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  • 1
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; proliferation ; IN-VIVO ; MODEL ; DISEASE ; DISTINCT ; MICE ; ACTIVATED MACROPHAGES ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; CRESCENTIC GLOMERULONEPHRITIS ; INJURIES ; LIGAND ; MESANGIAL CELLS ; MONOCYTE ARREST ; NEPHRITIS ; NITRIC-OXIDE ; RANTES ; RESPONSES
    Abstract: The chemokine CC chemokine ligand (CCL)5/RANTES as well as its respective receptor CCR5 mediate leukocyte infiltration during inflammation and are up-regulated early during the course of glomerulonephritis (GN). We tested the effects of the two CCL5/RANTES blocking analogs, Met-RANTES and amino-oxypentane- RANTES, on the course of horse apoferritin (RAF)induced GN. HAF-injected control mice had proliferative GN with mesangial immune complex deposits of IgG and HAF. Daily i.p. injections of Met-RANTES or amino-oxypentane-RANTES markedly reduced glomerular cell proliferation and glomerular macrophage infiltration, which is usually associated with less glomerular injury and proteinuria in RAF-GN. Surprisingly, however, RAF-GN mice treated with both analogs showed worse disease with mesangiolysis, capillary obstruction, and nephrotic range albuminuria. These findings were associated with an enhancing effect of the CCL5/RANTES analogs on the macrophage activation state, characterized by a distinct morphology and increased inducible NO synthetase expression in vitro and in vivo, but a reduced uptake of apoptotic cells in vivo. The Immoral response and the Th1/Th2 balance in HAF-GN and mesangial cell proliferation in vitro were not affected by the CCL5/RANTES analogs. We conclude that, despite blocking local leukocyte recruitment, chemokine analogs can aggravate some specific disease models, most likely due to interactions with systemic immune reactions, including the removal of apoptotic cells and inducible NO synthetase expression
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12759447
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; Germany ; human ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; MESANGIAL CELLS ; ARTHRITIS ; CELL ACTIVATION ; COMPLEXES ; CUTTING EDGE ; DNA ; IFN-GAMMA ; INFECTION ; kidney ; MACROPHAGES ; MECHANISM ; MESSENGER-RNA ; MESSENGER-RNA EXPRESSION ; MOTIFS ; murine ; OLIGODEOXYNUCLEOTIDES ; RECEPTOR EXPRESSION ; SERA ; TH1 RESPONSES ; TRIGGER
    Abstract: Immune complex glomerulonephritis (GN) often deteriorates during infection with viruses and bacteria that, in contrast to mammals, have DNA that contains many unmethylated CpG motifs. Balb/c mice with horse apoferritin-induced GN (HAF-GN) were treated with either saline, CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), or control GpC-ODN. Only CpG-ODN exacerbated HAF-GN with an increase of glomerular macrophages, which was associated with massive albuminuria and increased renal MCP-1/CCL2, RANTES/CCL5, CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5 mRNA expression. CpG-ODN induced a Th1 response as indicated by serum anti-HAF IgG(2a) titers, mesangial IgG(2a) deposits, and splenocyte IFN-gamma secretion. Messenger RNA for the CpG-DNA receptor Toll-like reeptor 9 (TLR9) was present in kidneys with HAF-GN but not in normal kidneys. The source of TLR9 mRNA in HAF-GN could. be infiltrating macrophages or intrinsic renal cells, e.g., mesangial cells; but, in vitro, only murine J774 macrophages expressed TLR9. In J774 cells, CpG-ODN induced the chemokines MCP-1/CCL2 and RANTES/CCL5 and the chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5. It is concluded that CpG-DNA can aggravate preexisting GN via a shift toward a Th1 response but also by a novel pathway involving TLR9-mediated chemokine and chemokine receptor expression by macrophages, which may contribute to the enhanced glomerular macrophage recruitment and activation. This mechanism may be relevant during infection-triggered exacerbation of human immune-complex GN and other immune- mediated diseases in general
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12538732
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  • 3
