β (20 ng) induced a marked activation of astrocytes at days 2, 5 and 10, revealed by heat-shock protein 27 and glial fibrillary acid protein immunohistochemistry, but did not affect the microglial markers OX-42 and heat-shock proteins 32 or 47. Intranigral infusion of interleukin-1β 5 days before a striatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine significantly protected nigral dopaminergic cell bodies, but not striatal terminals from the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. Also, in the animals pre-treated with interleukin-1β, a significant prevention of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced reduction of adjusting steps, but not of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced amphetamine rotations, were observed. These data show the characterization of a novel model of local astroglial activation in the substantia nigra and support the hypothesis of a neuroprotective role of activated astrocytes in Parkinson's disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Apolipoprotein E (apoE) and apoJ are lipid carriers produced in the brain primarily by glial cells. A variety of glial-activating stimuli induce a parallel upregulation of both apolipoproteins expression in vivo and in vitro. To further characterize the cell type and mechanisms by which apoE and apoJ expression are upregulated in activated glia, mixed glial cultures from neonatal rat cortex were treated with the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induced dose-dependent increases in apoJ and decreases in apoE expression and secretion with maximum effects at 1–10 ng/mL and 0.1–1 µg/mL, respectively. Experiments with enriched astroglial and microglial cultures demonstrated that apoE and apoJ expression are predominantly microglial and astroglial, respectively. Given the pivotal role that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays in glial activation, we assessed its possible role in mediating apoE and apoJ expression by activated glia. LPS robustly increased NF-κB activation in mixed glial cultures. Two NF-κB inhibitors, aspirin (10 mm) and MG-132 (0.1 µm), blocked basal apoE and apoJ secretion as well as LPS-induced apoJ secretion. These data demonstrate that glial apoE and apoJ expression are independently regulated by LPS in microglia and astroglia, respectively, and that activated microglia are the predominant source of apoE in mixed glial cultures. The transcription factor NF-κB appears to be a critical mediator of LPS-stimulated apoJ expression from astroglia.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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