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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  16. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Thoraxchirurgie; 20071004-20071006; Konstanz; DOC07dgtP12 /20100322/
    Publication Date: 2010-03-23
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This pilot study was designed to examine the cellular orientation when a second substratum was placed close to the surgically denuded root surface in an experimental periodontal wound. Using mucoperiosteal flaps, windows of standard dimensions were cut on the buccal aspect of mandibular premolars in two beagle dogs. In the experimental wound, a sheet of decalcified bone matrix (DBM) was placed adjacent to the surgically denuded root surface to serve as the second substratum. Both experimental and control wounds were then covered with millipore filters and the flaps were replaced and sutured. Histologic results at 4 and 7 days suggest that a second substratum placed close to the denuded root surface may favorably affect cellular orientation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The present pilot study was designed to examine the healing sequence when cells from the PDL are allowed to migrate coronally and populate the curetted root surface.Mucoperiosteal flaps were reflected around the premolars and mandibular incisors of two beagle dogs with naturally-occurring periodontal disease. The roots were thoroughly planed, and grooves were marked at the level of the crest of remaining alveolar bone. Millipore filters (pore size 3 microns) were adapted circumferentially to the roots and sealed to the teeth above the CEJ with cyanoacrylate before suturing the flaps. Histologic analysis of the experimental and sham-operated control teeth was done at 5, 7, 8, 10, and 12 weeks after the surgery.An initial phase of root resorption was followed by new connective tissue attachment coronal to the groove in successful experimental teeth. No new connective tissue attachment could be seen in the controls although the JE appeared to be located slightly coronal to the groove with time.The findings of the present study suggest that the chances of obtaining a new connective tissue attachment may be enhanced if surgical procedures are designed to allow selective population of curetted root surfaces by cells arising from the PDL.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: An in vivo model is described to study the migration of cells into experimental “periodontal” spaces and the influence of the geometry of substrata on cell and fiber orientation. Roots of molars and cylinders of bone (from femur and tibia) were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats. All attached soft tissues were removed from the bone cylinders (BC) and roots by planing with curettes followed by collagenase treatment. The roots and BC were divided into experimental (roots in bone cylinders to simulate tooth-socket relationship) and control groups. Following citric acid treatment for 3 min, pairs of experimental and control specimens were implanted subcutaneously in 20 Sprague-Dawley rats. Histologic examination was done 3 and 6 weeks after implantation. Connective tissue cells had migrated into the experimental spaces of both experimental and control specimens at 3 and 6 weeks. The cell and fiber orientation varied between the groups, and a tendency towards functional orientation of fibers was seen in some experimental and control specimens. The orientation of connective tissue fibers appeared to be influenced also by the spatial relationship of substrata to which they attach.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The present study was designed to compare clinical, micro bio logic and histometric parameters of recurrent periodontal disease in areas which had been treated either surgically (SU) or nonsurgically (NS). Periodontal disease was induced for 6 months in 3 quadrants in each of 6 beagle dogs. 2 of the 3 diseased quadrants were treated by definitive surgical or nonsurgical therapy followed by plaque control for 4 months. 2 dogs were then sacrificed to provide histometric data. Periodontal disease was reinduced in the remaining 4 dogs by allowing plaque accumulation for 6 months after which the dogs were sacrificed for histometric analysis. Clinical parameters were recorded and darkfield microscopic analysis of subgingival plaque samples was performed at regular intervals. Following 6 months of plaque accumulation during disease reinduction, there were significant changes (p 〈 0.05) in the pocket depths, bleeding scores and attachment levels in both the SU and NS areas. These changes were accompanied by significant increases (p 〈 0.05) in the proportions of spirochetes and motile rods and decreases in the proportions of coccoid cells in both the SU and NS areas. There were, however, no significant differences between the SU and NS areas when clinical and microbiologic parameters were compared. At the end of disease reinduction phase, the length of inflammatory cell infiltrate and % inflammed connective tissue had increased significantly in both the SU and NS areas. However, there were no significant differences in any of the histometric parameters between the SU and NS areas after disease reinduction. The present landings suggest that progression of disease recurrence, measured in clinical, microbiological and histometric parameters, may be independent of the mode of previous periodontal therapy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Antibiotic prophylaxis ; Nosocomial pneumonia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Nosocomial pneumonias, especially in ventilated patients, are a continuing problem in modern medicine. Pathogens most commonly involved with these pneumonias areEnterobacteriaceae, Ps. aeruginosa andS. aureus. Several prevention measures for nosocomial pneumonia are possible such as parenteral and topical antibiotics—a very controversial issue. Several studies with parenteral antibiotics, starting as early as 1954, could not prove any benefit of parenteral antibiotics in pneumonia prevention. Topical antibiotics, starting with polymyxin or gentamicin via the endotracheal tube in the 70s, gave controversial results. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study with gentamicin via the endotracheal tube in ventilated ICU patients we found no significant reduction of pneumonia rate and mortality. However, the combined, approach (SDD) of oropharyngeal, gastrointestinal and parenteral use of certain antibiotics appears to give promising results in specific patient subgroups such as ventilated polytrauma patients in ICU.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Conclusions SDD in ventilated ICU patients continues to be a controversial issue. This form of prophylaxis significantly reduces infection-related morbidity in ICU patients, but, despite the large number of trials assessed, no definite conclusions can be drawn about the effect of this type of prophylaxis on mortality. There is evidence to support the use of SDD in some patient populations, including ventilated polytrauma patients, patients who have undergone surgery for oesophageal tumours and liver transplant patients. The use of SDD in patients receiving long-term ventilation, must, however, be questioned.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Lung 175 (1997), S. 387 -394 