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; MODEL ; SUPPORT ; VOLUME ; TISSUE ; MICE ; INJURIES ; LIGAND ; NEPHRITIS ; RANTES ; kidney ; MACROPHAGES ; murine ; MARKER ; renal ; RAT ; CONTRAST ; INJECTION ; fibroblasts ; treatment ; IDENTIFICATION ; LESIONS ; immunohistochemistry ; MARKERS ; LIGANDS ; RECRUITMENT ; leukocyte ; STRATEGIES ; intravenous ; NEPHROPATHY ; chemokine ; INITIATION ; ANTAGONIST ; inflammation ; INJURY ; FOCAL SEGMENTAL GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS ; CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR ; fibrosis ; PERSISTENT ; INFILTRATION ; MURINE MODEL ; chemokines ; OBSTRUCTIVE NEPHROPATHY ; progressive nephropathy ; receptor blockade ; RENAL-DISEASE
    Abstract: Background. CC chemokines mediate leukocyte infiltration into inflamed tissue. We have recently shown that blockade of the CC chemokine receptor CCR1 reduces interstitial inflammation and fibrosis in murine obstructive nephropathy. However, it is not known whether CCR 1 blockade is protective in progressive renal injury associated with severe proteinuria. We therefore studied the effect of the small-molecule CCR1 antagonist BX471 in a murine model of adriamycin-induced focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) with nephrotic syndrome and progressive interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Methods. Adriamycin nephropathy with persistent proteinuria was induced in male BALB/c mice by two intravenous injections of adriamycin (13 mg/kg) at day 0 and 14. BX471 treatment was started at day 14 when proteinuria and interstitial inflammation had developed. At 6 weeks, renal histology was studied by morphometry and immunohistochemistry. Results. At week 6, adriamycin-treated mice showed FSGS, associated with tubulointerstitial injury consisting of tubular dilation and atrophy, interstitial leukocyte infiltration, and fibrosis. The mRNA expression of CCR1 and CC chemokines, including the CCR1 ligands CCL3 (MIP-1alpha) and CCL5 (RANTES), was up-regulated in diseased kidneys, with a prominent interstitial expression of CCL5. Compared to vehicle-treated controls BX471 significantly reduced the amount of macrophages and Tlymphocytes in interstitial lesions by 51% and 22%, respectively. Markers of renal fibrosis such as interstitial fibroblasts (48%) and interstitial volume (23%) were significantly reduced by BX471 treatment. In contrast, the extent of proteinuria and glomerular sclerosis was not affected by BX471 treatment. Conclusion. Blockade of CCR1 substantially reduced interstitial leukocyte accumulation and the subsequent renal fibrosis in a murine model of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS. These findings support a role for CCR1 in interstitial leukocyte recruitment and suggest that CCR1 blockade might be a new therapeutic strategy in progressive nephropathies such as FSGS
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15569315
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  • 4
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; VITRO ; DISEASE ; EXPOSURE ; RNA ; TISSUE ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; DNA ; INFECTION ; kidney ; MECHANISM ; AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE ; CONTRAST ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; mechanisms ; T-CELLS ; cytokines ; ACID ; AGE ; INTERFERON ; INFECTIONS ; DOUBLE-STRANDED-RNA ; INTERFERON-ALPHA ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD ; chemokine ; AUTOANTIBODIES ; SERUM ; AUTOIMMUNITY ; SINGLE ; interaction ; MONOCYTE CHEMOATTRACTANT PROTEIN-1 ; dendritic cell ; INNATE ANTIVIRAL RESPONSES ; MRL-FAS(LPR) MICE ; PLASMACYTOID DENDRITIC CELLS
    Abstract: How viral infections trigger autoimmunity is poorly understood. A role for Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) was hypothesized in this context as viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) activates dendritic cells to secrete type I interferons and cytokines that are known to be associated with the disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Immunostaining of nephritic kidney sections of autoimmune MRL1pr/1pr mice revealed TLR3 expression in infiltrating antigen-presenting cells as well as in glomerular mesangial cells. TLR3-positive cultured mesangial cells that were exposed to synthetic polyinosinic-cytidylic acid (pI:C) RNA in vitro produced CCL2 and IL-6. pI:C RNA activated macrophages and dendritic cells, both isolated from MRL1pr/1pr mice, to secrete multiple proinflammatory factors. In vivo, a single injection of pI:C RNA increased serum IL-12p70, IL-6, and IFN-alpha levels. A course of 50 mu g of