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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Four clostridial species (C. pasteurianum, C. butylicum, C. butyricum and C. tetanomorphum) grow on pyruvate. Two other species (C. roseum and C. rubrum) only ferment this compound; this is probably due to their inability to synthesize hexose phosphates from pyruvate (fructose-1,6-diphosphatase and pyruvate carboxylase are absent). The fermentation of pyruvate by the above clostridia yields acetate, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and small amounts of compounds more reduced than acetate. Hydrogen pressure increases the amount of ethanol, butanol and butyrate formed during the fermentation of pyruvate. Since C. roseum and C. rubrum contain a ferredoxin: NADP reductase it seems likely that NADPH2 is the coenzyme involved in ethanol formation. In accordance with this acetaldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenases exhibit activity with NADPH2. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of the clostridia under investigation is NAD specific and so is the β-hydroxy-butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase with the exception of C. kluyveri. The specific activity of hydrogenase and the coenzyme specificity of NAD(P) reductase vary among the clostridial species.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 92 (1973), S. 365-368 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A new strain of Desulfovibrio gigas was isolated from sludge of a sewage plant. The medium contained ethanol, sulfate, minerals, some vitamins but no source of combined nitrogen. Several enrichment cultures of sulfate reducers could be obtained by employing the method to sludge samples from various sewage plants. With respect to their morphology, the dominating bacteria were of the Desulfovibrio gigas type.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The formation of acetic acid by the thermophilic nonsporeforming homoacetogenic bacterium Acetogenium kivui was studied under various conditions. In pH-controlled batch fermentation at pH 6.4 this bacterium was able to produce up to 625 mM of acetic acid from glucose within 50–60 h. The value of μ max obtained was about 0.17 h-1, the yield was about 2.55 mol of acetic acid per mol of glucose utilized. In continuous fermentation both substrate concentration and dilution rate (D) influenced the yield of acetate and the stationary concentration: a glucose concentration of 67 mM at D=0.09 h-1 resulted in 2.82 mol acetate/mol glucose and 190 mM acetate at a production rate of 17.1 mM/1 h. When the dilution rate was increased the production rate reached a maximal value of 43.2 mM/1 h at D=0.32 h-1. At a glucose concentration of 195 mM the dependence of yield upon dilution rate followed a similar pattern and an acetate concentration of 420 mM could be obtained. Enzymatic studies indicate that in A. kivui pyruvate ferredoxin-oxidoreductase and acetate kinase are inhibited at acetate concentrations higher than 800 mM. Based on these results a fed-batch fermentation was developed, which allowed to produce more than 700 mM acetic acid within 40–50 h.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 120 (1979), S. 181-183 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Acetobacterium woodii ; Murein structure ; Cell wall
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The isolated cell walls of Acetobacterium woodii contain a murein of the crosslinkage type B. d-Orinithinyl residues function as interpeptide bridges between the γ-carboxyl group of d-glutamic acid and the carboxyl group of the terminal d-analyl residue of an adjacent peptide subunit. The usual l-alanyl residue in position 1 of the peptide subunit is replaced by a l-seryl residue. As yet this murein type was only found in Eubacterium limosum, an organism which was supposed to be related to Acetobacterium because of some metabolic similarities.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Zymomonas ; Glucose catabolism ; Ethanol inhibition ; 31P NMR in vivo
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Ethanol inhibition of glucose catabolism in Zymomonas mobilis was investigated using 31P NMR spectroscopy in vivo and of perchloric acid extracts from cell suspensions incubated with 0, 5 and 10% (w/v) ethanol. In vivo 31P NMR experiments revealed slower glucose utilization and decreased levels of nucleoside triphosphates in the presence of 10% ethanol as compared to controls. Using 31P NMR spectroscopy of perchloric acid extracts, intracellular accumulation of 3.4 mM 3-phosphoglycerate was found when 10% ethanol was present in the medium. No accumulation of this metabolite occurred in cells incubated with 0 and 5% ethanol. Enzyme assays confirmed that phosphoglycerate-mutase and enolase were inhibited 31 and 40%, respectively, in the presence of 10% ethanol in the test system. Therefore, under the conditions used the decrease in the fermentative activity of Z. mobilis at high ethanol concentrations is due to inhibition of phosphoglycerate-mutase and enolase.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Acetobacterium woodii ; Hydrogen-oxidizing acetate-forming anaerobe ; Fine structure ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Acetobacterium woodii is a Gram-positive anaerobic nonsporeforming bacterium able to grow on H2 and CO2 as sole sources of energy. The product of fermentation is acetic acid. Fine structural analysis showed rod-shaped flagellated cells, and coccoid cells without flagella arranged predominantly in pairs and chains. The cell wall was found to be composed of three layers. The cell surface exhibited a periodic array of particles consisting of subunits. The cytoplasmic membrane showed particles either either in random distribution or in a hexagonal pattern. Intracytoplasmic membranes were rarely observed, whereas inclusion bodies of varying shapes, predominantly in an uncommon disc-shape, could frequently be observed. Their content was dissolved in ultrathin sections indicating hydrophobic nature.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 114 (1977), S. 143-148 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Acetate ; H2 ; CO2 ; Cell extracts ; ATP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cell extracts of a nonsporeforming strictly anaerobic bacterium, Acetobacterium woodii produced acetate in N-tris(Hydroxymethyl)methyl-2-aminoethane sulfonic acid or phosphate buffers from hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The formation of acetate was not dependent on the presence of ATP in the reaction mixture; ADP also did not influence the acetate production. Since acetic acid is the main fermentation product during growth of A. woodii with H2 and CO2, ATP must be synthesized in the course of acetate formation. The possible sites of ATP synthesis are discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Volutin granules are intracellular storages of complexed inorganic polyphosphate (poly P). Histochemical staining procedures differentiate between pathogenic corynebacteria such as Corynebacterum diphtheriae (containing volutin) and non-pathogenic species, such as C. glutamicum. Here we report that strains ATCC13032 and MH20-22B of the non-pathogenic C. glutamicum also formed subcellular entities (18–37% of the total cell volume) that had the typical characteristics of volutin granules: (i) volutin staining, (ii) green UV fluorescence when stained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, (iii) electron-dense and rich in phosphorus when determined with transmission electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis, and (iv) 31P NMR poly P resonances of isolated granules dissolved in EDTA. MgCl2 addition to the growth medium stimulated granule formation but did not effect expression of genes involved in poly P metabolism. Granular volutin fractions from lysed cells contained polyphosphate glucokinase as detected by SDS–PAGE/MALDI-TOF, indicating that this poly P metabolizing enzyme is present also in intact poly P granules. The results suggest that formation of volutin is a more widespread phenomenon than generally accepted.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0009-286X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0009-286X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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