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  • 1
    Abstract: Radiotherapy is a cornerstone of cancer therapy. The recently established particle therapy with raster-scanning protons and carbon ions landmarks a new era in the field of high-precision cancer medicine. However, molecular mechanisms governing radiation induced intracellular signaling remain elusive. Here, we present the first comprehensive proteomic and phosphoproteomic study applying stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with high-resolution mass spectrometry to decipher cellular response to irradiation with X-rays, protons and carbon ions. At protein expression level limited alterations were observed 2 h post irradiation of human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In contrast, 181 phosphorylation sites were found to be differentially regulated out of which 151 sites were not hitherto attributed to radiation response as revealed by crosscheck with the PhosphoSitePlus database.Radiation-induced phosphorylation of the p(S/T)Q motif was the prevailing regulation pattern affecting proteins involved in DNA damage response signaling. Because radiation doses were selected to produce same level of cell kill and DNA double-strand breakage for each radiation quality, DNA damage responsive phosphorylation sites were regulated to same extent. However, differential phosphorylation between radiation qualities was observed for 55 phosphorylation sites indicating the existence of distinct signaling circuitries induced by X-ray versus particle (proton/carbon) irradiation beyond the canonical DNA damage response. This unexpected finding was confirmed in targeted spike-in experiments using synthetic isotope labeled phosphopeptides. Herewith, we successfully validated uniform DNA damage response signaling coexisting with altered signaling involved in apoptosis and metabolic processes induced by X-ray and particle based treatments.In summary, the comprehensive insight into the radiation-induced phosphoproteome landscape is instructive for the design of functional studies aiming to decipher cellular signaling processes in response to radiotherapy, space radiation or ionizing radiation per se Further, our data will have a significant impact on the ongoing debate about patient treatment modalities.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28302921
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  • 2
    Keywords: ACIDS ; NUCLEIC-ACIDS ; ACID ; PEPTIDE
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
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  • 3
  • 4
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; SYSTEM ; DISTINCT ; PROTEIN ; EPITHELIA ; MOLECULES ; TISSUE ; TISSUES ; SKIN ; GLYCOPROTEIN ; ELEMENTS ; SURFACE ; LOCALIZATION ; GLANDS ; SEGMENTS ; calnexin ; ESTABLISHMENT ; MUCINS ; salivary gland ; sebaceous gland ; SEBACEOUS GLANDS
    Abstract: Calnexin (Cnx) has been characterized as a membrane-bound protein that transiently interacts in a unique chaperone system with newly synthesized glycoproteins in order to allow the establishment of their proper tertiary and, in most cases, quarternary structures. The aim of the study was to identify and to locate the expression of Cnx in the three major salivary glands of humans by different methods. Strong expression of Cnx protein and mRNA were generally found in serous salivary secretory units. With regard to mucous secretory units, expression of Cnx was only detectable at a low level in mucous acinar cells of sublingual glands, but not of submandibular glands. Expression of Cnx was always preserved in the surface epithelium of intralobar and interlobular duct segments. In addition, expression of Cnx was detected in sebaceous glands of parotid tissues, with a distribution pattern resembling that seen in sebaceous glands of the normal skin. In conclusion, production of saliva is associated with the expression of Cnx. Synthesis of molecules in mucous secretory units is not necessarily associated with a strong Cnx expression, whereas synthesis in serous secretory units apparently is. The tissue- specific Cnx expression is also paralleled by the observation that the secretions produced by the major salivary glands differ in their composition and amount
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12507291
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  • 5
