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  • 1
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The evolution of electrical resistance, stress, and microstructure during annealing has been studied on 100 nm NiFe(20 wt %)/200 nm Cu/100 nm NiFe trilayers. Irreversible resistance changes and the concentration-depth profiles show that, at and above 200 °C, diffusion of Ni into Cu as well as of Cu into NiFe occurs. The interdiffusion is held for an important failure mechanism of Cu/NiFe-based magnetoelectronic system at elevated temperatures. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 63 (1993), S. 2432-2434 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Magnetic domains on an Fe(100) surface have been imaged by means of energy-resolved photoemission microscopy. We excited the photoelectrons with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation in the soft x-ray region, and employed the effect of magnetic circular dichroism in the emitted photoelectrons in order to obtain contrast between differently oriented magnetic domains. This new approach offers a surface sensitive way to combine chemical and magnetic information on a microscopic scale.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Magnetic dichroism measurements of the valence bands of films of fcc Co/Cu (001) have been performed using angle-resolved UV photoemission in low-symmetry, off-normal emission geometries, and linearly polarized light. Asymmetries of magnitude 4% are observed upon magnetization reversal. Evidence of both spin-dependent surface transmission and magnetic dichroism in the angular distribution of photoelectrons is seen. The asymmetry spectra indicate sensitivity to both magnetic exchange splitting and to spin–orbit splitting. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 89 (2001), S. 8169-8174 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have studied the effect of the dipolar magnetic coupling (also known as Néel coupling or "orange-peel" coupling) in tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) elements. With an in situ scanning tunneling microscope we directly accessed the roughness of the films and found a close correspondence between the values for the coupling fields determined by the magneto-optical Kerr effect and the ones computed on the basis of the measured morphology parameters. We confirm an increase of the dipole coupling between the magnetic layers with decreasing barrier thickness as predicted by the model. Deviations from the theoretical predictions are observed for the case of thinner soft magnetic layers, which can be explained by reduced magnetization in very thin films. We demonstrate the importance of dipolar coupling for understanding the magnetic behavior of TMR elements by comparing TMR curves for optimized and nonoptimized structures. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 89 (2001), S. 6892-6894 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We studied epitaxially grown single-crystalline chemically disordered ultrathin NixPd1−x alloy films on Cu3Au(100) by means of photoemission using magnetic circular dichroism in the angular distribution. We clearly observe a well-defined three-dimensional band dispersion in 15 monolayer films. On the basis of relativistic selection rules, this dispersion can be related to specific electronic states. Since the spin–orbit coupling (ΔEso) is smaller for Ni than for Pd, the alloy will assume an average value. We find that this average spin–orbit coupling clearly shows up in the electronic structure and correlates directly to the composition of the NiPd alloy film. The results are discussed in terms of a simple qualitative model. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: New insight into the mechanical behavior of thin metallic films on substrates can be obtained by a novel experimental technique. It comprises stress measurements by the wafer curvature technique in combination with a four-point bending of beam-shaped samples. A dedicated apparatus was constructed which allows such experiments in high vacuum between room temperature and 500 °C to be carried out. It has a stress measurement sensitivity better than 0.1 MPa and a long-term stability better than ±0.2 MPa over 24 h in the case of a 1 μm thick film. Strains up to 0.8% could be imposed by a four-point bending on films grown on 380 μm thick Si substrates before cracking of the substrates. Both the thermal cycling and the four-point bending technique were used to investigate the plastic behavior of 1 μm thick Cu films on oxidized Si substrates. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 91 (2002), S. 5951-5956 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Spin valve systems are widely considered in magnetic rotation angle sensors. We present a simple magnetostatic model to simulate the electrical and magnetic signal of typical spin valve systems as a function of external magnetic field and rotation angle. To match simulation and experiment only a few parameters are needed, which can be determined by a single measurement. Two types of systems are treated and discussed: a simple spin valve and a spin valve with an "artificial antiferromagnet," often used to enhance the exchange bias. The model shows a very good correspondence of the predictions to the experimental results of the systems investigated. In order to quantitatively compare experiment and model, we introduce a useful concept to quantify the quality of the angle rotation curves: the total harmonic distortion. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 89 (2001), S. 7113-7115 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The magnitude of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) observed in multilayers is known to change irreversibly at elevated temperatures. To improve the thermal stability of devices, a fundamental understanding of the GMR and its correlation to the temperature-induced structural and morphological changes in a given system is mandatory. We therefore investigated the structural and magnetic properties of sputtered Co/Cu multilayers in the pre- and postannealed states (temperature regime for annealing up to 750 °C) by in situ x-ray diffraction, transport measurements, ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). We were able to identify a sequence of distinct structural changes each of which sets in above a characteristic critical temperature. These critical temperatures depend strongly on the thickness of the individual layers. The structural alterations observed range from interfacial sharpening through texture reorientations up to the formation of a granular state, and are associated with distinct in/decreases of the GMR signal. Using FMR and MOKE we determined in-plane magnetic anisotropies and interlayer coupling for as-grown and annealed samples. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Co/Cu multilayers were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering, varying the individual layer thicknesses tCu≅tCo in the range of t=0.6–50 nm. Additionally, the ratio tCo/tCu was varied as tCo/tCu=0.4–4. Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and saturation ferromagnetic (FM) resistivity for the first three antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling maxima were measured as a function of temperature in the range of T=4.2–300 K, with the GMR values ranging up to 115%. For equidistant Co and Cu layers the saturation resistivity at T=4.2 K matches the size effect dependence in single thin films. Even when changing the single layer thickness or the Co/Cu thickness ratio by an order of magnitude a uniform normalized temperature dependence ρ(T,t)/ρ(T0,t) is found and no shunting effects are observed for tCo,tCu〈10 nm. The results favor the following GMR model: The resistivity in the FM (aligned) state is dominated by (hybridized) majority spin electrons, the states of which at similar s like regions of the Fermi surfaces of face-centered-cubic majority Co and Cu allow them to transmit the Co/Cu interfaces with a large mean free path λ. The temperature dependence of λ is governed by the transmittance and it is therefore uniform. Diffuse scattering at crystalline defects at the interfaces reduces λ in accordance with the size effect in single layers. The transition to the AFM state reduces the large λ to the dimensions of Cu–Co↑, ↓–Cu trilayers, that can be understood in terms of a temperature independent size effect, too. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: We describe a setup for the measurement of thin-film magnetostriction λ which utilizes a sensitive laser-optical measurement of the substrate bending in magnetic fields up to 530 kA/m. The sensitivity reaches, e.g., for a 10 nm thick film on a 100 μm thick Si substrate, λ=5×10−8, which corresponds to a total substrate deflection on the order of 0.1 nm. The performance is tested with Co thin films of different thicknesses and annealing states. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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