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  • 1
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    Keywords: Hermetia illucens ; animal feed ; fertilizer ; poultry waste ; treatment
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract This paper continues a series of studies on the plane flow of a pile of cohesionless granular material down a rough inclined plane. Internal and basal friction laws are assumed to obey the Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion but in contrast to previous investigations the angle of friction at the bottom of the pile is considered to depend on the position or on the velocity or on both. Similarity, i.e. shape preserving solutions are constructed. The depth of the pile and the profile of the total minus the centre of mass velocity are determined analytically, but the total length and the position of the centre of mass are calculated numerically. If the basal friction angle is constant, the centre of mass moves with constant acceleration and the length of the pile extends monotonically. These motions change, when the angle of friction varies along the pile — the length of the pile may extend, contract or remain stationary and the centre of mass motion may decelerate or even reach steady state. Eight special cases are exhibited which demonstrate the influence of the friction law on the speed and spread of the pile.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    World journal of urology 18 (2000), S. 283-288 
    ISSN: 1433-8726
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary Following the approach of the kinetic theory for mixtures of dense gases, the general conservation equations for the rapid flow of a binary mixture of smooth, inelastic, spherical granular particles are derived. Explicit constitutive relations for stress and rate of energy dissipation are obtained by making simple approximations for the particle velocity distribution functions. These approximations are appropriate for cases where collisional interactions are the dominant mechanism for momentum and energy exchange in the system. The theory is applied to the case of simple shear flow. In general, the theory predicts that stresses decrease with increasing concentration of the small particles and decreasing diameter ratio of small to large particles. Theoretical predictions of stresses are compared with experimental results and reasonable agreement is found.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary This paper describes a model to predict the flow of an initially stationary mass of cohesion-less granular material down rough curved beds. This work is of interest in connection with the motion of rock and ice avalanches and dense flow snow avalanches. The constitutive behaviour of the material making up the pile is assumed to be described by a Mohr-Coulomb criterion while the bed boundary condition is treated by a similar Coulomb-type basal friction law assumption. By depth averaging the incompressible conservation of mass and linear momentum equations that are written in terms of a curvilinear coordinate system aligned with the curved bed, we obtain evolution equations for the depthh and the depth averaged velocityū. Three characteristic length scales are defined for use in the non-dimensionalization and scaling of the governing equations. These are a characteristic avalanche lengthL, a characteristic heightH, and a characteristic bed radius of curvatureR. Three independent parameters emerge in the non-dimensionalized equations of motion. One, which is the aspect ratio ε-H/L, is taken to be small. By choosing different orderings for the other two, the tangent of the bed friction angle δ and the characteristic non-dimensional curvature λ=L/R, we can obtain different sets of equations of motion which appropriately display the desired importance of bed friction and bed curvature effects. The equations, correct to order ε for moderate curvature, are discretized in the form of a Lagrangian-type finite difference representation which proved to be successful in the earlier studies of Savage and Hutter [24] for granular flow down rough plane surfaces. Laboratory experiments were performed with plastic particles flowing down a chute having a bed made up of a straight, inclined portion, a curved part and a horizontal portion. Numerical solutions are presented for conditions corresponding to the laboratory experiments. It is found that the predicted temporal-evolutions of the rear and front of the pile of granular material as well as the shape of the pile agree quite well with the laboratory experiments.
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  • 8
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    Springer
    Acta mechanica 63 (1986), S. 1-2 
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary Following the granular flow kinetic theory of Lun, Savage, Jeffrey and Chepurniy, a moment method is used to obtain the approximate form for the single particle velocity distribution function for the case of smooth, slightly inelastic, uniform spherical particles in which the coefficient of restitutione depends upon the particle impact velocity. Constitutive equations for stress are derived and the theory is applied to the case of a simple shear flow. Theoretical predictions of stresses are compared with experimental results. The effect of the impact velocity dependente is to cause the stresses to vary with the shear rate raised to a power less than two; this is consistent with the experimental observations. On the basis of the present theory and comparisons with experimental data it is concluded that theoretical models which include both surface friction and an impact velocity dependente will lead to improved agreement between the theoretical predictions and the measurements.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary This paper is concerned with the motion of an unconfined finite mass of a granular material released from rest on an inclined plane. The granular mass is treated as a frictional Coulomb-like continuum with a Coulomb-like basal friction law. Depth averaged equations are deduced from the three-dimensional dynamical equations by scaling the equations and imposing the shallowness assumption that the moving piles are long and wide but not deep. Several distinguished limits for small depth to length and depth to width ratios can be analysed. We develop an approximate theory based upon the full dynamical equations parallel to the inclined plane and imposed hydrostatic pressure conditions perpendicular to it. The resulting model equations are then applied to construct either yet simpler model equations or else solutions for particular cases. In a first application the transverse distributions of the velocity fields and of the depth profile are prescribed, while representative values of these functions (such as the cross sectional averages or maxima) as functions of time and the downhill coordinate are left unspecified. For these quantities evolution equations are obtained from a lateral averaging of the vertically averaged equations. In a second application approximate similarity solutions of the spatially two-dimensional equations are derived. The depth and velocity profiles for the moving mass are determined in analytical form, and the evolution equation for the total length and the total width of the pile is integrated numerically. A parameter study illustrates the performance of the model.
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