pI:C RNA given every other day from weeks 16 to 18 of age aggravated lupus nephritis in pI:C-treated MRL1pr/1pr mice. Serum DNA autoantibody levels were unaltered upon systemic exposure to pI:C RNA in MRL1pr/1pr mice, as pI:C RNA, in contrast to CpG-DNA, failed to induce B cell activation. It therefore was concluded that viral dsRNA triggers disease activity of lupus nephritis by mechanisms that are different from those of bacterial DNA. In contrast to CpG-DNA/TLR9 interaction, pI:C RNA/TLR3-mediated disease activity is B cell independent, but activated intrinsic renal cells, e.g., glomerular mesangial cells, to produce cytokines and chemokines, factors that can aggravate autoimmune tissue injury, e.g., lupus nephritis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15772251
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  • 5
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; DIAGNOSIS ; screening ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; PATIENT ; NF-KAPPA-B ; ACTIVATION ; kidney ; DONOR ; INDUCTION ; treatment ; TARGET ; STAGE ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROMOTER ; STRESS ; STRESS-RESPONSE ; REGION ; REGIONS ; NF-kappa B ; TARGETS ; FAILURE ; COMPLICATIONS ; BIOPSY ; inflammation ; PROGRAM ; CLUSTER-ANALYSIS ; SIGNATURE ; HLA-A ; PROMOTER REGION ; renal failure ; RISK-FACTOR ; PROGRAMS ; DIABETIC-NEPHROPATHY ; PREVENTS ; CELL-ADHESION MOLECULE-1 ; GLOMERULAR INJURY
    Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure and a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in diabetic patients. To evaluate the multiple pathogenetic factors implicated in DN, unbiased mRNA expression screening of tubulointerstitial compartments of human renal biopsies was combined with hypothesis-driven pathway analysis. Expression fingerprints obtained from biopsies with histological diagnosis of DN (n = 13) and from control subjects (pretransplant kidney donors [n = 71 and minimal change disease [n = 41) allowed us to segregate the biopsies by disease state and stage by the specific expression signatures. Functional categorization showed regulation of genes linked to inflammation in progressive DN. Pathway mapping of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), a master transcriptional switch in inflammation, segregated progressive from mild DN and control subjects by showing upregulation of 54 of 138 known NF-kappa B targets. The promoter regions of regulated NF-kappa B targets were analyzed using Modellnspector, and the NF-kappa B module NFKB_IRFF_01 was found to be specifically enriched in progressive disease. Using this module, the induction of eight NFKB-IRFF-01-dependant genes was correctly predicted in progressive DN (B2M, CCL5/RANTES, CXCL10/IP10, EDN1, HLA-A, HLA-B, IFNB1, and VCAM1). The identification of a specific NF-kappa B promoter module activated in the inflammatory stress response of progressive DN has helped to characterize upstream pathways as potential targets for the treatment of progressive renal diseases such as DN
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17065335
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  • 6
    Keywords: chemokine receptor CCR5, knockout mice, renal transplantation, alternative macrophage activation
    Abstract: The chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) has been implicated in experimental and clinical allograft rejection. To dissect the function of CCR5 in acute and chronic renal allograft rejection, bilaterally nephrectomized WT and Ccr5-/- C57BL/6 mice were used as recipients of WT BALB/c renal allografts and analyzed 7 and 42 days after transplantation. Lesion scores (glomerular damage, vascular rejection, tubulointerstitial inflammation) and numbers of CD4+, CD8+, CD11c+ and alpha smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA)+ cells were reduced in allografts from Ccr5-/- recipients during the chronic phase. Increasing creatinine levels indicated deterioration of allograft function over time. While mRNA expression of Th1-associated markers decreased between 7 and 42 days, Th2-associated markers increased. Markers for alternatively activated macrophages (arginase 1, chitinase 3-like 3, resistin-like alpha, mannose receptor, C type 1), were strongly upregulated (mRNA and/or protein level) only in allografts from Ccr5-/- recipients at 42 days. Ccr5 deficiency shifted intragraft immune responses during the chronic phase towards the Th2 type and led to accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages. Additionally, splenocytes from unchallenged Ccr5-/- mice showed significantly increased arginase 1 and mannose receptor 1 mRNA levels, suggesting constitutive alternative activation of splenic macrophages. We conclude that Ccr5 deficiency favors alternative macrophage activation. This finding may be relevant for other inflammatory diseases that involve macrophage activation and may also influence future therapeutic strategies targeting CCR5.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19830734
