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  • 1
    Keywords: THERAPY ; HEALTH ; WOMEN
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies. Adjusted Poisson regressions yielded relative risks (RRs) versus never-use. FINDINGS: During prospective follow-up, 12 110 postmenopausal women, 55% (6601) of whom had used hormone therapy, developed ovarian cancer. Among women last recorded as current users, risk was increased even with 〈5 years of use (RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.31-1.56; p〈0.0001). Combining current-or-recent use (any duration, but stopped 〈5 years before diagnosis) resulted in an RR of 1.37 (95% CI 1.29-1.46; p〈0.0001); this risk was similar in European and American prospective studies and for oestrogen-only and oestrogen-progestagen preparations, but differed across the four main tumour types (heterogeneity p〈0.0001), being definitely increased only for the two most common types, serous (RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.40-1.66; p〈0.0001) and endometrioid (1.42, 1.20-1.67; p〈0.0001). Risk declined the longer ago use had ceased, although about 10 years after stopping long-duration hormone therapy use there was still an excess of serous or endometrioid tumours (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.46, p=0.005). INTERPRETATION: The increased risk may well be largely or wholly causal; if it is, women who use hormone therapy for 5 years from around age 50 years have about one extra ovarian cancer per 1000 users and, if its prognosis is typical, about one extra ovarian cancer death per 1700 users. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25684585
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Studies of the role of dietary factors in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development have been limited, and no specific dietary factors have been consistently associated with EOC risk. OBJECTIVE: We used a nutrient-wide association study approach to systematically test the association between dietary factors and invasive EOC risk while accounting for multiple hypothesis testing by using the false discovery rate and evaluated the findings in an independent cohort. DESIGN: We assessed dietary intake amounts of 28 foods/food groups and 29 nutrients estimated by using dietary questionnaires in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study (n = 1095 cases). We selected 4 foods/nutrients that were statistically significantly associated with EOC risk when comparing the extreme quartiles of intake in the EPIC study (false discovery rate = 0.43) and evaluated these factors in the NLCS (Netherlands Cohort Study; n = 383 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: None of the 4 dietary factors that were associated with EOC risk in the EPIC study (cholesterol, polyunsaturated and saturated fat, and bananas) were statistically significantly associated with EOC risk in the NLCS; however, in meta-analysis of the EPIC study and the NLCS, we observed a higher risk of EOC with a high than with a low intake of saturated fat (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1; overall HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.41). CONCLUSION: In the meta-analysis of both studies, there was a higher risk of EOC with a high than with a low intake of saturated fat.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26607939
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; COHORT ; cohort studies ; cohort study ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS ; INDEX ; primary ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST-CANCER ; NO ; HEALTH ; ovarian cancer ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; WOMEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; cancer risk ; MULTIVARIATE ; NETHERLANDS ; UNITED-STATES ; EUROPE ; RELATIVE RISK ; HETEROGENEITY ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; BODIES ; IGF-I ; ONCOLOGY ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; HEIGHT ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; biomarker ; analysis ; methods ; MASS ; pooled analysis ; USA ; PREMENOPAUSAL ; prospective ; BMI ; cancer research ; CANCER-RISK ; SEX-HORMONES ; postmenopausal ; comparison ; body mass ; POOLED-ANALYSIS ; MENOPAUSAL STATUS ; ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS ; SELF-REPORTED WEIGHT
    Abstract: Background: Although many studies have investigated the association between anthropometry and ovarian cancer risk, results have been inconsistent. Methods: The associations of height, body mass index (BMI), and ovarian cancer risk were examined in a pooled analysis of primary data from 12 prospective cohort studies from North America and Europe. The study population consisted of 531,583 women among whom 2,036 epithelial ovarian cancer cases were identified. To summarize associations, study-specific relative risks (RR) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then combined using a random-effects model. Results: Women with height 〉= 1.70 m had a pooled multivariate RR of 1.38 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.16-1-65] compared with those with height 〈1.60 m. For the same comparison, multivariate RRs were 1.79 (95% CI, 1.07-3.00) for premenopausal and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.04-1.49) for postmenopausal ovarian cancer (P-interaction = 0.14). The multivariate RR for women with a BMI 〉= 30 kg/m(2) was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.86-1.22) compared with women with a BMI from 18.5 to 23 kg/m(2). For the same comparison, multivariate RRs were 1.72 (95% CI, 1.02-2.89) for premenopausal and 1.07 (95% CI, 0.87-1.33) for postmenopausal women (P-interaction = 0.07). There was no statistically significant heterogeneity between studies with respect to height or BMI. BMI in early adulthood was not associated with ovarian cancer risk. Conclusion: Height was associated with an increased ovarian cancer risk, especially in premenopausal women. BMI was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in postmenopausal women but was positively associated with risk in premenopausal women
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18381473
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; THERAPY ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; incidence ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; BREAST ; BREAST-CANCER ; DESIGN ; AGE ; WOMEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; smoking ; cancer risk ; UNITED-STATES ; ALCOHOL ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; CONSUMPTION ; BIRTH COHORT ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; MASS INDEX ; ORAL-CONTRACEPTIVE USE ; REQUIRING PROLONGED OBSERVATION ; METAANALYSIS ; HORMONAL FACTORS ; ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES ; EPITHELIAL OVARIAN
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Only about half the studies that have collected information on the relevance of women's height and body mass index to their risk of developing ovarian cancer have published their results, and findings are inconsistent. Here, we bring together the worldwide evidence, published and unpublished, and describe these relationships. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Individual data on 25,157 women with ovarian cancer and 81,311 women without ovarian cancer from 47 epidemiological studies were collected, checked, and analysed centrally. Adjusted relative risks of ovarian cancer were calculated, by height and by body mass index. Ovarian cancer risk increased significantly with height and with body mass index, except in studies using hospital controls. For other study designs, the relative risk of ovarian cancer per 5 cm increase in height was 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.09; p〈0.001); this relationship did not vary significantly by women's age, year of birth, education, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, smoking, alcohol consumption, having had a hysterectomy, having first degree relatives with ovarian or breast cancer, use of oral contraceptives, or use of menopausal hormone therapy. For body mass index, there was significant heterogeneity (p〈0.001) in the findings between ever-users and never-users of menopausal hormone therapy, but not by the 11 other factors listed above. The relative risk for ovarian cancer per 5 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index was 1.10 (95% CI, 1.07-1.13; p〈0.001) in never-users and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.92-0.99; p = 0.02) in ever-users of hormone therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian cancer is associated with height and, among never-users of hormone therapy, with body mass index. In high-income countries, both height and body mass index have been increasing in birth cohorts now developing the disease. If all other relevant factors had remained constant, then these increases in height and weight would be associated with a 3% increase in ovarian cancer incidence per decade. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22606070
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Total skin examination during public screening for malignant melanoma is often advocated, but the benefit of this approach has not been established properly. We assessed the yield of examination of the entire skin, in addition to examination of intentionally shown skin lesions, in people attending melanoma screening clinics in southern Limburg, the Netherlands, in 1993. Of the 4146 attenders, 2910 (70%) showed a specific skin spot. Additional examination of the entire skin was offered to 1385 people. There were 1221 evaluable cases. Fourteen presumptive diagnoses of malignancies were encountered: seven malignant melanomas, all with low clinical suspicion, and seven basal cell carcinomas. Histology revealed three basal cell carcinomas. No malignant melanomas were confirmed by histology. It is concluded that additional total skin examination during screening for malignant melanoma is not worthwhile, except perhaps for persons presenting lesions that are suspicious of melanoma or dysplastic naevi.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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