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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Key words Anterior cruciate ; ligament ; Isolated partial rupture ; Knee laxity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract The majority of previous studies on partial ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) include a relatively large proportion of knees with associated intra-articular injury or collateral ligament tear that contributes to an increase in the symptoms of instability and further deterioration of knee function. In the present study only patients with isolated, partial ruptures of the ACL were evaluated. Fifty-six patients with one injured knee were examined after a median of 5.3 (range 2.0–12.7) years using the IKDC evaluation form, Lysholm knee function score and Tegner activity score. Of the 56 knees, 6 underwent autologous reconstruction due to early progression to complete rupture. Of 34 knees evaluated for laxity, 25 had a negative Lachman test and 7 a positive (+) Lachman. In 2 knees a Lachman ++ result and a positive pivot shift were found. With instrumented laxity testing 24 knees had 2 mm or less difference in laxity compared with the contralateral uninjured knee. The largest side-to-side difference in knee laxity was 4.5 mm. Lysholm score was median 86 (range 52–100) points, and 62% had good or excellent knee function. A significant decline in activity was seen. Only 10 patients (30%) resumed their preinjury activities. We find that the majority of patients with an isolated, partial rupture of the ACL have an acceptable knee function and a stable knee after a median 5 years follow-up. There is, however, a marked reduction in activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: One hundred and thirty-two consecutive soccer players (117 males and 15 females, median age 23, range 16–39 years) underwent primary reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with an iliotibial band (ITB) autograft. All patients were followed prospectively for a minimum of 2 years. One hundred and eighteen patients (89%) attended an independent observer follow-up after a median of 47 (24–92) months. The time before participating in soccer was a median of 7 (5–24) months. At a median of 4 years, 80 (68%) were still active soccer players, while 38 had changed activity to a lower level. Twenty-five gave up soccer playing for reasons unrelated to the knee, and 13 (11%) gave up due to problems from the reconstructed knee. The Lysholm score improved from a median of 82 (range 42–99, mean [SD] 80.5 [±11.9]) points prior to the operation to a median of 99 (range 57–100, mean [SD] 94.6 [±8.5]) at follow-up. The Tegner score improved from a median of 3.5 (0–7) preoperatively to 9 (1–10). Four patients (3%) sustained a rupture of the graft: three ruptures occurred among the 15 females (20%), and one was seen among the 117 males (0.8%) (P=0.01). Eight per cent had predominantly minor cosmetic complaints from the donor-site hernia, while 51% had temporary discomfort from the staples used for graft fixation. Using the ITB autograft for ACL reconstruction, we found excellent and good results in soccer players with ACL deficiency and high demands for optimal knee function. The failure rate in general was comparable with other methods, and the majority was still active in soccer sports at a median of 4 years after surgery. An unacceptably high rerupture rate was registered in female players.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Seventy patients met our inclusion criteria in this retrospective study, all with an arthroscopic/arthrotomic-verified isolated total anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-rupture and a minimum follow-up period of 3 years and no associated lesions. Due to emigration/death, 3 patients were not available for follow-up. Of the remaining 67, 25 patients underwent secondary ACL-reconstruction, equivalent to a failure rate of the initial non-operative treatment of 37%. All patients were initially treated conservatively. This left 42 patients for follow-up – 9 answered a questionnare and 33 went through follow-up examination after a median of 7.1 years (range 3.3–14.6) including IKDC-evaluation form. Lysholm & Tegner score, ES-SKA-score, clinical examination and Stryker Laxity test. In the present study all values represent the 33 patients available for follow-up. Soccer, handball and alpine skiing were most frequently responsible for the injury. We observed in the 33 patients a decline in median Lysholm score from 100 (90–100) pretraumatic to 86 (42–100) at follow-up, and a decrease in median Tegner values from 7 (3–9) pretraumatic to 5 (2–7) at follow-up. All but 2 patients demonstrated a decline in Lysholm score, and only 3 patients returned to their preinjury level. According to the ESSKA-classification, the number of “cutting-sports performers” declined dramatically from 24 to 2. All but one patient ascribed their decline in activity to their knee status. The Stryker-measured AP-translocations were significantly higher on the injured knee (7.27) compared to the healthy knee (4.80) (P〈0.05). Intermittant rest pain was suffered by 63% of the patients. During the time from inclusion until follow-up, 13 (39%) patients sustained an additional ipsilateral knee lesion, most commonly a tear of the medial meniscus. The overall outcome was expressed in a low frequency of return to unrestricted preinjury level of function, and a high level of instability complaints resulting in many secondary ACL-reconstructions. Naturally some have adapted to their ultimate functional disability, but only through modification of activities, and the overall outcome after conservative therapy of these ACL-ruptures was not satisfactory.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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