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  • 7
  • 8
    Keywords: TRANSPLANTATION ; RECOGNITION ; INTERFERON ; DOUBLE-STRANDED-RNA ; VIRUS-INFECTION ; RIG-I ; TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR-3 ; 5'-TRIPHOSPHATE RNA ; ANTIVIRAL RESPONSES ; immunology and pathology ; renal tubular epithelial cells ; RENAL-ALLOGRAFTS ; TUBULAR EPITHELIAL-CELLS
    Abstract: Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) is a significant complication after kidney transplantation, often leading to premature graft loss. In order to identify antiviral responses of the renal tubular epithelium, we studied activation of the viral DNA and the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) sensors Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) in allograft biopsy samples of patients with PVAN, and in human collecting duct cells in culture after stimulation by the dsRNA mimic polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), cytokines, or infection with BK virus. Double staining using immunofluorescence for BK virus and TLR3 showed strong signals in epithelial cells of distal cortical tubules and the collecting duct. In biopsies microdissected to isolate tubulointerstitial lesions, TLR3 but not RIG-I mRNA expression was found to be increased in PVAN. Collecting duct cells in culture expressed TLR3 intracellularly, and activation of TLR3 and RIG-I by poly(I:C) enhanced expression of cytokine, chemokine, and IFN-beta mRNA. This inflammatory response could be specifically blocked by siRNA to TLR3. Finally, infection of the collecting duct cells with BK virus enhanced the expression of cytokines and chemokines. This led to an efficient antiviral immune response with TLR3 and RIG-I upregulation without activation of IL-1beta or components of the inflammasome pathway. Thus, PVAN activation of innate immune defense mechanisms through TLR3 is involved in the antiviral and anti-inflammatory response leading to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21918500
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  • 9
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; proliferation ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; POPULATION ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; TIME ; PATIENT ; INJURIES ; LIGAND ; MESANGIAL CELLS ; NEPHRITIS ; RESPONSES ; kidney ; MARKER ; renal ; T cell ; T cells ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; antibodies ; antibody ; FORM ; TARGET ; NO ; immunohistochemistry ; DIFFERENCE ; NUMBER ; MARKERS ; LYMPHOCYTES ; MIGRATION ; LIGANDS ; RECRUITMENT ; T-LYMPHOCYTES ; T lymphocyte ; TARGETS ; glomerulonephritis ; NEPHROPATHY ; RECEPTORS ; DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION ; chemokine ; T lymphocytes ; INJURY ; PROGNOSTIC MARKERS ; targeting ; CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR ; ABSENCE ; COMPARTMENTS ; PATTERN ; CCR5 ; TRANSPLANT REJECTION ; CD3 ; REAL-TIME ; mRNA ; GLOMERULAR-DISEASES ; RENAL BIOPSIES ; CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS ; CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR CXCR3 ; chemokines ; HUMAN KIDNEY-DISEASES ; INDUCIBLE PROTEIN-10 ; lupus ; LYMPHOCYTE-FIBROBLAST INTERACTIONS ; MESANGIAL CELL ; PROLIFERATIVE GLOMERULONEPHRITIS