    Keywords: SPECTRA ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; human ; PERFUSION ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; SEQUENCE ; SIGNAL ; cell culture ; culture ; ACID ; FORM ; ASSAY ; PURIFICATION ; GOLGI-APPARATUS ; CHROMATOGRAPHY ; HIGH-LEVEL EXPRESSION ; CORE PROTEIN ; serine ; QUANTITIES ; AFFINITY ; PROTEOGLYCAN ; AFFINITY-CHROMATOGRAPHY ; BETA-D-XYLOSYLTRANSFERASE ; glycosyltransferase,proteoglycan,perfusion chromatography,insect cells ; HIGH-LEVEL ; JAR CHORIOCARCINOMA CELLS ; MOLECULAR-CLONING ; PERFUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY ; PROTEIN LINKAGE REGION ; SERUM XYLOSYLTRANSFERASE ; SYSTEMIC-SCLEROSIS ; UDP-D-XYLOSE
    Abstract: Human xylosyltransferase I (XT-I) catalyzes the transfer of xylose from UDP-xylose to consensus serine residues of proteoglycan core proteins. Expression of a soluble form of recombinant histidine-tagged XT-I (rXT-I-HIS) was accomplished at a high level with High Five/pCG255-1 insect cells in suspension culture. The recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity by a combination of heparin affinity chromatography and metal (Ni2+) chelate affinity chromatography. Using the modern technique of perfusion chromatography, a rapid procedure for purification of the rXT-I-HIS from insect cell culture supernatant was developed. The purified, biologically active enzyme was homogeneous on SIDS-PAGE, was detected with anti-XT-I-antibodies, and had the expected tryptic fragment mass spectrum. N-terminal amino acid sequencing demonstrated that the N-terminal signal sequence of the expressed protein was quantitatively cleaved. The total yield of the enzyme after purification was 18% and resulted in a specific XT-I activity of 7.9 mU/mg. The K-m of the enzyme for recombinant [Val(36) Val(38)](delta1),[Gly(92),Ile(94)](delta2) bikunin was 0.8 muM. About 5 rag purified enzyme could be obtained from 1 L cell culture supernatant. The availability of substantial quantities of active, homogeneous enzyme will be of help in future biochemical and biophysical characterization of XT-I and for the development of a immunological XT-I assay. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14680799
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  • 6
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; DRUG ; cell line ; LINES ; FAMILY ; tumour ; BINDING ; CELL-LINES ; MEMBER ; MEMBERS ; antibodies ; antibody ; TARGET ; IDENTIFICATION ; PLASMA ; Western-blot ; MEMBRANE ; SPECTROMETRY ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; PURIFICATION ; SURFACE ; isolation ; AFFINITY ; ARGININE METHYLATION ; BRUSH-BORDER ; CONFORMATIONALLY MODIFIED ALBUMINS ; LUNG-CANCER DETECTION ; METHOTREXATE-ALBUMIN ; TREATED SERUM-ALBUMIN ; CALRETICULIN ; albumin-binding proteins (ABPs) ; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) ; crossl
    Abstract: Since albumin is being developed as a drug carrier to target tumours the search for albumin-binding proteins (ABPs), which play a role in cell surface binding and endocytosis of native and conjugated albumins becomes more and more interesting. We isolated five different proteins from purified plasma membranes from three different human tumour cell lines (CCRF-CEM, MV3 and MCF7) by albumin affinity chromatography and identified them as four members of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) family and calreticulin by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Contamination of the plasma membrane preparation by nuclear membranes was excluded with anti-nucleopore antibodies. Western blot analyses of plasma membranes showed ABPs with the same molecular weights as the albumin-affinity isolates. Tryptic digestion of intact cells was used to determine the sidedness of the albumin-binding property, which is oriented to the exterior of the cell. Localisation to the plasma membrane and albumin binding is a novel property of hnRNP. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14757165
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  • 7
    Keywords: COMBINATION ; Germany ; INHIBITION ; SITE ; PROTEIN ; RELEASE ; MECHANISM ; DOMAIN ; BIOLOGY ; MEMBER ; MEMBERS ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; SEQUENCE ; SEQUENCES ; SIGNAL ; MATURATION ; ACID ; CLEAVAGE ; GLYCOPROTEIN ; virus ; RETROVIRUSES ; COMPONENT ; PEPTIDES ; REPLICATION ; INTERACTS ; CLEAVAGE SITE ; foamy virus ; GAG ; INFECTIVITY ; protease ; MALDI-MS ; molecular biology ; FEATURES ; RESIDUES ; VIRIONS ; 2-DIMENSIONAL ELECTROPHORESIS ; ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEINS ; RESCUE ; TERMINAL GAG DOMAIN
