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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary When using the micro-gel double-diffusion technique, two different flocculating antigenic fractions at least are shown in polio antigens which consist of 200 times concentrated poliovirus tissue-culture fluids. These antigenic fractions are revealed by two different flocculation lines: a “superior flocculation line” and an “inferior flocculation line”. The antigenic inferior flocculation line fraction hardly diffuses in agar. When considering only the poliovirus group, both antigenic fractions are type-specific, and no group-specific antigen has been detected. The inferior flocculation line fraction seems in part to be provided by a “natural” denaturation of the infectious polio antigen. When formolized, flocculating polio antigens lose their ability to show the inferior flocculation line, and the antigen-antibody reaction is revealed by the superior flocculation line only. To the antigenic fractions correspond at least two types of flocculating antibodies, which have different limits of detectability. These antibodies appear very early after the infection. The antibodies which flocculate with the inferior flocculation line antigenic fraction, are no more detectable 4 to 5 weeks after the beginning of the affection; but those flocculating with the superior flocculation line antigenic fraction are still shown 6 months after the beginning of the affection. In naturally occurred polio infections the apparition of polio heterotypic antibodies is observed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Both types of anti-poliomyelitis flocculating antibodies, which are shown either by a “superior flocculation line” or by an “inferior flocculation line” in the microscopic gel-diffusion test, differ from those revealed by serum neutralization or by complement fixation tests. The occurrence of flocculating antibodies is by no means concurrent with high levels of neutralizing or complement fixing antibodies. After naturally occurred infections, flocculating and neutralizing antibodies are simultaneously present, but there is less concordance between complement fixing and flocculating antibodies. Three months after the third injection of inactivated commercial antipoliomyelitis vaccine, 30–50% of immunized children — with neutralizing antibodies — have no flocculating antibodies in detectable amounts. Numerous heterotypic reactions, i. e. occurrence of flocculating antibodies, but not of neutralizing antibodies, are observed before vaccination. After vaccination such heterotypic reactions are less frequent. These heterotypic antibodies are revealed as well by the so-called “superior line antigenic fraction” as by the “inferior line antigenic fraction”. The limitations of the micro-gel double-diffusion technique in epidemiological or post-vaccination researches are discussed.
    Notes: Résumé Les anticorps floculants révélés par la microréaction de floculation en agar, qu'ils soient “ligne supérieure” ou “ligne inférieure” sont nettement différents de ceux révélés par les méthodes de séroneutralisation ou de fixation du complément et leur présence n'est nullement liée à un taux élevé de ces derniers. Si lors d'infection naturelle on obtient une concordance totale entre présence d'anticorps neutralisants et celle d'anticorps floculants, elle est moindre entre celle d'anticorps floculants et celle d'anticorps fixant le complément. Trois mois après la 3e injection de vaccin commercial à base de virus inactivés, de 30 à 50% des sujets présentant des anticorps neutralisants sont démunis d'anticorps floculants. Un pourcentage important de réactions hétérotypiques, avant vaccination, plus faible après vaccination, est notée. Ces réactions hétérotypiques portent aussi bien sur la fraction antigénique “ligne supérieure” que sur celle dite “ligne inférieure”. Discussion de l'application de la technique de microréaction de floculation en agar à des recherches épidémiologiques ou portant sur l'état d'immunisation de sujets vaccinés contre la poliomyélite.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-8595
    Keywords: biatrial pacing ; biventricular pacing ; pacemaker indication ; coronary sinus electrodes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The artificial activation of the heart modifies the mechanics of contraction and relaxation. While only little basic research has been addressed to this question, clinical observations showed that for hypertrophic as well as dilated cardiomyopathies appropriate pacing techniques can be useful. Pacing can influence the activation sequence. The spread out from a single site is slow, and so hypercontractility deminshed. With the use of multiple electrodes, two atrial and/or two ventricular, conduction delays in the atria or ventricles can be eliminated. Synchronisation of the cardiac activation has an anti-arrhythmic and positiv inotropic effect. This may lead to new indications for pacemakers or better to be named cardiac synchronisers.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1569-8041
    Keywords: arrhythmia ; long QT ; MDR ; P-glycoprotein ; S9788 ; torsade de pointe ; triazineaminopiperidine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: S9788 is a triazineaminopiperidine derivative capable of reversing multidrug resistance (MDR) in vitro. In preclinical models S9788 was several fold more potent MDR inhibitor than verapamil or cyclosporine. At P-glycoprotein (Pgp) blocking concentrations, S9788 appeared to have only very little toxicity. Patients and methods: In a two step phase I trial we treated 39 patients with refractory cancer with S9788 and bolus doxorubicin. The steps differed mainly in the S9788 infusion duration; in the first part 23 patients received the MDR-reversing drug S9788 over 30 minutes, in the second step of the study 16 patients were administered S9788 over 150 minutes. The doses of S9788 were escalated in cohorts of three patients up to a dose level (DL) of 96 mg/m2 on the 30 minutes infusion, and to 144 mg/m2 on the 150 minutes infusion. The pharmacokinetics of S9788 were determined. Results: With the 30-minute infusion schedule symptomatic cardiac arrhythmia were found to be dose limiting. In all patients at the highest DL transient cardiac repolarization prolongation with a long QT-interval on ECG was demonstrated. With the 150-minute administration schedule, S9788 could be escalated up to 144 mg/m2 without subjective toxicity. However, transient QT prolongation was present in all patients. A third degree AV-block and a QT increase of about 40% occurred at the highest DL. Asymptomatic torsade de pointe (DL 96 mg/m2) was demonstrated on Holter recording in one patient. Theses repolarization disturbances with QT increase were considered dose limiting toxicity and the trial was closed. No arrhythmia related death was noted. Pharmacokinetics were similar with both infusion schedules with a mean alpha half life of 11.3 and 13.2 minutes, for the 30-minute and 150-minute infusion, and a terminal half life of 13.5 and 15 hours, respectively. QTc prolongation duration appeared to be dose-dependent. Conclusions: With the tested infusion schedules, cardiac toxicity, in particular AV-blocks and QT prolongation, leading to ventricular arrhythmia and torsade de pointe, are the dose limiting toxicities of S9788. Our experience together with the observation of asymptomatic torsade de pointe in two other phase I trials of S9788 infused over six hours precluded the further clinical development of S9788.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: comparative mapping ; cosmid ; DAPI-banded idiogram ; domestic dog ; FISH ; red fox
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have developed a novel method for identifying dog chromosomes and unambiguously mapping specific clones onto canine chromosomes. This method uses a previously established red fox/dog comparative chromosome map to guide the FISH mapping of cloned canine DNA. Mixing metaphase preparations of the red fox and dog enabled a single hybridization to be performed on both species. We used this approach to map the chromosomal locations of twenty-six canine cosmids. Each cosmid contains highly polymorphic microsatellite markers currently used by the DogMap project to compile the canine linkage map. All but two cosmids were successfully assigned to subchromosomal regions on red fox and dog chromosomes. For eight cosmids previously mapped on dog chromosomes, we confirmed and refined the canine chromosomal assignments of seven cosmids and corrected an erroneous assignment regarding cosmid CanBern1. These results demonstrate that the red fox and dog comparative chromosome map can greatly improve the accuracy and efficiency of chromosomal assignments of canine genetic markers by FISH.
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