    Abstract: Chemokines play pivotal roles in the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the kidney. The chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 are expressed on activated T lymphocytes, and expression of CXCR3 by mesangial cells has been suggested. Detailed description of CXCR3 expression might form a rational basis for use as a diagnostic marker and for therapeutic CXCR3 targeting in human glomerulonephritis. We studied the expression of CXCR3 in renal biopsies by immunohistochemistry (n = 45), and real time RTPCR (n = 78). Biopsies were from patients with IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Furthermore, cultured human mesangial cells (HMC) were studied for CXCR3 expression, and for functional responses to the ligands CXCL10/IP-10 and CXCL9/Mig. CXCR3-positive cells were rarely found in glomerular tufts, but formed a major part of the tubulointerstitial infiltrates. Consistently, CXCR3 mRNA expression was too low to be quantified in glomerular compartments, and was not detectable in HMC. The published staining for CXCR3 of mesangial cells could be traced to cross-reactivity of an antibody for CXCR3 with a potentially related chemokine receptor as revealed by FACS analysis. Despite an absence of CXCR3 expression, mesangial cells reacted to CXCR3 ligands by proliferation and migration, which was blocked by pertussis toxin but not by an anti-CXCR3 antibody. These results indicate that HMC do not express the classical CXCR3, but may potentially express a related receptor with shared ligand specificity. By immunohistochemistry the number of CXCR3-positive cells, mainly interstitial T cells, correlated with renal function, proteinuria, and percentage of globally sclerosed glomeruli. A significant morphological and numerical correlation between CD3, CXCR3, and CCR5-positive cells indicated a CXCR3/CCR5 double-positive T cell population. No apparent difference in the CXCR3 expression pattern was found between disease entities. CXCR3 expression was localized to interstitial T cells, and these cells correlated strongly with important prognostic markers. Therefore interstitial CXCR3, as well as CCR5-positive T cells might play an important role during progressive loss of renal function, and are potential therapeutic targets in human glomerular diseases
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14742268
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  • 10
    Keywords: CELLS ; proliferation ; Germany ; LUNG ; PATHWAY ; DISEASE ; TISSUE ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; NEPHRITIS ; COMPLEXES ; DNA ; kidney ; OLIGODEOXYNUCLEOTIDES ; AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE ; PROGRESSION ; CHROMATIN ; PATHOGENESIS ; B-CELLS ; METHYLATION ; TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS ; SERUM ; LEVEL ; PART ; DISEASE PROGRESSION ; PLASMACYTOID DENDRITIC CELLS ; BACTERIAL-DNA ; CPG MOTIFS ; ENGAGEMENT
    Abstract: Whereas the role of immune complexes in mediating renal cell and immune cell activation is well established, the contribution of sequence-specific immunomodulatory actions of the chromatin part remains unclear. Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR-9) mediates immunostimulatory effects of unmethylated microbial CpG-DNA. It was hypothesized that hypomethylated CpG-DNA in vertebrates may have similar effects and may contribute to disease progression in lupus nephritis. A synthetic G-rich DNA, known to block CpG-DNA effects, was used in this study. In macrophages, G-rich DNA suppressed CpG-DNA- but not LPS-induced production of CCL5 in a dose-dependent manner. Injections of G-rich DNA suppressed lymphoproliferation induced by CpG-DNA injections in mice. In MRLlpr/lpr mice with lupus nephritis, labeled G-rich DNA co-localized to glomerular immune complexes and was taken up into endosomes of TLR-9-positive infiltrating macrophages. Eleven-week-old MRLlpr/lpr mice that received injections of either saline or G-rich DNA for 13 wk revealed decreased lymphoproliferation and less autoimmune tissue injury in lungs and kidneys as compared with saline-treated controls. G-rich DNA reduced the levels of serum dsDNA-specific IgG2a as well as the renal immune complex deposits. This was consistent with the blocking effect of G-rich DNA on CpG-DNA-induced proliferation of B cells that were isolated from MRLlpr/lpr mice. As oligodeoxyribonucleotide 2114-treated MRLlpr/lpr Mice were not exposed to exogenous CpG-DNA, these effects should relate to a blockade of CpG motifs in endogenous DNA. It is concluded that adjuvant activity of self-DNA contributes to the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. Modulating the CpG-DNA-TLR-9 pathway may offer new opportunities for the understanding and treatment of lupus
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16176997
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