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Keywords: Key words: Flow cytometry—Cigarette smoking—T cells.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The investigation of peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) subpopulations is of interest in a wide variety of inflammatory diseases. Since the number of circulating lymphocytes has been shown to be affected by smoking habits, it seems useful to know how PBL subpopulations are influenced. We therefore determined percentages and absolute numbers of a wide range of PBL subpopulations in smokers (n= 14) and nonsmokers (n= 14). PBLs were obtained from healthy volunteers and analyzed by flow cytometry using antibodies for the detection of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD56, CD57, CD45RO, CD45RA, α/β and γ/δ T cell receptor epitopes. With the exception of CD3+ cells, no differences between smokers and nonsmokers were found regarding percentages of PBL subpopulations. Smokers were found to have higher absolute numbers of PBLs in the following subpopulations compared with nonsmokers: CD3+, CD4+, CD3+α/β+, CD45RO+/CD4+, and CD45RA+/CD4+. Cytotoxic lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and B cells did not differ in number between smokers and nonsmokers. There was likewise no difference in the number of the CD8+α/β+ and all cells bearing the γ/δ T cell receptor. Smoking increased the number of T cells and mainly CD4+ PBLs. The smoking habits of healthy control groups should therefore be taken into account when comparing lymphocyte subpopulations in different diseases.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Keywords: Selectins ; Endothelial cells ; Smoking ; Pulmonary vessels
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Introduction and rationale. An accumulation of intraalveolar cells, especially of macrophages and granulocytes, can be observed in smokers. Since adhesion molecules are involved in the process of cell accumulation, in this study we investigated the hypothesis that the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules on pulmonary vascular endothelial cells is different in smokers and nonsmokers. Methods. We investigated lung biopsies from 26 patients who underwent thoracic surgery for localized malignancies (smokers: 15; nonsmokers: 11). Cryostat sections were stained by using immunohistochemistry (APAAP method) with antibodies against E- and P-selectin, the vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). The number of adhesion molecule-positive stained vessels was compared to the total number of vessels identified by the expression of von Willebrand's factor (vWF) and anti-CD31. Results. The two groups investigated showed no differences in the expression of E-, and P-selectin and of VCAM-1. In contrast, the expression of ICAM-1 was significantly increased in smokers (median 25 vessels/section, CI95%: 19–31) compared to nonsmokers (median 16 vessels/section, CI95%: 9–21) (p = 0.030). In smoking subjects, we were also able to demonstrate a positive correlation between the duration of smoking expressed as pack years and the expression of ICAM-1 on pulmonary vessels (Spearman rank coefficient of correlation 0.857; p = 0.0002). Conclusion. The observed increased expression of ICAM-1 on pulmonary vascular endothelial cells in smokers compared to nonsmokers may be involved in the increased recruitment of inflammatory cells to the alveolar space of smokers.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Lung 172 (1994), S. 189-213 
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Keywords: Integrins ; LeuCAM ; Sarcoidosis ; Pulmonary fibrosis ; Asthma ; Corticosteroids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The human body possesses highly specialized cellular defense mechanisms that, when activated pathologically, can induce a number of immunologic disorders. For a normal cellular immune response, the following conditions must be fulfilled: (1) accumulation of white blood cells, (2) their diapedesis through the vessel walls of the inflammatory area affected by an injurious agent, and (3) normal cellular effector functions in the tissue. This cascade of inflammatory processes has recently been shown to be regulated by a group of molecules that are termed adhesion molecules and consist of three subfamilies: selectins, the immunoglobulin supergene family, and integrins. The cellular functions influenced by adhesion molecules include, among others, cytotoxic T-cell responses, CD4-dependent activation of B lymphocytes by T lymphocytes, activation of granulocytes and macrophages, phagocytosis of opsonized particles by monocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes, antigen-presenting function of macrophages, their antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, initiation of a respiratory burst by white blood cells, and activation of fibroblasts. Studies performed in recent years have shown that pathogenetically relevant changes in the expression and function of adhesion molecules are involved in a variety of pulmonary diseases. These changes include the accumulation and activation of alveolar macrophages in smokers, experimentally induced bronchial hyperreactivity in bronchial asthma, accumulation of eosinophils in allergic rhinitis, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, binding of viruses and bacteria to respiratory mucosa, and various mechanisms of acute damage to pulmonary parenchyma. Though their role in tumor development is still unclear, adhesion molecules are obviously involved in determining the route and organotropism of metastases. Further studies of the function of adhesion molecules in pulmonary diseases will contribute to our understanding of the pathomechanisms of these diseases and, through the development of specific antibodies, may provide attractive new therapeutic approaches to problems for which treatment is not yet available
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