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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: DNA fingerprint ; Apple ; Cherry ; Black-berry ; Raspberry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Recently, “DNA fingerprints” have been reported in a wide array of organisms. We used the M13 repeat probe on several genera and species in the angiosperm family Rosaceae. Four apple cultivars could be differentiated when any one of five restriction enzymes was used to analyze minisatellite DNA. Similarly, four individual trees of Prunus serotina (black cherry) exhibited different “fingerprints” with each of four enyzmes. A total of 14 Rubus (blackberries and raspberries) plants representing four species were investigated with two enzymes. Extensive inter-and intraspecific variation was found. However, some closely growing plants had identical “fingerprints”, probably due to their being derived through vegetative propagation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: DNA fingerprint ; M13 probe ; RFLP ; Paternity analysis ; Apple
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Analysis of minisatellite DNA sequences, yielding so called DNA “fingerprints”, has proven useful in paternity analysis for several different organisms. Here 64 apple seedlings, grown from seeds collected in an orchard with three cultivars, were analyzed using the M13 “fingerprint” probe. Paternity could be determined for 56 of the seedlings, 2 of which were derived through selfing. The analysis was facilitated by the occurrence of a multiallelic locus. The five different fragments determined by this locus migrated to similar positions, whether digesting the DNA with restriction enzymes TaqI or RsaI.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: DNA fingerprinting ; Minisatellites ; Plantago ; Population structure ; Mating system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Three Plantago species were surveyed for within- and between-population variation at DNA sequences detected with the M13 minisatellite probe. The levels and patterns of variation detected by this probe correspond to those expected from the mating systems of the species. The highly-selfing species P. major has a relatively low variability of minisatellite sequences within populations and considerable differentiation between populations. The outcrossing species P. lanceolata exhibits higher minisatellite variability within populations and moderate differentiation between populations. P. coronopus, with a mixed mating system, has levels of variation intermediate between P. major and P. lanceolata. The levels of variation within and between populations corresponds, in general, to the levels of allozyme variation determined in an earlier study. Mating system and population structure appear to have a major influence on M13-detected fragment variation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: DNA typing ; Genetic similarity ; Genetic structure ; Genetic resource conservation ; Vegetable and forage cole crops
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Effective conservation and the use of plant genetic resources are essential for future agricultural progress. Critical to this conservation effort is the development of genetic markers which not only distinguish individuals and accessions but also reflect the inherent variation and genetic relationships among collection holdings. We have examined the applicability of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay for quick, cost-effective, and reliable use in addressing these needs in relation to collection organization and management. Twenty-five decamer oligonucleotide primers were screened individually with a test array composed of individuals representing a range of genetic relationships in Brassica oleracea L. (vegetable and forage cole crops). Over 140 reproducible, polymorphic fragments were generated for study. Each individual of the test array exhibited a unique molecular genotype and composites specific for accessions and botanical varieties could be established. An analysis of similarity based on amplified DNA fragments reflected the known genetic relationships among the selected entries. These results demonstrated that RAPD markers can be of great value in gene bank management for purposes of identification, measurement of variation, and establishment of genetic similarity at the intraspecific level.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Native American maize ; RAPD ; Genetic relationships ; Reproducibility ; Geography and evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Genetic variation among 15 accessions of Native American maize from the Great Plains was investigated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). RAPDs revealed very high levels of polymorphism among accessions. Banding patterns ranged in percentage polymorphism from 46.7% to 86.2% with an overall mean of 70.7% for the primers analyzed. The construction of genetic relationships using cluster analysis and principal coordinates analysis revealed that RAPDs are successful in confirming hypothesized relationships and in identifying misclassified specimens. Furthermore, the phenogram fails to reveal a strong correspondence between genetic relationships and the geographical position of Native Americans prior to contact. This provides support for the hypothesis that multiple introductions of maize into the Great Plains via trade may have resulted in the great morphological variation found among accessions in the region. Based on these data, it is unlikely that a separate Great Plains race of maize can be distinguished. In general, we conclude that RAPDs are potentially very useful in organizing seed collections and understanding intraspecific genetic differentiation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1615-6110
    Keywords: Hylocomiaceae ; internal transcribed region 2 ; molecular evolution ; phylogeny ; relative rate test
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Nucleotide variation of the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA was used to estimate the phylogeny of the moss family Hylocomiaceae. Both parsimony and neighbour-joining analyses support the monophyly of this family, as well as all seven of the genera within the family.Rhytidium appears as the basal taxon and a North American clade comprisingRhytidiopsis andThelia is indicated. The analyses suggest thatHylocomium s. l., a polyphyletic genus, should be divided into three separate genera. The rate of nucleotide substitutions of the ITS-2 region in the Hylocomiaceae is consistent with the hypothesis of a molecular clock based on a relative rate tests. A nearly constant rate of 6.42 × 10−10 substitutions per site and per year is postulated for the family, a rate close to that of the Winteraceae and slower than that ofLopezia.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Abstract Three subgroups of kindergarten boys (Stable conduct disordered-hyperaetive (SCDH), Stable conduct disordered (SGD). Stable non deviat control(SC)) were- defined and Followed up three, four and five years later in primary schools. Using assessments From multiple informants (teachers, mothers peers, self), the results showed that SCDH boys were more hyperactive (i.e. overactive inattentive) and displayed a greater diversity of conduct problems in school and home at follow-up compared to other groups. These results, and the fact that during early adolescence SCDH boys tend to develop a worse prognosis than SCD boys suggest that they should be distinguished.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0009-2614
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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