    Abstract: The molecular biology of spuma or foamy retroviruses is different from that of the other members of the Retroviridae. Among the distinguishing features, the N-terminal domain of the foamy virus Env glycoprotein, the 16-kDa Env leader protein Elp, is a component of released, infectious virions and is required for particle budding. The transmembrane protein Elp specifically interacts with N-terminal Gag sequences during morphogenesis. In this study, we investigate the mechanism of Elp release from the Env precursor protein. By a combination of genetic, biochemical, and biophysical methods, we show that the feline foamy virus (FFV) Elp is released by a cellular furin-like protease, most likely furin itself, generating an Elp protein consisting of 127 amino acid residues. The cleavage site fully conforms to the rules for an optimal furin site. Proteolytic processing at the furin cleavage site is required for full infectivity of FFV. However, utilization of other furin proteases and/or cleavage at a suboptimal signal peptidase cleavage site can partially rescue virus viability. In addition, we show that FFV Elp carries an N-linked oligosaccharide that is not conserved among the known foamy viruses
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15564468
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  • 8
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; Germany ; TYROSINE KINASE ; DIAGNOSIS ; NETWORKS ; SYSTEM ; TOOL ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TISSUE ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; RAT ; RATS ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; IDENTIFICATION ; PATTERNS ; NUMBER ; mass spectrometry ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; DIETARY ; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; HABITS ; protein expression ; POLYACRYLAMIDE GELS ; GEL-ELECTROPHORESIS ; MASSES ; development ; PART ; MASS ; 2-DE ; ADULT-RAT ; enteric nervous system ; ENTERIC NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry ; myenteric plexus ; peripheral nervous system ; PHOSPHOPROTEIN ; Sprague Dawley rats ; STATHMIN ; two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)
    Abstract: The enteric nervous system in vertebrates is the most complex part of the peripheral nervous system. Concerning chemical coding, ultrastructure and neuronal circuits, it is more similar to the central than to the peripheral nervous system. Its networks, the myenteric and submucous plexus are integrated in the gut wall. The enteric nervous system is a system of high plasticity, which not only changes during pre- and postnatal development, but also with disease or changing dietary habits. The Aim of this study was to elucidate changes in protein expression during the first two postnatal weeks in the rat myenteric plexus. Colonic and duodenal myenteric plexus from newborn (P1) and fourteen-day old (P14) Sprague-Dawley rats was isolated following a procedure that combines enzymatic digestion and mechanical agitation. The neuronal tissue was collected and processed for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The obtained 2-D gels were stained with silver for image analysis or with colloidal Coomassie for subsequent protein identification. Gels from the various samples showed a high degree of consistence concerning protein-spots found in all preparations. Nevertheless, there was a number of proteins that were clearly detected in one sample but not, or only in significantly smaller amounts in the other. Several differentially expressed proteins in the postnatal myenteric plexus were identified with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Especially stathmin, polyubiquitin and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein seem to play an important role in pre- and postnatal development. 2-DE combined with mass spectrometry can help to identify pathological relevant proteins in the enteric nervous system, and so deliver a valuable tool for the early diagnosis of also central nervous system diseases by using biopsies from the gut. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16183334
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  • 9
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; proliferation ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; carcinoma ; Germany ; human ; PROTEIN ; DIFFERENTIATION ; MOLECULES ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; LINES ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; RAT ; TISSUES ; CELL-LINES ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; ASSOCIATION ; MOLECULE ; resistance ; MEMBRANE ; LINE ; LOCALIZATION ; ADHESION ; POLYPEPTIDE ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; protein-protein interaction ; ADHESION MOLECULE ; cell lines ; pancreatic carcinoma ; COMPLEX-FORMATION ; RAT-TUMOR ; TIGHT JUNCTIONS ; RE ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; TUMOR INVASION ; VARIANT ; COLORECTAL-CARCINOMA ; interaction ; claudin ; protein-protein ; CD9 ; D6.1A ; INTERACT ; ANTIGEN EP-CAM ; EpCAM ; glycolipid-enriched membrane microdomain ; HUMAN TUMORS ; protein complex
    Abstract: We recently described that in the metastasizing rat pancreatic carcinoma line BSp73ASML the cell-cell adhesion molecule EpCAM, CD44 variant isoforms and the tetraspanins D6.1A and CD9 form a complex that is located in glycolipid-enriched membrane microdomains. This complex contains, in addition, an undefined 20 kDa protein. As such complex formation influenced cell-cell adhesion and apoptosis resistance, it became of interest to identify the 20 kDa polypeptide. This 20 kDa protein, which co-precipitated with EpCAM in BSp73ASML lysates, was identified as the tight junction protein claudin-7. Correspondingly, an association between EpCAM and claudin-7 was noted in rat and human tumors and in non-transformed tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. Co-localization of the two molecules was most pronounced at basolateral membranes, but was also observed in tight junctions. Evidence for direct protein-protein interactions between EpCAM and claudin-7 was obtained by co-immunoprecipitation after treatment of tumor cells with a membrane-permeable chemical cross-linker. The complex, which is located in glycolipid-enriched membrane microdomains, is not disrupted by partial cholesterol depletion, but claudin-7 phosphorylation is restricted to the localization in glycolipid-enriched membrane microdomains. This is the first report on an association between EpCAM and claudins in both non-transformed tissues and metastasizing tumor cell lines. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16054130
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  • 10
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; CELL ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; CLASSIFICATION ; liver ; CLONING ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; LIGAND ; animals ; TISSUES ; SKIN ; BIOLOGY ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; SEQUENCE ; antibodies ; immunohistochemistry ; PATTERNS ; PROMOTER ; REGION ; EMBRYO ; EVOLUTION ; LIGANDS ; LECTIN ; AMINO-ACID-SEQUENCE ; AFFINITY-CHROMATOGRAPHY ; molecular biology ; molecular ; RECOMBINANT ; ADULT ; PATTERN ; HOMOLOGY ; PROMOTER REGION ; animal ; Phylogeny ; ENGLAND ; 14 KDA ; DEVELOPMENTALLY REGULATED LECTIN ; GALACTOSIDE-BINDING LECTIN ; MAMMALIAN LECTINS ; nephron ; prototype chicken galectin
    Abstract: Prototype galectins are versatile modulators of cell adhesion and growth via their reactivity to certain carbohydrate and protein ligands. These functions and the galectins' marked developmental regulation explain their attractiveness as models to dissect divergent evolution after gene duplication. Only two members have so far been assumed to constitute this group in chicken, namely the embryonic muscle/liver form {C-16 or CLL-I [16 kDa; chicken lactose lectin, later named CG-16 (chicken galectin-16)]} and the embryonic skin/intestine form (CLL-II or C-14; later named CG-14). In the present study, we report on the cloning and expression of a third prototype CG. It has deceptively similar electrophoretic mobility compared with recombinant C-14, the protein first isolated from embryonic skin, and turned out to be identical with the intestinal protein. Hydrodynamic properties unusual for a homodimeric galectin and characteristic traits in the proximal promoter region set it apart from the two already known CGs. Their structural vicinity to galectin-1 prompts their classification as CG-1A (CG-16)/CG-1B (CG-14), whereas sequence similarity to mammalian galectin-2 gives reason to refer to the intestinal protein as CG-2. The expression profiling by immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies discerned nonoverlapping expression patterns for the three CGs in several organs of adult animals. Overall, the results reveal a network of three prototype galectins in chicken
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17887955
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